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Patria AMV
Patria AMV 1.jpg
Patria AMV in South Africa
Place of origin  Finland
Specifications
Weight 16,000 to 27,000 kg (35,000 to 60,000 lb)
Length 7.7 m (25 ft)
Width 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Height 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Crew 2-3 (commander, driver, optional gunner)
8-12 passenger [1]

Engine DC 12 Scania Diesel
360 kW (480 hp) or 405 kW (543 hp)
Power/weight 15.6 kW/t (21.2 PS/t) (max weight)
Suspension 8×8 wheeled
independent hydropneumatic suspension
Operational
range
600-850 km (370-530 mi)
Speed over 100 km/h (60 mph) on land
up to 10 km/h (6.2 mph) in water

The Patria AMV (Armored Modular Vehicle) is an 8x8 multi-role military vehicle produced by the Finnish defence industry company Patria.

The main feature of the AMV is its modular design, which allows the incorporation of different turrets, weapons, sensors, or communications systems on the same carriage. Designs exist for different APC vehicles (armoured personnel carrier) and IFV versions (infantry fighting vehicle), communications versions, ambulances and different fire support versions, armed with large caliber mortar and gun systems. The vehicle has a very good mine protection and can withstand explosions up to 10 kilograms (22 lb) TNT. The AMV has protection levels up to 30 mm APFSDS frontal arc. Another important feature is the very good mobility (combining speed, agility, and crew comfort) in rough terrain, enabled by the sophisticated but rugged hydraulic suspension adjusting each wheel individually.

Contents

History

Tha AMV vehicle stems from an investigation made by the Finnish Army HQ in 1995 on different armored vehicle concepts. In 1996, Patria Vehicles began to develop different concept vehicles, and found the 8x8 vehicle to be most suitable as a replacement for the 6x6 Sisu Pasi. The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) ordered an official concept study in 1999, which was ready by 2000. Patria continued to develop the vehicle and the first AMV prototype was ready for testing in November 2001. Two evaluation vehicles were ordered by the FDF in December 2001, and were delivered in 2003. Later the same year, the FDF ordered 24 AMOS-equipped Patria AMVs for delivery 2006-2009. The FDF also said that they were looking to order some 100 vehicles, equipped with remote-controlled weapon stations, later placing an order for 62 vehicles. In December 2002 the Polish Defece Ministry placed an order for 690 vehicles (later increased by 133), making Patria the leading manufacturer of IFV vehicles in the 15-27 tonne range in Europe. Subsequent affairs were made all over Europe, as well as in South Africa and the United Arab Emirates - in many places being locally produced. In 2004, the AMV became the first 4th generation combat vehicle of its kind to enter serial production.[1]

The vehicle design was based on experience gained from building the Pasi and customer feedback on that vehicle. It was entirely designed in 3D virtual environments before construction and subsequent successful testing of the prototype showed that the vehicle fulfilled all the expectations.[2]

The vehicle was initially designed in 6x6, 8x8 and 10x10 variants, but the 10x10 variant was later dropped.[3]

Versions

The AMV is offered in three main variants: a basic model, a system platform and a modular carrier.

  • The AMV basic model includes APC, IFV, C2, ambulance, reconnaissance, mortar carrier, FCV, ATGM and MGS vehicles.
  • The AMV SP (System Platform) features a larger and higher rear compartment which allows more space-requiring work to be done inside the vehicle. The AMV SP is suitable for e.g. C3, large ambulance and workshop vehicles.
  • The AMV MC (Module Carrier) has a separated engine/driver compartment and rear compartment and can carry different modules or containers with different weapons outfits or other logistic payloads.
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National variants

  • The Polish variant KTO Rosomak is slightly scaled down armour and weightwise to allow amphibious capabilitys and air-transportation by a C-130 Hercules transport plane. This idea was dropped after analyses of the 2003 Iraq war, and vehicles sent to Afghanistan were equipped with applique armour.
  • The Finnish variant.
  • The South African 'Badger' variant, equipped with an armour package from Land Mobility Technologies (LMT) and Denel Land Systems's Modular Combat Turret (MCT). Offered in Section, Fire Support, Mortar, Command and Missile sub-variants.
  • The Croatian variant.
  • The UAE variant, is slightly lengthened (0.4 m longer) to allow fitting of the spacier BMP-3 turret and the same amount of soldiers as the original AMV model.
  • The Slovenian variant, named Svarun.

Service

The Polish Army has ordered 313 AMVs with the Italian Oto Melara 30 mm turret and 377 AMVs in various other configurations to be delivered between 2004 and 2013. Some of the Polish vehicles are currently employed in Afghanistan. The Polish vehicles are known as KTO Rosomak ("wolverine") in Polish Army service.

The Finnish Army has ordered 24 AMVs fitted with the AMOS mortar system and 62 AMVs fitted with Protector M151 remote weapon system for the .50 M2HB QCB heavy machine gun or the GMG grenade machine gun. The standard version is known as XA-360 in Finnish Army service, while the AMOS version is known as XA-361.

In June 2006, the Slovenian Ministry of Defence declared that the Patria AMV will be the new armoured fighting vehicle of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Patria will supply 135 vehicles, some equipped with the NEMO mortar, some with Elbit 30 mm remote controlled weapon station and the rest with Kongsberg Protector turrets. Allegations in Finnish media that bribery was used by Patria to secure the Slovenian contract led to a scandal and a criminal investigation in Finland and may have contributed to the defeat of Prime Minister Janez Janša in the 2008 Slovenian parliamentary elections. After military budget has been re-balanced due to financil crisis, the contract to supply 135 vehicles is most likely to be amended of which result would be less vehicles with better armament (30 mm).

