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Pavia
—  Comune  —
Comune di Pavia
The central Piazza della Vittoria

Coat of arms
Pavia is located in Italy
Pavia
Location of Pavia in Italy
Coordinates: 45°11′N 09°09′E / 45.183°N 9.15°E / 45.183; 9.15Coordinates: 45°11′N 09°09′E / 45.183°N 9.15°E / 45.183; 9.15
Country Italy
Region Lombardy
Province Pavia (PV)
Frazioni Albertario, Ca' della Terra, Cantone Tre Miglia, Cassinino, Cittadella, Fossarmato, Mirabello, Montebellino, Pantaleona, Prado, Villalunga
Government
 - Mayor Alessandro Cattaneo (PdL)
Area
 - Total 62 km2 (23.9 sq mi)
Elevation 77 m (253 ft)
Population (31 August 2007)
 - Total 70,294
 - Density 1,133.8/km2 (2,936.5/sq mi)
 - Demonym Pavesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 27100
Dialing code 0382
Patron saint St. Sirus
Saint day December 9
Website Official website
Side view of the Visconti Castle.

Pavia About this sound listen (Italian pronunciation: [paˈviˑa]; Lombard: Pavia), the ancient Ticinum, is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It is the capital of the province of Pavia. It has a population of c. 71,000. The city achieved its greatest political importance between 568 and 774, as the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards.

Pavia is the capital of a fertile eponymous province known for agricultural products including wine, rice, cereals, and dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town. The town also is home to the ancient University of Pavia. The University, together with the IUSS (Institute for Advanced Studies of Pavia), the Ghislieri College, the Borromeo College, the Nuovo College, the Santa Caterina College and the EDiSU, belongs to the Pavia Study System. Furthermore, Pavia is the see city of the Roman Catholic diocese of Pavia. The city possesses a vast amount of artistic and cultural treasures, including several important churches and museums, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia.

Contents

History

Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia (then known as Ticinum) was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire.

It is said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres.

Its importance in Roman times was due to the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum (Rimini) to the Padus (or Po) (187 BC), which it crossed at Placentia (Piacenza) and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum (Milan) and the other to Ticinum, and thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) or to Pollentia.

Here, in 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes after a long siege. To punish the city for helping the rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. However, Orestes was able to escape to Piacenza, where Odoacer followed and killed him, deposing his son Romulus Augustus. This was commonly considered the end of the Western Roman Empire.

A late name of the city in Latin was Papia (probably related to the Pope), which evolved to the Italian name Pavia. Sometimes it's been referred to as Ticinum Papia, combining both Latin names.

Under the Goths, Pavia became a fortified citadel and their last bulwark in the war against Belisarius.

After the Lombards conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom (AD. 568-774). During the Rule of the Dukes, it was ruled by Zaban. It continued to function as the administrative centre of the kingdom, but by the reign of Desiderius, it had deteriorated as a first-rate defensive work and Charlemagne took it in the Siege of Pavia (June, 774) assuming the kingship of the Lombards. Pavia remained the capital of the Italian Kingdom and the centre of royal coronations until the diminution of imperial authority there in the twelfth century. In 1004 Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor bloodily suppressed a revolt of the citizens of Pavia, who disputed his recent crowning as King of Italy.

In the 12th century Pavia acquired the status of a self-governing commune. In the political division between Guelphs and Ghibellines that characterizes the Italian Middle Ages, Pavia was traditionally Ghibelline, a position that was as much supported by the rivalry with Milan as it was a mark of the defiance of the Emperor that led the Lombard League against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who was attempting to reassert long-dormant Imperial influence over Italy.

In the following centuries Pavia was an important and active town. Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV granted during his stay in Italy the Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolph's descendants. Pavia held out against the domination of Milan, finally yielding to the Visconti family, rulers of that city in 1359; under the Visconti Pavia became an intellectual and artistic centre, being the seat from 1361 of the University of Pavia founded around the nucleus of the old school of law, which attracted students from many countries.

