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Parma
—  Comune  —
Comune di Parma
Parma's central Piazza Garibaldi

Coat of arms
Parma is located in Italy
Parma
Location of Parma in Italy
Coordinates: 44°48′N 10°20′E / 44.8°N 10.333°E / 44.8; 10.333Coordinates: 44°48′N 10°20′E / 44.8°N 10.333°E / 44.8; 10.333
Country Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Parma (PR)
Frazioni See list
Government
 - Mayor Pietro Vignali
Area
 - Total 260.77 km2 (100.7 sq mi)
Elevation 55 m (180 ft)
Population (21 December 2009)
 - Total 184,044
 Density 705.8/km2 (1,827.9/sq mi)
 - Demonym Parmigiani (Pram'zan) (Parmensi (Arijoz) are
called the province's inhabitants)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 43100
Dialing code 0521
Patron saint Sant'Ilario di Poitiers, Sant'Onorato, San Rocco
Saint day January 13
Website Official website

Parma About this sound listen is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. It is the home of the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the little stream with the same name. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma.

The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci (born in a hamlet in the countryside) wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry". The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente.

Contents

History

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Prehistory

Parma was already a built-up area in the Bronze Age. It has verified by now that in the current position of the city rose a terramare. The "terramare" (marl earth) were ancient villages in structural wood on pile-dwelling built according to a defined scheme and squared form, built on the dry land, generally in proximity of the rivers. During this age (among the 1500 BC and the 800 BC) the first necropolises (placed where stand the present-day Piazza Duomo and Millstone Square) rose also.

Antiquity

The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, and Parmeal, Parmni and Parmnial are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus (XXII, 2,2; XXVIII, 2,1) reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is uncertain.

The Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina (Modena). 2000 families were settled. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia and the Via Claudia. It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house.

The city was subsequently sacked by Attila, and later given by the barbarian king Odoacer to his fellows. During the Gothic War, however, Totila destroyed it. It was then part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (changing name to Chrysopolis, "Golden City", probably due to the presence of the imperial treasury) and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe: several castles, hospitals and inns were built in the following centuries to host the increasing number of pilgrims.

Middle Ages

The Cathedral and the Baptistry of Parma.
Church of Santa Croce.

Under the Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county (774). Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guidobus. In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was usually a member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II); and Guibert, as Clement III). An almost independent commune was created around 1140; a treaty between Parma and Piacenza of 1149 is the earliest document of a comune headed by consuls.[1] After the Peace of Constance (1183) confirmed the Italian communes' rights of self-governance, long-standing quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia, Piacenza and Cremona became harsher, with the aim of controlling the vital trading line over the Po River.

The struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. Then, after a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248. The city was besieged in 1247-48 by Emperor Frederick II, who was however crushed in the battle that ensued.

Modern era

Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family (1404–1409), Sforza imposed their rule (1440–1449) through their associated families of Pallavicino, Rossi, Sanvitale and Da Correggio. These created a kind of new feudalism, building towers and castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into truly independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682. The Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision frequently continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, and San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century.

Parma in the 15th century.

Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars. The Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The French held the city in 1500–1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512–1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545.

In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy for his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese (1679–1731), last male of the Farnese line, died. The state was consolidated by Ottavio II Farnese (1547–1586). He also renovated the city's structures to create a true capital for his little but rich reign.

In 1594 a constitution was promulgated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini (1588) and Landi (1682) the Farnese duke could finally hold with firm hand all Parmense territories. The castle of the Sanseverino in Colorno was turned into a luxurious summer palace by Ferdinando Bibiena.

In 1731 the combined Duchy of Parma and Piacenza was given to the House of Bourbon in a diplomatic shuffle of the European dynastic politics that were played out in Italy. Under the new rulers, however, it faced a certain decadence. In 1734 all the outstanding art collections of the duke's palaces of Parma, Colorno and Sala Baganza were moved to Naples.

Parma was under French influence after the Peace of Aachen (1748). Parma became a modern state with the energetic action of prime minister Guillaume du Tillot. He created the bases for a modern industry and fought strenuously against the church's privileges. The city lived a period of particular splendour: the Palatine Library, the Archaeological Museum, the Picture Gallery and the Botanical Garden were founded, together with the Royal Printing Works directed by Giambattista Bodoni.