In May 2007, the South African Denel Land Systems was awarded a contract to build an improved version of the AMV, with a high level of ballistic and mine protection for the South African National Defence Force. The AMV will replace South-African Ratels as part of the "Program Hoefyster" (Horseshoe). Five different versions are included: Command, Mortar, Missile, Section and Fire Support vehicles.[4]

In July 2007, the Croatian Ministry of Defence selected the Patria AMV as the new armoured fighting vehicle of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia in their first international tender in its history.[5] 84 AMVs will be supplied. Initially, the plan called for 84 8×8 vehicles and 42 6×6 vehicles. The Croatian Ministry of Defence has approved the purchase of 84 Patria AMV 8×8 vehicles. The 6×6 configuration idea was scrapped, and the remaining 42 vehicles were decided to be 8×8s. The purchase of the remaining 42 AMVs was made in December, 2008. Due to financil crisis, the contract will probably be amended. There are three possible solutions: to produce and deliver all vehicles by 2014 but to postpone the payment until 2018, to prolong the delivery of all vehicles up until 2018 or, finally, to shelve the total number of vehicles (number mentioned is 64). However, it is almost certain that all vehicles will now be armed only with 12.7mm and 30mm RCWS. NEMO system, air-defence systems, Spike ATGMs, Recon and Engineering vehicles will probably be cancelled. Final decision is to be brought by the end of February 2010. It is important to mention that these cutbacks (together with many other projects) has caused considerable criticism from the media and public.

The Republic of Macedonia government announced in 2006 that it will procure the same type which Croatian military chooses after test trials in 2007 because it is less expensive than conduct trials again at home. The configuration of Patria vehicles, which eventually won the competition, will be similar to those in Slovenian service but probably in smaller numbers. However, any contract has not been published. [5]

In January 2008 Patria announced that the United Arab Emirates armed forces had ordered the AMV, equipped with the BMP-3 turret. The number of vehicles is yet to be announced.

On 30 January 2008 it was announced that Patria has offered to deliver 30 first AMVs within four months of ordering, if the Czech Army chooses AMV as its next APC. The Czech army had earlier chosen the Austrian Steyr Pandur as their next APC, but the Czech government withdrew from the deal at the end of last year, citing Steyr's failure to fulfill the commitments ensuing from the contract.[6]

Patria and Lockheed Martin joining forces

Patria and Lockheed Martin have agreed to cooperate in the competition for the US Marines MPC (Marine Personnel Carrier) deal. MPC is the Marines armoured vehicle that is to replace the LAV. The USMC (United States Marine Corps) is planning to obtain 600 MPC vehicles.[7]

The expected offer competition will be held in the second quarter of 2008, and the USMC will evaluate the different competitors after this.

Patria will deliver the AMV 8x8 vehicle. Lockheed Martin Systems Integration is responsible for the MPC offer, as well as system integration, survivability systems, the US production line, as well as networking and logistics.[8]

Combat history

Polish version of Patria AMV known as KTO Rosomak, with small propellers at the back of the vehicle
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The Polish Land Forces contingent, which is a part of the International Security Assistance Force have been operating 35 KTO Rosomak vehicles (including 5 medivac) in Afghanistan since 2007. The APC's were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. In early 2008 a Polish Rosomak serving in Afghanistan (the version with upgraded armor) was attacked by Taliban rebels. The vehicle was hit three times with a RPG-7 missile but it managed to fire back and returned to base without any help required.[9] In June 2008 a Rosomak was attacked by Taliban and was hit in its frontal armor with a RPG. The armour was not penetrated. Rosomaks have also been attacked by mines and improvised explosive devices but no vehicles have been destroyed. The Polish Rosomak is feared by the Taliban who call it "The Green Devil" (due to it's non-standard green painting) and according to some intelligence reports, they tend to cancel their attacks when AMV Rosomak is present.[10][2]
European Union mission in Chad (2007-present)
European Union Force Chad/CAR

Operators

World operators of AMV Patria.png
 Croatia
126 units currently entering service, 84 ordered in 2007 and additional 42 in December, 2008, first 4 vehicles delivered in December, 2008. Due to financial crisis, the current order will probably be amended as the Croatian MOD is in talks with Patria at the moment to modify the contract.[11][12]
 Finland
62 standard APCs equipped with Kongsberg turrets and 24 armoured wheeled mortar carriers equipped with the AMOS mortar system.
 Poland
895 APCs and AFVs with the ability to swim. Designated KTO Rosomak (Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony Rosomak) /transl. wheeled armored personnel carrier "Wolverine"/ Deliveries of the vehicle are to be completed by 2018
 Slovenia
Initial order of 135 AFVs, of which 12 will be equipped with NEMO mortars. Due to a military budget cut, a new contract for less vehicles, is in evaluation process.
 South Africa
264 units. Designated Badger.[13] There will be five versions: a standard infantry carrier, a command car, fire support variant, mortar carrier and tank hunter.[14]
 United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates Army ordered[15] an initial evaluation batch of 15 vehicles.[16] Some of these vehicles will be equipped with the Patria Nemo turret while others will be equipped with BMP-3 turrets and have therefore been slightly modified, including a somewhat longer hull.[17]

Total: 1,459 vehicles ordered.

Re-competition

 Sweden
Sweden made an order for 113 vehicles, and had an option for the same amount of vehicles[18], but the Swedish court ordered the competition to be re-done.[19]

See also

References

External links


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