The Battle of Pavia (1525) marks a watershed in the city's fortunes, since by that time, the former cleavage between the supporters of the Pope and those of the Holy Roman Emperor had shifted to one between a French party (allied with the Pope) and a party supporting the Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Thus during the Valois-Habsburg Italian Wars, Pavia was naturally on the Imperial (and Spanish) side. The defeat and capture of king Francis I of France during the battle ushered in a period of Spanish occupation which lasted until 1713 at the conclussion of the War of the Spanish Succession. Pavia was then ruled by the Austrians until 1796, when it was occupied by the French army under Napoleon. During this Austrian period the University was greatly supported by Maria Theresa of Austria and saw a great renaissence that eventually lead to a second renaissance due to the presence of leading scientists and humanists like Ugo Foscolo, Alessandro Volta, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Camillo Golgi among others.

In 1815, it again passed under Austrian administration until the Second War of Italian Independence (1859) and the unification of Italy one year later.

Main sights

Pavia's most famous landmark is the Certosa, or Carthusian monastery, founded in 1396 and located eight kilometres north of the city.

Among other notable structures are:

  • Cathedral of Pavia (Duomo di Pavia), begun in 1488; however, only by 1898 were the façade and the dome completed according to the original design. The central dome has an octagonal plan, stands 97 m high, and weighs some 20,000 tons. This dome is the third for size in Italy, after St. Peter's Basilica and Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. Next to the Duomo were the Civic Tower (existing at least from 1330 and enlarged in 1583 by Pellegrino Tibaldi): its fall on March 17, 1989, was the final motivating force that started the last decade's efforts to save the Leaning Tower of Pisa from a similar fate.
  • San Michele Maggiore (St. Michael) is an outstanding example of Lombard-Romanesque church architecture in Lombardy. It is located on the site of a pre-existing Lombard church, which the lower part of the campanile belongs to. Destroyed in 1004, the church was rebuilt from around the end of the 11th century (including the crypt, the transept and the choir), and finished in 1155. It is characterized by an extensive use of sandstone and by a very long transept, provided with a façade and an apse of its own. In the church the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was crowned in 1155.
  • The Basilica of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro ("St. Peter in Golden Sky"), where Saint Augustine, Boethius and the Lombard king Liutprand are buried, was begun in the 6th century. The current construction was built in 1132. It is similar to San Michele Maggiore, but different in the asymmetric façade with a single portal, the use of brickwork instead of sandstone, and, in the interior, the absence of matronei, galleries reserved for women and the shortest transept. The noteworthy arch housing the relics of St. Augustine was built in 1362 by artists from Campione, and is decorated by some 150 statues and reliefs. The church is mentioned by Dante Alighieri in the X canto of his Divine Comedy.
  • San Teodoro (1117), dedicated to Theodore of Pavia, a medieval bishop of the Diocese of Pavia, is the third romanesque basilica in the city, though smaller than the former ones. It is situated on the slopes leading down to the Ticino river and served the fishermen. The apses and the three-level tiburium are samples of the effective simplicity of romanesque decoration. Inside are two outstanding bird's-eye-view frescoes of the city (1525) attributed to the painter Bernardino Lanzani. The latter, the definitive release, was stripped off disclosing the unfinished first one. Both are impressively detailed and reveal how little Pavia’s urban design has changed during the last 500 years.
  • The large fortified Castello Visconteo (built 1360-1365 by Galeazzo II Visconti). In spite of its being fortified, it actually was used as a private residence rather than a stronghold. The poet Francesco Petrarca spent some time there, when Gian Galeazzo Visconti called him to take charge of the magnificent library which owned about a thousand books and manuscripts, subsequentely lost. The Castle is now home to the City Museums (Musei Civici) and the park is a popular attraction for children. An unconfirmed legend wants the Castle to be connected by a secret underground tunnel to the Certosa.
  • The church of Santa Maria del Carmine is one of the best known examples of Gothic brickwork architecture in northern Italy. It is the second largest church in the city after the cathedral and is built on the Latin cross plan, with a perimeter of 80 x 40 meters comprising a nave and two aisles. The characteristic façade has a large rose window and seven cusps.
  • The renaissance church of Santa Maria di Canepanova is attributed to Bramante.
  • The medieval towers still shape the town skyline. The main clusters still rising are rallied in Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, Via Luigi Porta, and Piazza Collegio Borromeo.

