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Patriotism is love and devotion to one's country. The word comes from the Greek patris, meaning fatherland.[1] Patriotism, however, has had different meanings over time, and its meaning is highly dependent upon context, geography, and philosophy.

Although patriotism is used in certain vernaculars as a synonym for nationalism, nationalism is not necessarily considered an inherent part of patriotism.[2][3] Among the ancient Greeks, patriotism consisted of notions concerning language, religious traditions, ethics, law, and devotion to the common good, rather than pure identification with a nation-state.[4][5] Scholar J. Peter Euben writes that for the Greek philosopher Socrates, "patriotism does not require one to agree with everything that his country does and would actually promote analytical questioning in a quest to make the country the best it possibly can be."[6]

In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Lord Rama tells Lakshmana Janani Janma Bhoomischa Swargadapi Gariyasi (Mother and Motherland are greater than heaven), which greatly lays the foundation for consciousness of patriotism for Hindus.[7]

During the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, the notion of patriotism continued to be separate from the notion of nationalism. Instead, patriotism was defined as devotion to humanity and beneficence.[2] For example, providing charity, criticizing slavery, and denouncing excessive penal laws were all considered patriotic.[2] In both ancient and modern visions of patriotism, individual responsibility to fellow citizens is an inherent component of patriotism.

Many contemporary notions of patriotism are influenced by 19th century ideas about nationalism. During the 19th century, "being patriotic" became increasingly conflated with nationalism and even jingoism.[2] However, some notions of contemporary patriotism reject nationalism in favour of a more classic version of the idea of patriotism which includes social responsibility.[8]

Philosophical issues of patriotism

As this modern patriotic poster suggests, patriotism is often closely associated with other perceived national mores, in this case freedom.

Contemporary scholar of ethics, Paul Gomberg, has compared patriotism to racism. He argues that the primary implication of patriotism in ethical theory is that a person has more moral duties to fellow members of the national community, than to non-members. Patriotism is therefore selective in its altruism.[9] Gomberg notes the view (in ethics) that moral duties apply equally to all humans, which is known as cosmopolitanism.

바보 Patriotism is strengthened by adherence to a native religion, particularly because such a community usually has its holy places inside its motherland. This is evident in cases of countries like India and Israel.

Patriotism implies a value preference for a specific civic or political community. Universalist beliefs reject such specific preferences, in favour of an alternative, wider, community. In the European Union, thinkers such as Habermas, however, have advocated a European-wide patriotism, but patriotism in Europe is usually directed at the nation-state and often coincides with Euroscepticism.

Some religious believers place their religion above their 'fatherland', often resulting in suspicion and hostility from patriots. Examples of groups that have experienced this suspicion in the United States are Jews, Roman Catholics and Muslims. Patriotism of Muslims of India is widely viewed with suspicion, as they are, for example, averse to singing India's national song.[10] In the United States and the United Kingdom, Roman Catholics were seen as owing loyalty to the Vatican rather than the nation. Muslims are sometimes seen as owing loyalty to the Islamic community (Ummah) rather than to the nation. Other groups find a conflict between certain patriotic acts and religious beliefs. Jehovah's Witnesses and Mennonites may choose to refuse to engage in certain patriotic acts or to display certain symbols.

Supporters of patriotism in ethics regard it as a virtue. In his influential article "Is patriotism a virtue?" (1984), the philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre notes that most contemporary conceptions of morality insist on a blindness to accidental traits like local origin and therefore reject patriotic selectivity. MacIntyre constructs an alternative conception of morality, that he claims would be compatible with patriotism. Charles Blattberg, in his book From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics (2000), has developed a similar conception of patriotism.

A problem with treating patriotism as an objective virtue is that patriotisms often conflict. Soldiers of both sides in a war may feel equally patriotic, creating an ethical paradox.

Within nations, politicians may appeal to patriotic emotions in attacking their opponents, implicitly or explicitly accusing them of betraying the country. Minorities may reject a patriotic loyalty and pride, which the majority finds unproblematic. They may feel excluded from the political community, and see no reason to be proud of it. The Australian political conflict about the black armband view of history is an example. Liberal Prime Minister John Howard, who would undoubtedly describe himself as an Australian patriot, said of it in 1996:

The 'black armband' view of our history reflects a belief that most Australian history since 1788 has been little more than a disgraceful story of imperialism, exploitation, racism, sexism and other forms of discrimination.

