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Paramara (also known as Parmara and Parmar) is the name of a prominent Agnivanshi Kshatriya clan of medieval India, which ruled the Dhar and Ujjaini kingdoms from the 9th century to the 14th century.[1] Modern-day Paramara descendants are located throughout northern, western and central India. Paramaras are also spread throughout the nations of the former British Empire, particularly Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as in the USA and in Sindh, Pakistan, where they constitute 40% of the population of the Dadu district; here they are called Panhwars.

The Ponwar clan of the Marathas, who ruled the states of Dewas, Dhar, Rajgarh in Malwa and Chhatarpur in Bundelkhand from the 18th century to the mid-20th century, claim the same descent as the Paramaras. They are also known by the names Sodha, Punwar, Panwar, Puar, Panhwar, Pawar, Pradhan.

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History

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Parmar Name Meaning and Origin

Indian (Rajasthan and neighbouring states): Sanskrit name meaning one that strikes the enemy, from Sanskrit para ‘alien’, ‘enemy’ + mara ‘strike’, ‘kill’.

[2].

Ancient and Medieval History

There are various schools of thought about the origin of the Paramara clan. The most widely accepted school of thought is that the Paramaras – along with the Chauhans, the Pratiharas (Parihars) and the Solankis (Chalukyas) – were one of the four Agni kula ("fire-born") Kshatriyas who were of Gurjar origin.[1][3]

Dr. Dashrath sharma ascribes the origin of the Solankis, parmars, the guhis/gohils and Chauhans to the Brahmins, though from the works of other scholars, as author mohanty said, it has shown that the solankis and parmars were actually descendents of the Gujjars.[3]

In a second school of thought, the Parmar clan is said to have been a tribe of central India that rose to political prominence as the feudatory of the Rashtrakutas[citation needed].

According to the Katha-sarita-sagara account, the legendary King Vikramāditya was the son of Ujjain's King Mahendraditya of the Paramara dynasty.

Further, Rajpipla State in Gujarat was also founded by the Parmar Rajputs, descandets of Vikramaditya of Ujjain. They are believed to have brought idols of Harsidhhi Mata from Ujjain and worship her as their Kuldevi.

The ancient inscriptions in the Pali Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan of the race of Taxak or Tak, relating to the tribe Mori and Parmara are their descendants. Taxak Mori was the lord of Chittor from very early period.[4][5] The Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD), destroyed by Yashodharman, was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. The Taxak Mori as being lords of Chittor from very early period and few generations after the Guhilots supplanted the Moris. (725-35) we find amongst the numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event as its chieftain was one of the most conspicuous leaders in the array of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir." [6]

In a third school of thought, the Parmar clan is said to have originally been an inseparable part of the Rashtrakutas, which later branched out from the Rashtrakutas (Rathore)and declared themselves to be a distinct Rajput clan.[citation needed]

Whatever the origin, the Parmars established themselves as the rulers of Malwa in central India in the 9th CE century, ruling from their capital at Dhar. In this situation, the Paramars enjoyed great political power and clout in ancient India. The Paramaras ruled until 1305, when Malwa was conquered by Ala ud din Khilji, the Khilji Sultan of Delhi. It was during these medieval times that their political power began to decline. Political power was greatly reduced further still during the consolidation of the British Empire in pre-independence India, with the Royals of this clan cooperating with the British conquerors. After India gained independence from Britain in 1947, the Parmar royalty acceded their political powers to the central Indian government in New Delhi. In lieu of these surrendered powers, the Parmar royals received generous financial grants, called the "Privy Purse", from the central government, which helped them to maintain lifestyle, as well as maintaining the general upkeep of royal palaces, forts and other architectural marvels. This Privy Purse was later abolished by the central government, under the direction of Indira Gandhi.

Culture and society

As with any culture spread over a wide geographical area, there are variations in what can be considered traditional Paramara custom. However, members of the Paramara clan typically follow Rajput social traditions and customs.

Professions

Women in Rajasthan and Haryana as a rule are not allowed to step outside the house to work, during Muslim invasions. In Punjab and Maharashtra, Paramara women work shoulder to shoulder in various walks of life, including agriculture. In such a system, women traditionally remain at home to take charge of household duties, while men are typically employed outside the home. Women typically remain within the walls of the home and remain veiled in the presence of elders and strangers.