Universities, colleges and other institutions

Pavia is a major Italian college town, with several institutes, universities and academies, including the anicent University of Pavia. Here is an incomplete list of the main institutions located in the city:

  • The University of Pavia, one of the most ancient universities in Europe, was founded in 1361, although a school of rhetoric is documented in 825 making this center perhaps the oldest protouniversity of Europe. The Centrale Building is a wide block made up of twelve courts of the 15th-19th centuries. The sober façade shifts from baroque style to neoclassic. The Big Staircase, the Aula Foscolo, the Aula Volta, the Aula Scarpa and the Aula Magna are neoclassic too. The Cortile degli Spiriti Magni hosts the statues of some of the most important scholars and alumni. Ancient burial monuments and gravestones of scholars of the XIV-XVI centuries are walled up in the Cortile Voltiano (most come from demolished churches). The Cortile delle Magnolie holds an ancient pit. The Cortile di Ludovico il Moro has a renaissance loggia and terracotta decorations. Both courts, as well as two more, were the cloisters of the ancient Ospedale di San Matteo. The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pavia is the university's botanical garden.
  • The Ghislieri College (Ital. Collegio Ghislieri), founded in 1567 by Pope Pius V, is one of the most ancient colleges in Pavia and co-founder of the IUSS, located in Pavia as well. Collegio Ghislieri is a 450 years old Italian institution committed to promote University studies on the basis of merit, hosting around 200 pupils (males and females) who attend all faculties in Pavia State University, offering them logistic and cultural opportunities such as scholarships, lectures, conferences, a 100,000 volumes library (the third one among private libraries in Northern Italy), foreign languages courses. Each year about 30 new students coming from all over the country are selected by public contest. Founded by Pope Pius V (Antonio Ghislieri) in 1567, since 18th century laically managed, nowadays under the High Patronage of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, it is ranked among high qualifying institutions by the Italian Ministry for Education and University.
  • The IUSS Pavia or the "Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori" of Pavia (Eng. IUSS School for Advanced Studies) is a higher learning institute located in Pavia, Italy. It was founded in 1997 by the University of Pavia, the Borromeo College and the Ghislieri College, supported by the Italian Minister of Education. It is shaped according to the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa model and reunites all the five colleges of Pavia, forming the Pavia Study System.
  • The Almo Collegio Borromeo, founded in 1561 by Charles Borromeo, is one of the oldest two colleges at the University of Pavia in northern Italy, with the other one being Ghislieri College.

Notable Pavesi

The University of Pavia's Aula Magna.

People born in Pavia include:

People who have lived in Pavia include:

Among the illustrious scholars who studied or taught at the University of Pavia, the following are at least worth remembering: Gerolamo Cardano, Gerolamo Saccheri, Ugo Foscolo, Alessandro Volta the inventor of the battery, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Antonio Scarpa and the Nobel laureate biologist Camillo Golgi.

Culture and Tourism

References

  1. ^ Pallotta, Augustus (1999). Italian Novelists Since World War II, 1965-1995. Dictionary of Literary Biography. 196. Detroit: Gale Research. http://books.google.com/books?id=wdEUAQAAIAAJ&dq=Dante+Troisi.  