In the United States, patriotic history has been criticised for de-emphasising the post-Colombian depopulation, the Atlantic slave trade, the population expulsions and the wars of conquest against Native Americans.

Patriotism is often portrayed as a more positive alternative to nationalism, which sometimes carries negative connotations. Some authors such as Morris Janowitz, Daniel Bar-Tal, or L. Snyder argue that patriotism is distinguished from nationalism by its lack of aggression or hatred for others, its defensiveness, and positive community building. Others, such as Michael Billig or Jean Bethke Elshtain argue that the difference is difficult to discern and relies largely on the attitude of the labeller.[11]

Patriotism for other countries

There are historical examples of individuals who fought for other countries, sometimes for their independence - for example the Marquis de Lafayette, Tadeusz Kościuszko and Kazimierz Pułaski in the American Revolutionary War and the "Philhellenes," Western Europeans who fought in the Greek War of Independence, notably Lord Byron. Was Lafayette an American patriot, or the Philhellenes Greek patriots? Alasdair MacIntyre would claim that they were not; that these and similar cases are instances of idealism, but not of patriotism. Under this view, Lafayette was only devoted to the ideals of political liberty that underlay the American Revolution, but was not specifically patriotic for America. For MacIntyre, patriotism by definition can only be a preference for one's own country, not a preference for the ideals that a country is believed to stand for. Charles Blattberg's conception of patriotism, however, is more nuanced: to him, a patriot can be critical of his or her country for failing to live up to its ideals.

Patriotism by country

Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons. The Correlates of War project found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. Patriotism in Germany before the Great War (WWI) ranks at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of surveys. The Patriotism Score table below is from the World Values Survey and refers to the average answer for high income residents of a country to the question: "Are you proud to be [insert nationality]?" It ranges from 1 (not proud) to 4 (very proud).[12]

First survey: 1990-1992
Country Score
USA 3.74
Ireland 3.73
India 3.67
South Africa 3.55
Canada 3.53
Spain 3.46
Denmark 3.27
Italy 3.25
Sweden 3.22
France 3.18
Finland 3.17
Belgium 3.07
Netherlands 2.93
Germany 2.75
Average 3.26
Second survey: 1995-1997
Country Score
USA 3.92
Venezuela 3.73
South Africa 3.72
India 3.70
Peru 3.68
Slovenia 3.64
Poland 3.55
Australia 3.54
Spain 3.38
Argentina 3.29
Sweden 3.13
Moldova 2.98
Japan 2.85
Russia 2.69
Switzerland 2.59
Lithuania 2.47
Latvia 2.10
Germany 1.37
Average 3.12


See also

Contrast with:

References

  1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary", retrieved 2009-08-19
  2. ^ a b c d Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment By Harvey Chisick
  3. ^ "Nationalism" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  4. ^ Greek Popular Morality in the Time of Plato and Aristotle Kenneth James Dover
  5. ^ Five Stages of Greek Religion by Gilbert Murray
  6. ^ "Critical Patriotism" by J. Peter Euben
  7. ^ http://sssbalvikas.org/glory3.htm
  8. ^ Patriotism's Secret History by Peter Dreier & Dick Flacks in the magazine The Nation
  9. ^ Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed., Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105-112. ISBN 1-57392-955-7.
  10. ^ Fatwa issued against Vande-Mataram - Times of India
  11. ^ Billig, Michael. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage Publishers, 1995, p. 56-58.
  12. ^ Patriotism in Your Portfolio http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=406200

Further reading

  • Alasdair MacIntyre, 'Is Patriotism a Virtue?', in: R. Beiner (ed.), Theorizing Citizenship, 1995, State University of New York Press, pp. 209 - 228.
  • Joshua Cohen and Martha C. Nussbaum, For Love of Country: Debating the Limited of Patriotism, Beacon Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8070-4313-3.
  • Jürgen Habermas, “Appendix II: Citizenship and National Identity,” in Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, trans. William Rehg, MIT Press, 1996.
  • Maurizio Viroli, For Love of Country: An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism, Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-829358-5.
  • Daniel Bar-Tal and Ervin Staub, Patriotism, Wadsworth Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-8304-1410-X.
  • Charles Blattberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-829688-6.
  • Igor Primoratz, ed., Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002. ISBN 1-57392-955-7.
  • Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed., Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105-112. ISBN 1-57392-955-7.
  • Craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational?, in Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Minority Rights, (eds.) Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. pp 231–256. Online at www.ssrc.org.
  • George Orwell, “Notes on Nationalism,” in England Your England and Other Essays, Secker and Warburg, 1953.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

This page is for quotes about Patriotism.