Men in Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand, Bihar and Orissa generally enter careers in uniformed services, such as the military, police and paramilitary forces. Those in Gujarat often enter business professions, while those in Rajasthan and Sindh take government and police jobs, though most are agrarian. The Paramara in Haryana are fundamentally an agrarian community. Maharashtrian and Sindhi Paramaras often choose professions in agriculture or government services, with a particular tendency not to venture out of their home state. This may be because Marathi and Sindhi Paramaras (and, to a certain extent, the Punjabi Paramaras) have adopted the language and culture of their adopted regions, unlike the Hindi- or Urdu-speaking Paramaras. The Paramaras of the business professions dominate the contemporary business scene in the western Maharashtra, especially in the Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Sholapur districts. As edited by kamal parmar ,Parmara from Madyapradesh and eastern Gujarat mainly Dahod District(Dahod,Garbada, limkheda, Dhanpur and jhalod talukas).they known As Patelia/Pateliya and their proffesion is Farming and animal breeding .They are very hardworking .

Religion

Parmaras are generally Hindus,Sikh. Traditionally, Paramaras pay visit once a year to Dhar, to invoke the blessings of their "Kul Devi", the goddess KALIKA,and some visit Ujjain to invoke the blessings of the god "MAHAKALA",one of the rups of Lord shiva . Depending on the region they live in, Parmars may also be Muslim, Sikh, and Christian.This happens only when they or their ancestors are converted into other religions.

Clothing

Paramara men traditionally, especially in rural areas, wear large turbans called "safa", which come in various colours, shades and hues. Women typically wear a full-sized sari. The sari covers the body below the waist, and is then wrapped around the breasts and back with a small portion covering the head. Their faces are covered with a ghunghat, which is made by dropping a portion of the folded sari from their foreheads. They wear a bindi placed firmly between both the eyebrows, and bangles around their wrists. Often, Paramara women pierce their noses as well as both ears, wearing jewellery called "moti" in the nose. Large amounts of other gold jewellery are common, including necklaces and anklets.

Dynasty

Paramara kings of Malwa

  • Upendra (c. 800 – c. 818)
  • Vairisimha I (c. 818 – c. 843)
  • Siyaka I (c. 843 – c. 893)
  • Vakpati (c. 893 – c. 918)
  • Vairisimha II (c. 918 – c. 948)
  • Siyaka II (c. 948 – c. 974)
  • Vakpatiraja (c. 974 – c. 995)
  • Sindhuraja (c. 995 – c. 1010)
  • Bhoj or Bhoja I (c. 1010 – c. 1055), author of Samarangana-sutradhara
  • Jayasimha I (c. 1055 – c. 1060)
  • Udayaditya (c. 1060 – c. 1087)
  • Lakshmanadeva (c. 1087 – c. 1097)
  • Naravarman (c. 1097 – c. 1134)
  • Yasovarman (c. 1134 – c. 1142)
  • Jayavarman I (c. 1142 – c. 1160)
  • Vindhyavarman (c. 1160 – c. 1193)
  • Subhatavarman (c. 1193 – c. 1210)
  • Arjunavarman I (c. 1210 – c. 1218)
  • Devapala (c. 1218 – c. 1239)
  • Jaitugideva (c. 1239 – c. 1256)
  • Jayavarman II (c. 1256 – c. 1269)
  • Jayasimha II (c. 1269 – c. 1274)
  • Arjunavarman II (c. 1274 – c. 1283)
  • Bhoj or Bhoja II (c. 1283 – ?)
  • Mahlakadeva (c. ? – c. 1305)
  • Sanjeev Singh Parmar (c.1305 - 1327)

Other kings:

  • Maharaj Kunwar Singh, the zamindar of Jagdishpur, is also thought to be of the Parmara Rajput clan.
  • Upendra also known as Krishnaraja, was one of the founders of the Paramara family. The kingdom of the Paramara was situated to the west of that of the Kalachuris. Dhara, modern Dhar, in Madhya Pradesh, was the capital of the Paramaras.

King Bhoj

King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was a great polymath and philosopher king of medieval India. His extensive writings cover philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary science, phonetics, yoga and archery. Under his rule, Malwa became an intellectual centre of India. Bhoj also founded the city of Bhopal to secure the eastern part of his kingdom. The Bhoja Airport at Bhopal is named after King Bhoja.

===Parmar – the rulers of MULI, Surendranagar=== and Ranpur

One Branch of Parmar Rajputs is in Muli taluka in Surendranagar in Gujarat. Basically this branch is divided from Tharparkar taluka in Sindh in Pakistan. Whole branch is called as Muli CHOVISHI and RANPUR CHOVISHI. Muli was the capital of the Parmar Rajputs who belong to Tharparkar, NagarParkar, Pillou in the state of Sindh, at present in Pakistan. The city of Muli was built by the Parmar King Lakdhirji, the son of Ratanji Sodha and Jombai. The Ranpur Chovisi was under King Halaji, the younger brother of King Lakdhirji. Halaji accepted islam and stayed in Ranpur and his descendant are still living in Ranpur and following islam. King Halaji is also famous for saving a cow. King Halaji has been proved to be great Martyr. Parmars of Ranpur are proud to be muslim Parmars and descendant of Kings Like King Bhoj. Inspite of being muslims the Parmars of Muli treats as their real brothers and still they have maintained relationships with them .Parmars of Ranpur usually visit Muli to visit temple of Mandavraiji. The Parmars of Muli are famous for the battle fought between Parmar Rajputs of Muli and the Chabhad Rajputs of Sayla for the possession of a wounded partridge. The Parmars were winners and will always be winners.