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PAVIA (anc. Ticinum, q.v.), a town of Lombardy, Italy, capital of the province of Pavia, situated on the Ticino about 2 m. above its junction with the Po, 22-1 m. S. of Milan by rail, 253 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1906), 28,796 (town), 36,424 (commune). On the right bank of the river lies the small suburb of Borgo Ticino, connected with the town by a remarkable covered bridge dating from 1351-1354. In 1872 the city ceased to be a fortress, and the bastions have been transformed into boulevards and public gardens. The church of San Michele Maggiore is one of the finest specimens of the Lombard style in existence, and as it was within its walls that the crown was placed on the head of those "kings of Italy" from whom the house of Savoy claims descent it was by royal decree of 1863 given the title of Basilica Reale. S. Michele (for plan see Architecture: § Romanesque and Gothic in Italy) was originally constructed under the Lombard kings, but was burnt in 1004, and the present building dates from the latter part of the 11th (crypt, choir and transepts) and the first half of the 12th centuries (façade and nave with two aisles), and was completed in 1155. The lower part of the façade is adorned with three fine portals and with reliefs of a fantastic kind in sandstone, arranged in horizontal bands, and has arcading under the gable. The dome is octagonal. The interior is vaulted and has eight pillars, supporting double round arches. The interior has a mosaic pavement of the 12th-13th centuries. The cathedral church of San Martino is a Renaissance building begun in 1488 by Cristoforo Rocchi; it is a vast "central" structure, finely designed, with four arms, which remained for centuries unfinished until the dome (only surpassed by those of St Peter at Rome and the cathedral at Florence) and façade were completed in 1898 according to Rocchi's still extant model; adjoining the church is the massive Torre Maggiore, 258 ft. high, which is mentioned as early as 1330. The upper part is due to Pellegrino Tibaldi (1583). The cathedral contains the tomb of S. Syrus, first bishop of Pavia (2nd century); an altar-piece (1521), the best work of Giampietino (Rizzi), a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci; and another, the masterpiece of Bernardino Gatti of Parma (1531). The church of S. Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, the origin of which dates from the beginning of the 6th (?) century, but which as it stands was consecrated in '132, is very similar to S. Michele in respect of its facade (though it has not the elaborate sculptures), dome and mosaic pavements. The use of disks of majolica may be noted in the decoration of the exterior. It has been carefully restored. It served as the burial place of the Lombard king Liutprand (711-744), whose bones were found there in 1896 (R. Majocchi in Nuovo bulletino d'archeologia cristiana, 1896, p. 139). The Arca di S. Agostino (after 1362) is a sumptuous tomb containing the relics of S. Augustine of Hippo brought hither by Liutprand from Sardinia. It was only restored to this, its original position, from the cathedral when the church itself was restored.

The church of S. Maria del Carmine is externally one of the most beautiful of the brick Gothic churches in northern Italy and dates from 1273 (or 1323 ?). S. Francesco has als0 a good façade after that of Chiaravalle near Milan. The church of S. Maria di Canepanova with its small dome was designed by Bramante. Near it are three tall, slender brick towers of the Gothic period. S. Teodoro with a 12th-century exterior has frescoes by Bartolommeo Suardi (Bramantino) after 1507. Outside the town on the west lie the churches of S. Salvatore (founded in the 7th century but rebuilt in the 15th and 16th), and of S. Lanfranc (or the Holy Sepulchre, 12th century) with the fine tomb of Bishop Lanfranco Beccari (d. 1189) by Giovanni Antonio Amedeo (1498), one of the best Lombard sculptors and architects of this period (1447-1522) and a native of Pavia, which has a few other works by him. He was for eighteen years in charge of the work at the Certosa. Interesting medieval views of Pavia exist in the churches of S. Teodoro and S. Salvatore; the former dating from 1522 has been published by P. Moiraghi in Bullettino storico pavese (1893), i. 41 sqq. (See Magenta, I Visconti e gli Sforza nel castello di Pavia (Milan, 1884), for other medieval plans.) Of the secular buildings the most noteworthy is the university founded by Galeazzo II. in 1361 on the site of a law school probably founded by Lanfranc (d. 1089), though we find Pavia a centre of study as early as A.D. 825. The present imposing building was begun by Lodovico it Moro in 1490; in the library are preserved some of the ashes of Columbus, who was a student here. Volta made here his first electrical experiments. For the maintenance of a number of poor students there are two subsidiary colleges, the Borromeo and the Ghislieri founded by S. Carlo Borromeo (1563) and Pope Pius V. (1569); of the latter a colossal bronze statue has been erected in the piazza before his college. The university of Pavia has long been famous as a medical school, and has the oldest anatomical cabinet in Italy; in addition it has a natural history museum founded under Spallanzini in 1772, a botanical garden, begun in 1774, and excellent geological, palaeontological and mineralogical collections. The old castle of the Visconti built in 1360 for Galeazzo II. is used as barracks. The Museo Civico is housed in the Palazzo Malaspina and contains many interesting national relics and a small picture gallery, with a large collection of offprints on paper from niello plates, including a very fine "Fountain of Love" by Antonio Pollainolo; another fine old palace, the Palazzo Mezzabarba, is now used as the Municipio.