Contemporary age

The Governor's Palace.
View of Palazzo della Pilotta in the Piazza della Pace. The rebuilt part on the right is where once was the church of St.Peter. The large hole was caused by a bombing.
Late Mannerist façade of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista, by Simone Moschino (1604), with sculpture by Giambattista Carra da Bissone[2]
Façade of the church of San Francesco. It was the city's jail.

During the Napoleonic Wars (1802–1814), Parma was part of the Taro Département. Under its French name Parme, it was also created a duché grand-fief de l'Empire for Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, the Emperor's Arch-Treasurer, on 24 April 1808 (extinguished 1926).

After its restoration by the 1814-15 Vienna Congress, the Risorgimento's upheavals had no fertile ground in the tranquil duchy. In 1847, after Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma's death, it passed again to the Bourbons, the last of whom was stabbed in the city and left it to his Widow, Luisa Maria of Berry. On September 15, 1859 the dynasty was declared deposed, and Parma entered in the newly formed provinces of Emilia under Carlo Farini. With the plebiscite of 1860 the former duchy became part of the unified Kingdom of Italy.

The loss of the capital role provoked an economical and social crisis in Parma. It started to recover its role of industrial prominence after the connection with Piacenza and Bologna of 1859, and with Fornovo and Suzzara in 1883. Trade unions were strong in the city, in which a famous General Strike was declared from May 1 to June 6, 1908. The struggle with Fascism lived its most dramatic moment in the August 1922, when the regime officer Italo Balbo attempted to enter in the popular quarter of Oltretorrente. The citizens organized into the Arditi del Popolo ("People's assaulters") and pushed back the squadristi. This episode is considered the first example of Resistance in Italy.

During World War II, Parma was a strong centre of partisan resistance. The train station and marshalling yards were targets for high altitude bombing by the Allies in the spring of 1944. Much of the Palazzo della Pilotta — situated not far (half a mile) from the train station — was destroyed. Along with it also Teatro Farnese and part of Biblioteca Palatina were destroyed by Allied bombs. Several other monuments were also damaged: Palazzo del Giardino, Steccata church, San Giovanni church, Palazzo Ducale, Paganini theater and the monument to Verdi. However Parma did not see widespread destruction during the war. Parma was liberated of the German occupation (1943–1945) on April 26, 1945 by the partisan resistance and troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force.[3] Recently Parma was chosen for the setting of John Grisham's American football comedy Playing for Pizza.

Main sights

Churches

  • The Romanesque Cathedral houses both 12th century sculpture by Benedetto Antelami and a 16th century fresco masterpiece by Antonio da Correggio.
  • The Baptistery, adjacent to the cathedral was begun in 1196 by Antelami.
  • The abbey church of Saint John the Evangelist (San Giovanni Evangelista), was originally constructed in the 10th century behind the Cathedral's apse, but had to be rebuilt in 1498 and 1510 after a fire. It has a late Mannerist facade and a belltower designed by Simone Moschino), and retains its Latin cross plan, a nave and two aisles. In 1520–1522, Correggio frescoed the dome with the Vision of St. John the Evangelist, a highly influential fresco which heralded illustionistic perspective in the decoration of church ceilings. Bernardo Falconi designed a putto in the high altar. Also the cloisters and the ancient Benedictine grocery are noteworthy. The library has books from the 15th and 16th centuries.
  • Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Steccata.
  • The Benedictine Monastery of San Paolo, founded in the 11th century. It houses precious frescoes by Correggio, in the so-called Camera di San Paolo (1519–1520), and Alessandro Araldi.
  • The Gothic church of San Francesco del Prato (13th century). From Napoleonic era to 1990s it was the city's jail, for which the 16 windows in the facade were opened. The original rose windows (1461) has 16 rays, which, in the medieval tradition, represented the house of God. The Oratory of the Concezione houses frescoes by Michelangelo Anselmi and Francesco Rondani. The altarpiece by Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli is now in the National Gallery of Parma.
  • Church of Santa Croce, dating to the early 12th century. The original edifice, in Romanesque style, had a nave and two aisles with a semicircular apse. This was renovated first in 1415 and again in 1635-1666, with the heightening of the aisles and nave, the addition of a bresbytery, a dome and of the chapel of St. Joseph. The frescoes in the nave (by Giovanni Maria Conti della Camera, Francesco Reti and Antonio Lombardi) date to this period.
  • Church of San Sepolcro, built in 1275 over a pre-existing religious edifice. The church was largely renovated in 1506, 1603 and 1701, when the side on the Via Emilia was remade in Neoclassicist style. The church has a nave with side chapels. The Baroque bell tower was built in 1616, the cups being finished in 1753. Annexed is the former monastery of the Rrgular Canons of the Lateran, dating to 1493-1495.
  • Church of Santa Maria del Quartiere (1604–1619), characterized by a usual hexagonal plan. The cupola is decorated with frescoes by Pier Antonio Bernabei and his pupils.

