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Paromomycin sulfate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,3S,4R,5R,6 S)-5-amino-6-[(1R,2S,3S,4R,6 S)-
4,6-diamino-2-[(2S,3R,4R,5R)-4-[(2 R,3R,4R,5R,6S)-
CAS number 1263-89-4
ATC code A07AA06
PubChem 165580
DrugBank ?
Chemical data
Formula C 23H47N5O18S 
Mol. mass 615.629 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability None
Metabolism None
Half life  ?
Excretion Fecal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C(US)
Legal status Rx only U.S.
Routes Oral, intramuscular

Paromomycin sulfate (synonyms: monomycin, aminosidine[1]; brand name Humatin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, first isolated from Streptomyces krestomuceticus in 1950s.[2]



It is an antibiotic designed to fight intestinal infections such as cryptosporidiosis,[3] amoebiasis,[4] and leishmaniasis.[5]

The route of administration is intramuscular injection.


Paromomycin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 16S ribosomal RNA.[6]

History and availability

Monomycin was demonstrated to be effective against cutaneous leishmaniasis in clinical studies in the USSR in the 1960s, and in trials with visceral leishmaniasis in early 1990s.[1]

It was developed as a therapeutic against visceral leishmaniasis by the Institute for OneWorld Health. Paromomycin was granted orphan drug status in 2005[7] and was approved by the Drug Controller General of India in September 2006 for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.[8]

As of February 5th, 2008, King Pharmaceuticals is discontinuing the sale of Humatin, Paromomycin continues to be available in the United States from another manufacturer.[9]


  1. ^ a b Neal R.A. et al. (1994). "Aminosidine ointments for the treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88 (2): 223–5. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(94)90307-7.  
  2. ^ Davidson R.N., den Boer M., Ritmeijer K. (2008). "Paromomycin". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.09.008.  
  3. ^ Sweetman S.C. (Editor). (2002). Martindale: the complete drug reference. 33rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press
  4. ^ paromomycin at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  5. ^ Sundar S, Jha TK, Thakur CP, Sinha PK, Bhattacharya SK (June 2007). "Injectable paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis in India". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (25): 2571–81. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa066536. PMID 17582067.  
  6. ^ Vicens, Quentin; Eric Westhof (August 2001). "Crystal Structure of Paromomycin Docked into the Eubacterial Ribosomal Decoding A Site". Structure 9 (8): 647–658. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00629-3. PMID 11587639. Retrieved 2007-02-10.  
  7. ^ Institute for OneWorld Health (23 May 2005). "Institute for OneWorld Health Drug Receives “Orphan” Designation From U.S. and European Regulatory Agencies". Press release. Retrieved 2007-02-10.  
  8. ^ Institute for OneWorld Health (8 September 2006). "New cure for deadly visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) approved by government of India". Press release. Retrieved 2007-02-10.  
  9. ^ humatin_king.pdf at


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