Pavia has a number of iron-foundries, military engineering and electrical production works, and other factories, as well as a large covered market, built in 1882. Pavia lies on the main line from Milan to Genoa (which crosses the Ticino by a bridge half a mile long, and shortly afterwards the Po), with several branch lines. Barges from Pavia can pass down the Po to the Adriatic or to Milan by canal. Five miles north of Pavia is the Carthusian monastery of Certosa di Pavia, one of the most magnificent in the world. Its founder Gian Galeazzo Visconti (also the founder of Milan Cathedral) laid the first stone in August 1396, and the nave was then begun in the Gothic style, but was not completed until 1465. However the influence of the Early Renaissance had meanwhile become supreme throughout Italy, and the rest of the church with its external arcaded galleries and lofty pinnacles (including the fine dome) and the cloisters were executed in the new style under Guiniforte Solari (1453-1481) with details in terra-cotta of great beauty and richness. Giovanni Antonio Amedeo was chief architect in 1481-1499, and the lower part of the facade was finished in 1507. It is perhaps the finest piece of elaborate and richly adorned Renaissance architecture in existence, and is the work of a number of different artists. In the south transept of the church is the tomb of the founder; the figure of Galeazzo guarded by angels lies under a marble canopy, with the Madonna in a niche above. It was begun in1494-1497by Giovanni Cristoforo Romano and Benedetto Briosco, but was not finished until 1562. In the north transept is the tomb of Lodovico Sforza, it Moro, and his wife, the figures on which were brought from S. Maria della Grazie in 1564 when the monument of the prince in that church was broken up and sold; these statues are considered to be one of the chief works of Cristoforo Solari. The church contains numerous other works of art. An elegant portal leads from the church into the small cloister, which has a pretty garden in the centre; the terra-cotta ornaments surmounting the slender marble pillars are the work of Rinaldo de Stauris (1463-1478), who executed similar decorations in the great cloister. This cloister is 412 ft. long by 334 ft. wide and contains 24 cells of the monks, pleasant little three-roomed houses each with its own garden. Within the confines of the monastery is the Palazzo Ducale which since 1901 has been occupied by the Certosa museum. The Carthusian monks, to whom the monastery was entrusted by the founder, were bound to employ a certain proportion of their annual revenue in prosecuting the work till its completion, and even after 1542 the monks continued voluntarily to expend large sums on further decoration. The Certosa di Pavia is thus a practical textbook of Italian art for wellnigh three centuries. The Carthusians were expelled in 1782 by the emperor Joseph II., and after being held by the Cistercians in 1784 and the Carmelites in 1789 the monastery was closed in 1810. In 1843 the Certosa was restored to the Carthusians and was exempted from confiscation in 1866, but it has since been declared a national monument.

History

For earlier period see Ticinum. Under the name Papia (Pavia) the city became, as the capital of the Lombard kingdom, one of the leading cities of Italy. By the conquest of Pavia and the capture of Desiderius in 774 Charlemagne completely destroyed the Lombard supremacy; but the city continued to be the centre of the Carolingian power in Italy, and a royal residence was built in the neighbourhood (Corteolona on the Olona). It was in San Michele Maggiore in Pavia that Berengar of Friuli, and his quasi-regal successors down to Berengar II. and Adalbtrt II., were crowned "kings of Italy." Under the reign of the first the city was sacked and burned by the Hungarians, and the bishop was among those who perished. At Pavia was celebrated in 951 the marriage of Otto I. and Adelheid (Adelaide), which exercised so important an influence on the relations of the empire and Italy; but, when the succession to the crown of Italy came to be disputed between the emperor Henry II. and Arduin of Ivrea, the city sided strongly with the latter. Laid in ruins by Henry, who was attacked by the citizens on the night after his coronation in 1004, it was none the less ready to close its gates on Conrad the Salic in 1026. In the 11th and 12th centuries we find Pavia called the "Second Rome." The jealousy between Pavia and Milan having in 1056 broken out into open war, Pavia had recourse to the hated emperors, though she seems to have taken no part in the battle of Legnano; and for the most part she remained attached to the Ghibelline party till the latter part of the 14th century. From 1360, when Galeazzo was appointed imperial vicar by Charles IV., Pavia became practically a possession of the Visconti family and in due course formed part of the duchy of Milan. For its insurrection against the French garrison in 1499 it paid a terrible penalty in 1500, and in 1512, after the victory of Ravenna, Pavia presented to Louis XII., as a sign of fidelity, a magnificent standard: this however fell into the hands of Swiss mercenaries and was sent to Fribourg as a trophy of war (it no longer exists). Having been strongly fortified by Charles V., the city was in 1525 able to bid defiance to Francis I., who was so disastrously beaten in the vicinity, but two years later the French under Lautrec subjected it to a sack of seven days. In 1655 Prince Thomas of Savoy invested Pavia with an army of 20,000 Frenchmen, but had to withdraw after 52 days' siege. The Austrians under Prince Eugene occupied it in 1706, the French in 1733 and the French and Spaniards in 1743 and the Austrians were again in possession from 1746 till 1796. In May of that year it was seized by Napoleon, who, to punish it for an insurrection, condemned it to three days' pillage. In 1814 it became Austrian once more. The revolutionary movement of February 1848 was crushed by the Austrians and the university was closed; and, though the Sardinian forces obtained possession in March, the Austrians soon recovered their ground. It was not till 1859 that Pavia passed with the rest of Lombardy to the Sardinian crown.