Palaces

  • The Palazzo della Pilotta (1583). It houses the Academy of Fine Arts with artists of the School of Parma, the Palatine Library, the National Gallery, the Archaeological Museum, the Bodoni Museum[4] and the Farnese Theatre.
  • The Ducal Palace, built from 1561 for Duke Ottavio Farnese on a design by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. Built on the former Sforza castle area, it was enlarged in the 17th-18th centuries. It includes the Palazzo Eucherio Sanvitale, with interesting decorations dating from the 16th centuries and attributed to Gianfrancesco d'Agrate, and a fresco by Parmigianino. Annexed is the Ducal Park also by Vignola. It was turned into a French-style garden in 1749.
  • The Palazzo del Comune, built in 1627.
  • The Palazzo del Governatore ("Governor's Palace"), dating from the 13th century.
  • The Bishop's Palace (1055).
  • Ospedale Vecchio ("Old Hospital"), created in 1250 and later renovated in Renaissance times. It is now home to the State Archives and to the Communal Library.

Other

Frazioni

Alberi, Baganzola, Beneceto, Botteghino, Ca'Terzi, Calestani, Carignano, Carpaneto, Cartiera, Casalbaroncolo, Casalora di Ravadese, Casaltone, Case Capelli, Case Cocconi, Case Crostolo, Case Nuove, Case Rosse, Case Vecchie, Casino dalla Rosa, Casagnola, Castelletto, Castelnovo, Cervara, Chiozzola, Coloreto, Corcagnano, Eia, Fontanini, Fontanellato, Gaione, Ghiaiata Nuova, Il Moro, La Catena, La Palazzina, Malandriano, Marano, Marore, Martorano, Molino di Malandriano, Osteria San Martino, Panocchia, Paradigna, Pedrignano, Pilastrello, Pizzolese, Ponte, Porporano, Pozzetto Piccolo, Quercioli, Ravadese, Ronco Pascolo, Rosa, San Prospero, San Ruffino, San Secondo, Sissa, Soragna, Valera, Viarolo, Viazza, Vicofertile, Vicomero, Vigatto, Vigheffio, Vigolante.

Demographics

ISTAT 2007 [1]
Parma, Emilia-Romagna Italy
Median age 46 years 42 years
Under 18 years old 14.9% 18.1%
Over 65 years old 22.9% 20.0%
Foreign Population 9.1% 5.8%
Births/1,000 people 8.53 b 9.45 b

In 2007, there were 177,069 people residing in Parma located in the province of Parma, Emilia-Romagna, of whom 47.4% were male and 52.6% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 14.87 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 22.90 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of a Parma resident is 46 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Parma experienced 6.97% growth, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[5][6] The current birth rate of Parma is 8.53 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 90.91% of the population was Italian. The largest foreign group came from other parts of Europe (namely Albania, Romania, and Ukraine): 3.61%, followed by sub-saharan Africa (namely Ghana): 1.86%, and North Africa: 1.44. Approximately 17.9 percent of newborns has at least one parent of foreign origins, compared to the Italian average of 10.3%.[7]

Food and cuisine

Parma-style baked aubergines.

Parma is famous for its food, and rich gastronomical tradition: Parmigiano Reggiano cheese (also produced in Reggio Emilia), Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). In 2004 Parma was appointed the seat of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Parma also has two food multinationals, Barilla and Parmalat.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Parma is twinned with:

Sport

Parma F.C. was founded in 1913. It is a Serie A football club renowned in Italy and Europe for its successes including three national cups, a European Cup Winner's Cup, two UEFA Cups, a European Supercup and an Italian Supercup. It plays in the city's stade Ennio Tardini which used to host up to 29,000 spectators but is being renovated in 2008 after the club was demoted to Serie B. In spring 2009 the team was promoted again in the top league (Serie A).

