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Pasteurella
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Pasteurellales
Family: Pasteurellaceae
Genus: Pasteurella
Species

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, non-motile coccobacillus that is penicillin-sensitive and belongs to the Pasteurellaceae family [1]. It can cause a zoonotic infection in humans, which typically is a result of bites or scratches from domestic pets. Many mammals and fowl harbor it as part of their normal respiratory microbiota, displaying asymptomatic colonization.

Contents

History

Pasteurella multocida was first found in 1878 in fowl cholera-infected birds. However, it was not isolated until 1880, by Louis Pasteur - the man in whose honor Pasteurella is named.

Disease

See: Pasteurellosis

P. multocida is the most common cause of infection from animal injuries (pneumonia in cattle and pigs, atrophic rhinitis in pigs and goats, and wound infections after dog/cat-bites.) A high leukocyte and neutrophil count is typically observed, leading to an inflammatory reaction at the infection site (generally a diffuse localized cellulitis).[2] It can also infect other locales, such as the respiratory tract. In more serious cases, a bacteremia can result, causing an osteomyelitis or endocarditis. The bacteria may also cross the blood-brain barrier and cause meningitis.[3]

Virulence, Culturing, and Metabolism

A bacteriophage encodes the toxin responsible for most P. multocida virulence factors. This toxin activates Rho GTPases, which bind and hydrolyze GTP, and are important in actin stress fiber formation. Formation of stress fibers may aid in the endocytosis of P. multocida. The host cell cycle is also modulated by the toxin, which can act as an intracellular mitogen.[4]
P. multocida will grow at 37 degrees Celsius on blood or chocolate agar, but will not grow on MacConkey agar. Colony growth is accompanied by a characteristic "mousy" odor due to metabolic products.
Being a facultative anaerobe, it is oxidase- and catalase-positive, and can also ferment a large number carbohydrates in anaerobic conditions.[5]....

Treatment

This bacterium can be effectively treated with beta-lactam antibiotics, which inhibit cell wall synthesis. It can also be treated with fluoroquinolones or tetracyclines; fluoroquinolones inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis and tetracyclines interfere with protein synthesis by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. Because P. multocida is most often acquired as a result of a bite (notably dog), infections are frequently polymicrobial and involve anaerobic bacteria. As a result, amoxicillin-clavulanate (a beta-lactamase inhibitor/penicillin combination) is seen as the treatment of choice.[6]

References

  1. ^ Kuhnert P; Christensen H (editors). (2008). Pasteurellaceae: Biology, Genomics and Molecular Aspects. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-34-9 . http://www.horizonpress.com/past. 
  2. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed. ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  3. ^ Casolari C, Fabio U. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from Human Clinical Specimens: First Report in Italy. European Journal of Epidemiology. Sept 1988; 4(3):389-90
  4. ^ [Lacerda HM, Lax AJ, Rozenqurt E. Pasteurella multocida toxin, a potent intracellularly acting mitogen, induces p125FAK and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation, actin stress fiber formation, and focal contact assembly in Swiss 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 5 Jan 1996; 271(1):439-45.
  5. ^ Casolari C, Fabio U. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from Human Clinical Specimens: First Report in Italy. European Journal of Epidemiology. Sept 1988; 4(3):389-90
  6. ^ Red Book: 2006 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases - 27th Ed.

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Classis: Gamma Proteobacteria
Ordo: Pasteurellales
Familia: Pasteurellaceae
Genus: Pasteurella
Species: Pasteurella multocida
Subspecies: Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida - Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica - Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida - Pasteurella multocida subsp. tigris -

References


Simple English

Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, non-motile coccobacillus that is penicillin-sensitive. Pasteurella multocida often exists as a commensal in the upper respiratory tracts of many livestock, poultry, and domestic pet species, especially cats and dogs.

Pasteurella multocida was first found in 1878 in fowl cholera-infected birds. However, it was not isolated until 1880, by Louis Pasteur - the man in whose honor Pasteurella is named.



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