Arranged alphabetically by author.

Sourced

  • To be a good patriot, a man must consider his countrymen as God's creatures, and himself as accountable for his acting towards them.
    • Bishop Berkeley, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 442.
  • Patriotism is an ephemeral motive that scarcely ever outlasts the particular threat to society that aroused it.
    • Denis Diderot, Observations on the Drawing Up of Laws (written in 1774 for Catherine the Great; published 1921)
  • There are two Americas. One is the America of Lincoln and Adlai Stevenson; the other is the America of Teddy Roosevelt and the modern superpatriots. One is generous and humane, the other narrowly egotistical; one is self-critical, the other self-righteous; one is sensible, the other romantic; one is good-humored, the other solemn; one is inquiring, the other pontificating; one is moderate, the other filled with passionate intensity; one is judicious and the other arrogant in the use of great power.
  • It should be the work of a genuine and noble patriotism to raise the life of the nation to the level of its privileges; to harmonize its general practice with its abstract principles; to reduce to actual facts the ideals of its institutions; to elevate instruction into knowledge; to deepen knowledge into wisdom; to render knowledge and wisdom complete in righteousness; and to make the love of country perfect in the love of man.
    • Henry Giles, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 442.
  • Conceit, arrogance, and egotism are the essentials of patriotism. [...] Patriotism assumes that our globe is divided into little spots, each one surrounded by an iron gate. Those who have had the fortune of being born on some particular spot, consider themselves better, nobler, grander, more intelligent than the living beings inhabiting any other spot. It is, therefore, the duty of everyone living on that chosen spot to fight, kill, and die in the attempt to impose his superiority upon all the others.
  • We Americans claim to be a peace-loving people. We hate bloodshed; we are opposed to violence. Yet we go into spasms of joy over the possibility of projecting dynamite bombs from flying machines upon helpless citizens. We are ready to hang, electrocute, or lynch anyone, who, from economic necessity, will risk his own life in the attempt upon that of some industrial magnate. Yet our hearts swell with pride at the thought that America is becoming the most powerful nation on earth, and that she will eventually plant her iron foot on the necks of all other nations. Such is the logic of patriotism.
  • Leo Tolstoy [...] defines patriotism as the principle that will justify the training of wholesale murderers.
    • Emma Goldman in a speech titled What is patriotism? delivered in 1908
  • National pride is to countries what self-respect is to individuals: a necessary condition for self-improvement.
    • Richard Rorty - Achieving Our Country: Leftist Thought in Twentieth Century America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
  • That is a true sentiment which makes us feel that we do not love our country less, but more, because we have laid up in our minds the knowledge of other lands and other institutions and other races, and have had enkindled afresh within us the instinct of a common humanity, and of the universal beneficence of the Creator.
    • Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 442.
  • Patriotism ... for rulers is nothing else than a tool for achieving their power-hungry and money-hungry goals, and for the ruled it means renouncing their human dignity, reason, conscience, and slavish submission to those in power. ... Patriotism is slavery.