Parma is also home to two rugby union teams in the top national division, Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby.

Parma Panthers is the Parma American football team for which John Grisham's book Playing for Pizza was based.

Also volleyball, women basketball and baseball have large popularity in the city and have scored relevant successes.

Transportation

Parma railway station is on the Milan–Bologna railway.

Famous people

Detail of Correggio's frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo.

Painters and sculptors

Others

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ G. Drei, Le Carte degli archivi parmensi del secolo XII (Parma, 1950) doc. no. 194; the genesis of the Parmesan commune is studied by R. Schumann, "Authority and the commune: Parma, 833-1033", (Parma:Deputazione di storia patria, series 2.2, VIII) 1973.
  2. ^ 'Duomo Parma: La Città".
  3. ^ "Mapa da рrea de operaушes". Pitoresco.com. http://www.pitoresco.com/historia/guerra/guerra01.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  4. ^ "Bodoni Museum". briar press official website. briar press. http://www.briarpress.org/1835. Retrieved 2009-10-23. 
  5. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/bil2002/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  6. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/bil2007/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  7. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://demo.istat.it/str2006/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Parma is in Emilia-Romagna.

Get in

From the train station it is an easy walk into the historic city center. The train ride from Bologna to Parma is about one hour and there is a shuttle service from the Bologna airport to the Bologna train station.

Get around

Virtually everything in the historic city center is within easy and leisurely walking distance. Sites across the river require a little more walking but still not too much. The terrain is flat and biking is very popular among the locals. Taxis are easily available at the train station. There are rental cars at the small airport just outside town. Parking can be a challenge downtown. There is an extensive local bus line.

See

The Wikipedia article on Parma gives a good list of the main sights: [[1]].

The Museo Glauco Lombardi [2] is a particularly interesting and well done museum documenting the life of Maria Luigia, second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Duchess of Parma. The museum is very personal and engaging with many artifacts and belongings of the gifted, talented and well educated Maria. Well worth the visit.

Do

Attend the opera at the gorgeous and world famous Teatro Reggio [3] known for its passionate and critical local opera aficionados. Buy tickets early as the opera is extremely popular in Parma and tickets sell out early. The Festival Verdi celebrates the famous and adored Parma resident Giuseppe Verdi throughout the month of October every year.

Buy

Parma Point, Strada Garibaldi 18 Parma, [4] is a great little shop for souvenirs, postcards and other Parma related memorabilia as well as a nice collection of books of local interest.

Eat

At the ice cream shop called K2 behind the cathedral on the right. The nuns make a gelato in the shape of a flower in seconds.

A typical restaurant to have dinner is the Trattoria I Corrieri in Via Conservatorio 1, which is situated near the law faculty of the university. Try some torta fritta, and prosciutto di Parma and all the other salami and coppa specialities from that region as a starter, followed by the typical tortelli. If you take Tris di Tortelli, you will enjoy that special type of pasta, one filled zucca (pumpkin), raddichio (red lettuce) and ricotta e spinaci (spinage& cheese).

Osteria del Gesso [5], Via Ferdinando Maestri, 11 - 43100 Parma, tel: +39 0521 230505, [6]. Osteria del Gesso is a small, quaint restaurant down a narrow street in historic center city. The menu is based on the typical cuisine of the region. The food is well prepared and delicious, particularly the tortelli di erbetta and crespelle di grano. The staff did not speak English, but are helpful and provide excellent service.

La Forchetta borgo San Biagio 6, Parma 43100, tel: +39 0521 208812. Excellent ristorante just off the Piazza del Duomo serving typical regional cuisine. Superb tortelli di zucca and a very interesting and creative appetizer of gelato of Parmesan cheese with a fig preserve and balsamic vinegar.

Trattoria delTribunale [7], Vicolo Politi, 5 - 43100 Parma - Tel. 0521.285527 - Fax 0521.238991 [8]. Excellent traditional restaurant in the city center recommended by the Slow Food editors. The guanciale (pork cheek) diavolo was tender, sweet and succulent with just the right amount of spiciness. The local specialty, anolini in brodo was also excellent.

