Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom: Wikis


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Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, several nations took on both the Taliban and Al-Qaeda during Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, which was the initial combat operations starting on 7 October 2001, in the wake of the 11 September attacks on the United States, and during 2002 and 2003.

This list covers US and coalition forces and other forms of support for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from October 2001. Some nations operations in Afghanistan continued as part of NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). For example, United States troops are deployed both in the OEF and ISAF.

See the article Afghanistan War order of battle for the current disposition of coalition forces in Afghanistan.

For coalition forces involved in NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) combat operations in southern Afghanistan in 2006, see the article Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006. For coalition forces in Afghanistan in 2007, see the article Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2007. For coalition forces in Afghanistan in 2008, see the article Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2008. And the article International Security Assistance Force for coalition forces in Afghanistan as part of ISAF.

Primary sources U.S. Department of Defense [1] and US State Department [2].

A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. In four descending columns, from left to right: MM Maestrale (F 570), FS De Grasse (D 612); USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), FS Charles De Gaulle (R 91), FS Surcouf (F 711); USS Port Royal (CG-73), HMS Ocean (L 12), USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), HNLMS Van Amstel (F 831); and MM Durand de la Penne (D 560).


Afghan Security Forces are currently trying to take an increasing role in battling the Taliban insurgency.


Naval vessels during 2002.


Bangladesh offered the use of its airspace, ports and aircraft refueling stations.


In 2002, a tri-national detachment known as the European Participating Air Forces of 18 Danish, Netherlands and Norwegian F-16 ground attack fighters aircraft deployed to Manas Air Base in Kyrgyzstan to support operations in Afghanistan. Belgium contributed a C-130 Hercules and 4 F-16 aircraft.


In 2002, Canada had 2,025 personnel in the CENTCOM region (1,100 land, 225 air (6 aircraft) and 700 naval personnel (3 ships)). Ground troops included elements of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regiment and Royal Canadian Regiment, and JTF2 special forces. Since initial deployments supporting OEF, Canadian forces have supported OEF and ISAF. Since the summer of 2006, the expanded Canadian force supported the NATO ISAF mission in south Afghanistan.

Exit strategy: Canada has pledged to stop its military operations there by the end of 2010. [1] And has begun logistical preparations to end any substantive combat role by the end of 2011[2]


China has provided Mine-clearance and police training for Afghan Security Forces, but has resisted International pressure to deploy troops to the country. The Chinese government considers Afghanistan a quagmire, and fears that if troops were to be deployed, rising casualties would provoke massive antiwar sentiment in China, due to the One Child Policy.[3]


Congo offered the United States and allies logistical support.


Cyprus offered the United States and allies use of its airspace and airports. Also, the United Kingdom used it's RAF bases in their Sovereign Base Areas in Atrokiri and Dhekelia to stage attacks and aid the ground forces.

 Czech Republic

Provided training and material support for allied Afghan forces (donation of Mi-17 and Mi-24 helicopters to ANA). Sent 3 times a Special Forces Detachement (601st Special Forces Group). Other activities in ISAF - field hospital, KAIA airfield command, PRT Logar, force protection for German PRT and Dutch PRT.


Since 2002 the number of ground forces committed by the Danish army has been steadily increased from 50 to 750 soldiers and support staff. These forces include a tank platoon with 3 Leopard 2 model 2A5DK tanks. The majority of the Danish forces are deployed in the Helmand Province operating in the Gerishk District as part of the ISAF force under UK command. The Danish forces have suffered substantial casualties including 24 deaths up till September 2009. This is currently the highest level of casualties compared to the contribution size.

Additionally Danish Jægerkorpset special forces have been deployed at various times - including a substantial number in 2002.

In 2002, a tri-national detachment known as the European Participating Air Forces of 18 Danish, Netherlands and Norwegian F-16 ground attack/fighter aircraft deployed to Manas in Kyrgyzstan to support operations in Afghanistan. Denmark contributed 6 F-16 aircraft.

Denmark's leader recently said his country's commitment depends on whether Afghanistan's Nov. 7 presidential runoff produces a credible leader(The run off was cancelled).[4]


Egypt offered the use of its airspace.


Estonia offered the use of its airspace and provided logistical support in theatre. Estonia deployed about 150 troops in Afghanistan.[5]


Over 4,000 personnel including 3,500 for the Marine Nationale (one CVBG, comprising the FS Charles de Gaulle, frigates La Motte-Picquet, Jean de Vienne and Jean Bart, the nuclear attack submarine Rubis, the tanker Meuse and the aviso Commandant Ducuing) 600 ground troops and 600 from the Armée de l'Air (12 Mirage 2000, Mirage F1 and Mirage IV ground-attack and reconnaissance aircraft). A French task force composed of soldiers from the 21st Marine Infantry Regiment deployed on 17 November 2001, to Mazar-e Sharif. Six French soldiers have died during OEF (as well as 3 under ISAF): all 6 in various hostile incidents.

In 2001 and beginning again in the summer of 2003, 200 soldiers from various units of the Army Special Forces Brigade (BFST), along with marine and air commandos, have conducted operations against the Taliban, under command and in co-operation with U.S. special operations forces present in the area. French forces have since supported the ISAF mission.