Unsourced

  • The liberties of our country, the freedom of our civil Constitution, are worth defending at all hazards; and it is our duty to defend them against all attacks. We have received them as a fair inheritance from our worthy ancestors: they purchased them for us with toil and danger and expense of treasure and blood, and transmitted them to us with care and diligence. It will bring an everlasting mark of infamy on the present generation, enlightened as it is, if we should suffer them to be wrested from us by violence without a struggle, or to be cheated out of them by the artifices of false and designing men.
  • In Dr. Johnson's famous dictionary patriotism is defined as the last resort of a scoundrel. With all due respect to an enlightened but inferior lexicographer, I beg to submit that it is the first.
  • "My country, right or wrong" is a thing that no patriot would think of saying, except in a desperate case. It is like saying, "My mother, drunk or sober."
  • "My country, right or wrong: if right, to be kept right; if wrong, to be set right."
    • Carl Schurz, 19th-century senator from Missouri.
  • When I am abroad, I always make it a rule never to criticize or attack the government of my own country. I make up for lost time when I come home.
  • Patriotism is easy to understand in America; it means looking out for yourself by looking out for your country.
  • Patriotism, to be truely American, begins with the human allegiance.
  • True patriotism hates injustice in its own land more than anywhere else.
  • Heroism on command, senseless violence, and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism — how passionately I hate them!
  • He is a poor patriot whose patriotism does not enable him to understand how all men everywhere feel about their altars and their hearthstones, their flag and their fatherland.
  • People tend to salute anything unnaturally bright, at least until the shade from their hands reveals what it really is.
  • Thinking men and women the world over are beginning to realize that patriotism is too narrow and limited a conception to meet the necessities of our time.
  • The people are urged to be patriotic ... by sacrificing their own children. Patriotism requires allegience to the flag, which means obedience and readiness to kill father, mother, brother, sister.
  • When we have undermined the patriotic lie, we shall have cleared the path for the great structure where all shall be united into a universal brotherhood— a truly free society.
  • I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.
    • Nathan Hale (last words before being hanged by British.)
  • Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace — but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!
  • I hate patriotism! It's a round world the last time I checked.
  • The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
  • Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.
  • America will never be destroyed from the outside. If we falter and lose our freedoms, it will be because we destroyed ourselves.
  • By 'nationalism'... I mean the habit of identifying oneself with a single nation or other unit, placing it beyond good and evil and recognising no other duty than that of advancing its interests. Nationalism is not to be confused with patriotism. Both words are normally used in so vague a way that any definition is liable to be challenged, but one must draw a distinction between them, since two different and even opposing ideas are involved. By 'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power. The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality.
  • These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.
  • I would sooner receive injustice in the Queen's courts than justice in a foreign court. I hold that man or woman to be a scoundrel who goes abroad to a foreign court to have the judgments of the Queen's courts overturned, the actions of her Government countermanded or the legislation of parliament struck down.
  • [The pamphlet] was very patriotic. That is, it talked about killing foreigners.
  • "True patriotism doesn't only consist in loving an ideal country, but — in loving, studying and working for the real elements of the country that are its land, community, people and all their wealth."
  • Patriotism means to stand by the country. It does not mean to stand by the President or any other public official save exactly to the degree in which he himself stands by the country. It is patriotic to support him insofar as he efficiently serves the country. It is unpatriotic not to oppose him to the exact extent that by inefficiency or otherwise he fails in his duty to stand by the country.
  • Patriots always talk of dying for their country, and never of killing for their country.
  • Patriotism is the willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons.
  • To me, it seems a dreadful indignity to have a soul controlled by geography.
  • Patriotism, when it wants to make itself felt in the domain of learning, is a dirty fellow who should be thrown out of doors.
  • Men love their country, not because it is great, but because it is their own.
  • Patriotism is your conviction that this country is superior to all other countries because you were born in it.
  • What do we mean by patriotism in the context of our times? ... A patriotism that puts country ahead of self; a patriotism which is not short, frenzied outbursts of emotion, but the tranquil and steady dedication of a lifetime."
    • Adlai Stevenson, speech given in New York City, 27 August 1952, quoted in John Bartlett, Familiar Quotations, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1955, p. 986
  • The soul and substance of what customarily ranks as patriotism is moral cowardice — and always has been.
  • In the beginning of a change, the patriot is a scarce man, and brave and hated and scorned. When his cause succeeds the timid join him, for then it costs nothing to be a patriot.
  • Patriotism is supporting your country all the time, and your government when it deserves it.
  • Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword. It both emboldens the blood, just as it narrows the mind. And when the drums of war have reached a fever pitch and the blood boils with hate and the mind has closed, the leader will have no need in seizing the rights of the citizenry. Rather, the citizenry, infused with fear and blinded by patriotism, will offer up all of their rights unto the leader and gladly so. How do I know? For this is what I have done. And I am Caesar.
  • Gentlemen have talked a great deal of patriotism. A venerable word, when duly practised. But I am sorry to say that of late it has been so much hackneyed about that it is in danger of falling into disgrace. The very idea of true patriotism is lost, and the term has been prostituted to the very worst of purposes.
  • Sure I wave the American flag. Do you know a better flag to wave? Sure I love my country with all her faults. I'm not ashamed of that, never have been, never will be.
    • John Wayne
  • What is patriotism but the love of the food one ate as a child?
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Simple English

Patriotism means loyalty of person to his/her own nation or the leaders of nation. A patriot is a person who is on the side of his/her own nation or its leaders. Patriotism is different from nationalism. Nationalist thinks that every ethnic group should have its own nation, so nations are to serve the people. In other words in nationalism the nation is just a tool to have freedom for an ethnic group, while in patriotism the nation itself is the highest value.

A patriot may also be loyal to imperialist or colonialist nations, while nationalism is opposed to imperialism or colonialism.








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