Drink

An aperitivo in Via Farini is something you should not miss. There are several bars in that little street where you will find a lot of people standing outside with a Martini or a Sprizz con Aperol at around 6pm, enjoying the free buffet that is offered, when you buy a drink.

Try a bottle of the local sparkling red wine called Lambrusco; great on its own and perfect with much of the local cuisine. It can be purchased in virtually any bar or corner shop and is very inexpensive.

  • Dimore d' epoca, Via Valenti, 5/c 43100 tel +39.0521.774039, fax +39 0521.780756, info@dimoredepoca.it, [9]. Just a short walk from the center of Parma, situated in a large park, this villa belonging to a noble family of Parma has been open to guests since 1987. Hotel, quality restaurant and modern convention halls.
  • Hotel Torino, [10] Borgo A.Mazza,7 43100 tel. +39.0521.281046, fax +39.0521.230725, info@hotel-torino.it. In the heart of the city, instead of an ancient monastery bombed during the II World War, in the 60's has been partially rebuilt and used as a hotel. Today, it continues its tradition of hospitality and refined after a thorough restructuring aimed to revive the feeling of staying in nice home's atmosphere. The sweet welcome of this residence bring you to the history of the city itself, passing from the Regio Theatre, near the Baptistery, the Cathedral, the Old Pharmacy of St. John and His Church until the oldest University in Italy.
  • Palazzo Dalla Rosa Prati, [11] 7 Strada al Duomo - 43100 Parma, Telephone (+39) 0521 386429, Fax: (+39) 0521 502204, [12]. The Palazzo Dalla Rosa Prati is a palace in the center of the historic city center with a number of elegantly appointed suites. The Palazzo is on the quiet and historic Piazza del Duomo mere feet from the famous Baptistry and easy walking distance from all of the main historic and cultural sites. It is located in a pedestrian zone but the owner or his assistant will make parking arrangements for you. The rooms are clean, elegant, spacious and and comfortable with all modern amenities. The owner, Vittorio, and his assistant, Mattia, are gracious and helpful hosts. They speak English. In the evenings there is often an accordion player outside on the piazza playing great old classics. Staying at the Palazzo is a wonderful way to immerse yourself into the life and culture of historic Parma.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also parma

Contents

English

Proper noun

Parma

  1. Province of Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
  2. A city, the capital of Parma.

Translations

Derived terms

  • Parma ham

Related terms

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aampr
  • param

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Parma

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Parma f.

  1. Parma (province)
  2. Parma (town)

Derived terms

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aampr
  • rampa

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Parma kermadecensis

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Labroidei
Familia: Pomacentridae
Subfamilia: Pomacentrinae
Genus: Parma
Species: P. alboscapularis - P. bicolor - P. kermadecensis - P. mccullochi - P. microlepis - P. occidentalis - P. oligolepis - P. polylepis - P. unifasciata - P. victoriae

Name

Parma Günther, 1862:57

Type species: Parma microlepis Günther, 1862. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan, 1919:318

References

  • Günther, A. 1862: Catalogue of the Acanthopterygii, Pharyngognathi and Anacanthini in the collection of the British Muesum. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 4: i-xxi + 1-534.
  • Gomon, M.F., J.C.M. Glover and R.H. Kuiter 1994: (Eds.) The fishes of Australia's south coast. Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee. State Printer, Adelaide: 1-992.

Vernacular names

English: Scalyfin Fishes

Simple English

Comune di Parma
Country Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Parma (PR)
Mayor Pietro Vignali
Elevation 55 m (180 ft)
Area 260 km2 (100 sq mi)
Population (as of December 31, 2007)
 - Total 178,718
 - Density 687/km² (1,779/sq mi)
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 44°48′N 10°20′E
Gentilic Parmigiani (Pram'zan) (Parmensi (Arijoz) are
called the province's inhabitants)
Dialing code0521
Postal code 43100
Frazioni See list
Patron Sant'Ilario di Poitiers, Sant'Onorato, San Rocco
 - Day January 13
Website: www.comune.parma.it

Parma is a city in the region of Emilia-Romagna. It is the capital of the Province of Parma. 178,718 people live in Parma now. Parma has one of the oldest universities of the world, the University of Parma.



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