Parmar – the rulers of MULI, Surendranagar

This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (January 2010) One Branch of Parmar Rajputs is in Muli taluka in Surendranagar in Gujarat. Basically this branch is divided from Tharparkar taluka in Sindh in Pakistan. Whole branch is called as Muli CHOVISHI and RANPUR CHOVISHI. Muli was the capital of the Parmar Rajputs who belong to Tharparkar, NagarParkar, Pillou in the state of Sindh, at present in Pakistan. The city of Muli was built by the Parmar King Lakdhirji, the son of Ratanji Sodha and Jombai. The Ranpur Chovisi was under King Halaji, the younger brother of King Lakdhirji. Halaji accepted islam and stayed in Ranpur and his descendant are still living in Ranpur and following islam. King Halaji is also famous for saving a cow. King Halaji has been proved to be great Martyr. Parmars of Ranpur are proud to be muslim Parmars and descendant of Kings Like King Bhoj. Inspite of being muslims the Parmars of Muli treats as their real brothers and still they have maintained relationships with them .Parmars of Ranpur usually visit Muli to visit temple of Mandavraiji. The Parmars of Muli are famous for the battle fought between Parmar Rajputs of Muli and the Chabhad Rajputs of Sayla for the possession of a wounded partridge. The Parmars were winners and will always be winners.===Dalvi-Deshmukh of Nasik, Maharashtra===

One branch from the Jaisalmer (Rajstan), by descent Rajputs of the Paramara-Puar clan, adopted many generations back, in 12th century, the family name of Dalvi. Before the Bhati rulers of Jaisalmer, the land was habitated by various rajput clans namely - Buta and Chunna ( both extinct), the Baraha( now muslims), Langaha, Sodha and the Royal Parmar clan of Dalvi as Lodra. The capital of Lodra rajputs - Lodorva, an immencse city with twelve gates about 10 miles North-West to Jaisalmer town, was passed to the ruler of Deogarh, Bhatti Deoraja. In 1025 the town was sacked and destroyed by Mehmud of Ghazni. In following decades the loot continued. So the capital was shifted to new location and in 1156 the Jaisalmer was founded by Bhati ruler- Jaisal. ( Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 2.)

After the invasion and destruction of Jaisalmer in 1025 th century by Muslims, the fighting forces of Lodras are made to migrate out of Jaisalmer. To hide their identity as the Lodra -Rajput they took the name as Dalvi. The brave Dalvis then served as military chiefs on the Deogiri (Daulatabad) fort, and in Gujrath areas. Some of them moved southwards, at present they are Hindu Rajput-Marathas, native to Lakhmapur (or old Lakshmipur) and nearby area,( Ahiwantwadi Fort) near Wani-Dindori, Nasik and have the social honor of being “Deshmukh”. The name Dalvi means the brave king / chief who rules the people and fights wars.

The Dalvis of Lakhmapur as they were mighty warriors, held many important positions as regional war-lords and own private armies. The Dalvi people were important forces in Administration and Military acts of the Peshwas for a long time. Ref. is available in many British records and Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 101.

A rebellious member of the Povar or Dalvi(M. H. E. Goldsmith's Report on the Peint State (1839) Bom. Gov. Sel. XXVI (New Series), 108.) was sent to Delhi by order of Aurangzeb and sentenced to death, for revolt, but spared life after he embraced Islam, and then given the estate of Peint or Peth, then Part of Baglana. During the Maratha supremacy, the Dalvi and the Peint estates were for a long period placed under attachment by the Peshwas of Pune. Then the british managed to pressure and kept the dalvi people under their authority at the time when british took against the Peshwas. In reward for services rendered in 1818, the families were reinstated in their former position by the British government.[1]

The original Brave-Heart Rajput-Maratha warrior clan of Dalvi are now a days busy making a headway in the present new economy. Although they are the most brilliant people who rose against the invasions and maintained the fighting spirit of the Hindustan, after independence they are mostly forgotten as if they are ordinary people who hide in homes with family at the time of wars. Its very strange and surprising that they are never given a chance to lead in the democratic India.