In August 2008, France took over control of the Kabul regional command. Ten French troops were killed and a further 21 wounded in an attack - the heaviest loss of troops France has suffered since deploying to Afghanistan in 2002 - it was announced on the 19 August.[6]


Georgia deployed 174 troops to Afghanistan, and will deploy 1,900 peacekeepers in 2010 for peacekeeping and counter-terrorism operations.


In 2002, Germany had 2,560 personnel in the region. German Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) special forces were involved in combat operations. The German Navy has had three Frigates, one Fast Patrol Boat Group (five units) and four supply ships operating out of Djibouti, in the Gulf of Aden. A German Airbus A310 aircraft was on alert in Germany for use as a medevac platform. German forces have since supported the ISAF mission.

The Bundestag is scheduled to vote on the mission in December 2009. It is claimed that other European nations will follow Germany's lead.[7]


Naval vessels during 2002. Greek forces have since supported the ISAF mission.


Hungary provided training for allied forces (???), and opened its airbases for NATO use. (??? OEF is not NATO operation) Hungary did not send any forces to the field.


India provided a frigate for escorting coalition shipping through the Straits of Malacca, made shipyards available for coalition ship repairs and opened ports for naval port calls.


A force of elite Qods Force Commandos was deployed during the 2001 uprising in Herat, and fought alongside Delta Force troops and Northern Alliance forces.[8] Iran also hosted U.S. commanders in its Capital, Tehran, during the uprising.


Ireland has permitted U.S. Military aircraft to use Shannon International Airport as a refuelling hub.


The Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi and French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle seen from the USS Theodore Roosevelt (1 Febbruary 2002)

Italy has 2,850 men in Afghanistan . Italian naval warships including its only Carrier Battle Group (with the aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi) supported combat operations in the North Arabian Sea. Italy deployed a 43-man engineer team to Bagram, Afghanistan to repair the runway in May 2002.


In its first military deployment since World War II, contributed naval support for non-combat reinforcement of the operation.


Jordan provided basing and overflight permissions for U.S. and coalition forces and a mine clearing team.


Kuwait provided basing and overflight permissions for all U.S. and coalition forces.


Kyrgyzstan allowed US and allied aircraft to use Manas Air Base.


Provided logistical support.


40 Special Forces AITVARAS troops, from 2002 to 2004.


Malaysia provided use of its airspace and logistical support.


In 2002, a tri-national detachment known as the European Participating Air Forces of 18 Danish, Netherlands and Norwegian F-16 ground attack fighters aircraft, of which 6 to 8 were Dutch and one Netherlands KDC-10 refuelling tanker was deployed to Manas in Kyrgyzstan to support operations in Afghanistan. The Royal Netherlands Navy deployed two frigates.

In 2006, the Netherlands increased its contribution to Afghanistan as part of NATO’s expanded operations in the south, including 1,700 troops and Royal Netherlands Air Force assets.

The Dutch parliament passed a motion earlier this month (October 2009) barring the renewal of its Afghan presence. [9]

 New Zealand

The Royal New Zealand Navy Frigate HMNZS Te Mana sails alongside the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln in the north Arabian Sea in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark announced in April 2008 that there would be additional New Zealand troops sent to the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in Banyan Province, because of concern over the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan. A member of the NZSAS in Afghanistan, Corporal Bill Apiata, was awarded the Victoria Cross for New Zealand in 2007 for bravery under fire in 2004. Three other SAS soldiers also received bravery awards for actions during the same mission; two received the New Zealand Gallantry Decoration and one the New Zealand Gallantry Medal. There are also two C-130 Hercules and one Boeing 757 transport aircraft and an unstated number (about 120) of New Zealand Special Air Service special forces soldiers and 2 ANZAC class frigates in the Persian Gulf.

In November 2007, a nephew of New Zealand's Minister of Defence Phil Goff died in Afghanistan; he was United States Army Captain Matthew Ferrara, who held both American and New Zealand citizenship. In July 2008, the sixth Australian soldier died in Afghanistan, New Zealand-born SAS Signaller Sean McCarthy.

The decision was made in August 2009 that NZSAS troops would be sent back to Afghanistan.

Exit strategy: The Government of New Zealand is working on an exit plan to pull all New Zealand troops out of Afghanistan.[10]


In 2002, a tri-national detachment known as the European Participating Air Forces of 18 Danish, Dutch and Norwegian F-16 ground attack fighters aircraft was deployed to Manas International Airport in Kyrgyzstan to support operations in Afghanistan. Norway contributed four to six F-16s. Also deployed from Norway were logistic teams, mine clearance teams, special forces groups (from HJK and MJK) and several C-130 transport aircraft.[11] Norway also has an army training base located in Afghanistan. Currently, they have lost one soldier in an RPG attack and one special forces lieutenant in a shoot-out with hostile gunmen.[12][13] Norway redeployed F-16 ground attack aircraft in 2006 as part of a joint Dutch-Norwegian unit supporting expanded NATO operations in Afghanistan.[14]


Oman offered the United States and allies use of its airspace and air bases.


