Paul of Greece: Wikis

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Paul
King of the Hellenes
Reign 1 April 1947 – 6 March 1964 (&0000000000000016.00000016 years, &0000000000000340.000000340 days)
Coronation 1 April 1947
Predecessor George II
Successor Constantine II
Spouse Frederika of Hanover
Issue
Sophia, Queen of Spain
Constantine II of Greece
Princess Irene
House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Father Constantine I of Greece
Mother Sophia of Prussia
Born 14 December 1901(1901-12-14)
Athens, Greece
Died 6 March 1964 (aged 62)
Athens, Greece
Burial Royal Cemetery, Tatoi Palace, Greece
Signature
Religion Greek Orthodox
House of Oldenburg (Glücksburg branch)Royal Coat of Arms of Greece (1863-1936).svg
30 Drachma coin of 1963, commemorating the centennial of the reign of the House of Glücksburg. Clockwise from the top: Paul, George II, Alexander, Constantine I and George I.

Paul, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Παῦλος, Βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων, Pávlos, Vasiléfs ton Ellínon; 14 December 1901 – 6 March 1964) ruled Greece from 1947 to 1964.

Paul was born in Athens, the third son of Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (2 August 1868 – 11 January 1923) and his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia (14 June 1870 – 13 January 1932). Paul was a direct descendant of five Greek imperial (Byzantine) dynasties (Monomachos, Comnenos, Laskaris, Angelos, and Paleologos).[1] He was trained as a naval officer. On 9 January 1938, Paul married Frederika of Hanover at Athens. They had three children:

From 1917 to 1920, Paul lived in exile with his father, Constantine I. From 1923 to 1935, and again from 1941 to 1946, he lived in exile again, this time with his brother, George II. During most of World War II, when Greece was under German occupation, he was with the Greek government-in-exile in London and Cairo. From Cairo, he broadcast messages to the Greek people.

Reign

Paul returned to Greece in 1946. He succeeded to the throne in 1947, on the death of his childless elder brother, King George II, during the Greek Civil War (between Greek Communists and the non-communist Greek government). In 1947 he was unable to attend the wedding of his first cousin, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh to the future Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom as he was suffering from typhoid fever.[2]

By 1949 the Civil War was effectively over, with the Communist insurgents ceasing the majority of their operations, and the task of rebuilding the shattered north of the country began.[3]

In the 1950s Greece recovered economically, and diplomatic and trade links were strengthened by Paul’s state visits abroad. He became the first Greek Monarch to visit a Turkish Head of State. However, links with Britain became strained over Cyprus, where the majority Greek population favored union with the homeland, which Britain, as the colonial power, would not endorse. Eventually, Cyprus became an independent state in 1960.[4]

In December 1959 Prince Maximillian of Bavaria presented the coronation regalia of King Otto of Greece to the King. It had been almost a century since they were last in Greece.

Meanwhile, republican sentiment was growing in Greece. Both Paul and Frederika attracted criticism for their interference in politics,[5] frequent foreign travels, and the cost of maintaining the Royal Family. Paul responded by economising and donated his private estate at Polidendri to the State.[6]

In 1959, he had an operation for a cataract, and in 1963 an emergency operation for appendicitis. In late February 1964, he underwent a further operation for stomach cancer, and died about a week later in Athens.[7]

The Greek Monarchy would only outlive him by nine years.

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Frederick William, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Christian IX of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. George I, King of the Hellenes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Prince William of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Constantine I, King of the Hellenes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Nicholas I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Grand Duke Konstantine Nicholaievich of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Princess Charlotte of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Amelia of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Paul, King of the Hellenes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Frederick William III of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. William I, German Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick III, German Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Princess Sophia of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Victoria, Princess Royal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Victoria of the United Kingdom
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
 
 
 
 
 
 

References

  1. ^ Royal and Noble Genealogical Data on the Web
  2. ^ Van der Kiste, John (1994). Kings of the Hellenes. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-0525-5 p.177
  3. ^ Van der Kiste, p.179
  4. ^ Van der Kiste, p.180
  5. ^ Woodhouse, C.M. Modern Greece: A Short History, Mackays of Chatham, Kent 1998, p.283, Clogg, Richard: A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge University Press, 1992, p.153
  6. ^ Van der Kiste, p.182–183
  7. ^ Van der Kiste, p.183-184
Monarchical styles of
King Paul of The Hellenes
Royal Arms of Greece (1936-1967).svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir
Paul of Greece
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 14 December 1901 Died: 6 March 1964
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George II
King of the Hellenes
1 April 1947 – 6 March 1964
Succeeded by
Constantine II
Greek royalty
Preceded by
Crown Prince George
later became King George II
Crown Prince of Greece
1922–1947
Succeeded by
Crown Prince Constantine
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