Panwar rulers of Malwa, Western Madhya Pradesh

The royal family of Bakhatgarh (a prominent parmar clan of Malwa, and perhaps the oldest) is presently headed by Thakur Saheb Rajendra Singhji Panwar. The Panwars of Bakhatgarh are from the Mahipawat clan of Paramara Rajputs. They are the descendants of King Bhoja. The Bakhatgarh was founded in 1799 till 1948 when it was merged with the Indian Union. A number of developmental projects were undertaken during the reign of the last ruler Shriman Thakur Saheb Rai Singhji Panwar such as building of hospitals, boys and girls school, Libraries in Bakhatgarh. The palace and other administrative buildings of Bakhatgarh were built during his tenure.

Govt. of India has appreciated to Thakur Saheb & Shri Bharat Singhji Modi (Jain) who is administrator in Thakur saheb’s Darbar for providing perfect report of lands along with proper mapping and correct names of landlords.

Naik Nimbalkars of Phaltan

The royal family of Phaltan which is located in present-day Maharashtra, also trace their descent from the Paramara dynasty. The Naik Nimbalkar family settled in Maharashtra in the 12th century is probably the oldest surviving dynasty in Maharashtra. The current surname of the members of this family is derived from a village called Nimblak. The Naik Nimbalkar family was very intimately related to Chatrapati Shivaji Bhosale. Saibai, who was the first wife of Chatrapati Shivaji & mother of Sambhaji Raje Bhosale, was a member of the Naik Nimbalkar family. Chatrapati Shivaji's daughter Sakhubai was also married to Mahadji Naik Nimbalkar who was the son of Bajaji Naik Nimbalkar.

Dalvi rulers of Paramara lineage

Shrimant Jaswantrao Dalvi was the Raja of Palvan Sansthan at time of the Shivaji Maharaj era (1662).He was the best friend of Shirke Raja of Shrungarpure. Pesent day this location come under the Mandangad tahasil in Ratnagiri District. This dalvi family are the migrated from royal Parmara family of Dhar.Most of the family of this lineage have social honor as Khot. Present day Dalvi's of Soveli, Palvani, Nighavani, Dudhere, Dahagao, Kumbale; and Pawar's of Bhamghar, Savri; Ghosalkar's of Ghosale are comes under the Dharpawar kuli, hence being of the same ancestral lineage these families don't marry among themselves.[citation needed]

PARMAR (Presently in Madhya Pradesh)

Presently parmars in madhya pradesh resides mainly in Bhopal, Dhar, Shajapur, Shujalpur, Ratlam, Indore, Ujjain and Rajgarh district. Annual meeting of parmar samaj is held at 26 January every year at Gufa Mandir, Lalghati, Bhopal under banner of Raja Bhoj Parmar samaj sangathan madhya pradesh. Parmar in madyapradesh and Eastern Gujarat(Dahod and Panchmahal district Region known as Patelia/Pateliya commmunity.

Contributions to Indian culture and society

The Paramaras have made invaluable contributions to numerous fields, including art, architecture, literature and science, as outlined below:

MONUMENTS OF DHAR & MANDU Built of red stone the fort is situated on the hill to north Dhar city. As mentioned in the diary (Rojnamcha) of emperor Jehangir the fort was built by Mohammad Tughlak in 1344 A.D. In 1732 A.D. the rulers of Panwar dynasty captured this fort situated on a rectangular hillock. The construction of this strong and imposing fort could become possible due to solid muram and black stone of this hillock. The main entrance to thefort was built to the west. The construction plan of the fort suggests that it was built following the injunctions of Samarangan Sutradhar. The important monuments in this fort include Kharbuja Mahal , Shish Mahal and other buildings.[citation needed]

JAISHREE PANWAR Ex Mayor of Delhi daughter in law of EX MP CH. DALIP SINGH PANWAR from SHAHPUR JAT VILLAGE (inhabited by Panwar & Dagar jat from rule Ala-ud-din kilji rule )in New Delhi. There are some families of Pawar Rajputs in Muzaffarabad Azad Jummu & kashmir. They claim to be a clan of Pawar Rajputs. They live in the capital of Pakistan Administrated Kahsmir

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rose, Horace Arthur (1990). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Services. p. 300. ISBN 8120605055. 
  2. ^ Hanks, Patrick (2006). Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195081374. 
  3. ^ a b Mohanty, P.K. (2006). Encyclopaedia of Scheduled Tribes In India. 5. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 186. ISBN 8182050529. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DfZBc1Gy9g4C&pg=PA186&. "Dr. Dashrath sharma ascribes the origin of the Solankis, parmars, the guhis/gohils and Chauhans to the Brahmins.However, we know from the works of other scholars that the solanki and parmar were actually descendents of the Gujjars who came to india from pre-islamic Persia in large numbers." 
  4. ^ James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p.126
  5. ^ Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History (The History of the Indigenous people of India Vol. 2), Published by Originals (an imprint of Low Price Publications), Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, p.171
  6. ^ Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History (The History of the Indigenous people of India Vol. 2), Published by Originals (an imprint of Low Price Publications), Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, p.148

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