Pakistan has been helping in the war against the Taliban. Pakistan and Iran agreed to open borders to receive the expected increased migration of refugees from Afghanistan. Earlier, Pakistan had supported the Taliban, especially during the 1996-1998 period when they were establishing control - later relations between the two were not as close. After the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan allocated three airbases to the United States for the invasion of Afghanistan.


Poland provided combat engineers and logistical support.


Portugal deployed 145 soldiers to Afghanistan, and provided a detatchment of C-130 Hercules cargo planes. As a NATO member, Portugal supported the invocation of Article V.


Qatar offered the United States and allies use of the Al Udaid Airbase.


Romania gave basing and overflight permissions to US and allied aircraft and would later provide significant forces as part of both 'Enduring Freedom' – Iraq and 'ISAF' – Afganistan missions.


Russia provided a field hospital as well as a hospital in Kabul for allies and Afghan civilians.

Russia has also agreed to provide logistic support for the United States forces in Afghanistan to aid in anti-terrorist operations.


Slovakia provided sappers and specialists on maintenance and reconstruction of airports and technical equipment for such operations.

 South Korea

South Korea provided logistical support and a field hospital.


As a NATO member, Spain supported the invocation of Article V of the NATO charter. Spain made available Spanish military bases for military operations. Spanish forces have since supported the ISAF mission with about 1,000 combat troops in Afghanistan plus a helicopter detachment and 3 C-130 Hercules aircrafts.


Sudan offered logistical support.


Sweden has been in Afghanistan since 2002 and have 350 soldiers there. In September 2008 Sweden plans to increase its commitment to Afghanistan to approximately 500 soldiers within a year. Sweden leads the PRT Mazari Sharif


Switzerland deployed 31 soldiers to Afghanistan in 2003, and two Swiss officers had worked with German troops. Swiss forces were withdrawn in February 2008.


Tajikistan provided use of its airspace, airbases and facilities for humanitarian aid.


Thailand offered America and its allies a fueling station for aircraft and provided logistical support.


Turkey offered the United States use of its airspace and air refuelling for US aircraft deploying to the region. Turkey would later deploy troops to Afghanistan as part of ISAF.


Turkmenistan offered the use of its airspace.

 United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates provided 3 security personnel.


Ukraine allowed use of its airspace and airbases to America and its allies, but only for cargo flights.

 United Kingdom

The United Kingdom deployed sea, air and land assets for the initial offensive against the Taliban/al-Qaeda in 2001-2. The naval element consisted of one Invincible class aircraft carrier, one amphibious ship (, one destroyer, one frigate, three nuclear fleet submarines and seven Royal Fleet Auxiliaries. The submarines HMS Trafalgar and HMS Triumph launched Tomahawk missiles on targets inside Afghanistan. SBS and Special Air Service special forces also deployed. Later 45 Commando Royal Marines deployed as part of Operation Jacana. The Royal Air Force contributed Tristar and VC-10 tanker aircraft, E-3D Sentry surveillance and control aircraft, Nimrod R1 surveillance aircraft, Nimrod MR2 maritime reconnaissance aircraft, Canberra PR9 reconnaissance aircraft, C-130 Hercules air transport aircraft and Chinook helicopters from 27 Squadron. 94 members of the British Armed Forces have died during OEF (see British forces casualties in Afghanistan).

Since initial deployments supporting OEF, British forces have mainly supported the ISAF mission, whilst British special forces have supported OEF and ISAF. In January 2006, Defence Secretary John Reid announced the UK would send a PRT with several thousand personnel to Helmand for at least three years. This had been planned as part of the gradual expansion of ISAF's area of responsibility from the Kabul region to the rest of Afghanistan. An initial strength of 5,700 personnel in Afghanistan was planned, which would stabilise to around 4,500 for the rest of the deployment.[15]

 United States

In 2002, there were approximately 7,000 troops in Afghanistan, including United States Army Rangers, troops from the 10th Mountain Division, 187th Infantry Regt. "Rakkasans" 101st Airborne (Air Assault) and US Marines. Marines of the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit and 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit were the first conventional forces into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in November 2001.

The United States Navy aircraft carriers USS Enterprise (CVN 65) with an 8 ship and submarine task group, followed by the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) with 9 other ships and submarines deployed for operations over Afghanistan at different stages to the end of 2002. The USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) with a 11 ship and submarine task group also deployed. Additionally The USS George Washington (CVN 73) Was Deployed from June 20, 2002 until December 20, 2002 in support of Operation Southern Watch, and Operation Enduring Freedom.

Roughly 150 aircraft were initially deployed for Operation Enduring Freedom, including some two dozen B-52 bombers and support aircraft.

In 2007, 23,000 American troops were in Afghanistan, in the OEF-A. Another US troops are in ISAF.


Uzbekistan had allowed the U.S. to place troops on the ground as well as use the Uzbek airbase, K2, for support activities and for deployment and command and control of Special Forces into all of Afghanistan except for the Khandahar region. K2 is no longer in use by the U.S.


See also

External links

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