At several periods Pavia has been the centre of great intellectual activity. It was according to tradition in a tower which, previous to 1584, stood near the church of the Annunziata that Boethius wrote his De consolatione philosophiae; the legal school of Pavia was rendered celebrated in the 11th century by Lanfranc (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury); Petrarch was frequently here as the guest of Galeazzo II., and his grandson died and was buried here. Columbus studied at the university about 1447; and printing was introduced in 1471. Two of the bishops of Pavia were raised to the papal throne as John XIV. and Julius III. Lanfranc, Pope John XIV., Porta the anatomist and Cremona the mathematician were born in the city.

See C. Dell' Acqua, Guida illustrata di Pavia (Pavia, 1900), and refs. there given; L. Beltrami, La Chartreuse de Pavie (Milan, 1899); Storia documentata della Certosa di Pavia (Milan, 1896). (T. As.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Pavia

  1. A province of Lombardy, Italy.
  2. The capital of the province of Pavia.

Translations


Italian

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Pavia

Wikipedia it

Pavia

  1. Pavia (province)
  2. Pavia (town)

Derived terms


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Aesculus article)

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Sapindales
Familia: Sapindaceae
Genus: Aesculus
Sectio: A. sect. Aesculus - A. sect. Calothyrsus - A. sect.  Macrothyrsus - A. sect. Parryana - A. sect. Pavia
Species: A. assamica - A. californica - A. chinensis - A. flava - A. glabra - A. hippocastanum - A. indica - A. parryi - A. parviflora - A. pavia - A. sylvatica - A. turbinata
Nothospecies: A. ×arnoldiana - A. ×balgiana - A. ×carnea - A. ×hemiacantha - A. ×hybrida - A. ×marylandica - A. ×mutabilis - A. ×neglecta - A. ×worlitzensis
Chimaerae: A. +dallimorei

Name

Aesculus L., Sp. Pl. 344. 1753.

Typus: A. hippocastanum L.

Synonyms

Homotypic
  • Esculus L., Gen. ed. 5. 161. 1754, nom. superfl.
  • Hippocastanum Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 1754.
  • Hippocaztanum Raf., Alsog. Am. 70. 1838.
Heterotypic
  • Actinotinus Oliver, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 18: t. 1740. 1888, p.p.
  • Calothyrsus Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 2. 2: 62. 1834.
  • Isypus Raf., Fl. Tell. 4: 73. 1838.
  • Macrothyrsus Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 2. 2: 61. 1834.
  • Nebropsis Raf., Alsogr. 68. 1838.
  • Oesculus Neck., Elem. Bot. (Necker) 2: 232. 1790, nom. invalid.
  • Ozotis Raf., Alsogr. 71. 1838.
  • Pavia Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 28 Jan 1754.
  • Paviana Raf., Fl. Ludov. 87. 1817.
  • Pawia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 145. 1891.

References

  • Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2009 Dec 13 [1].

Vernacular names

Русский: Конский каштан
Svenska: Hästkastanjesläktet
Türkçe: At kestanesi
Українська: Гіркокаштан
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Aesculus on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Castello in Pavia]]

Pavia is a city in northern Italy. Pavia is in the Lombardy Region with 71.486 people living in it. It is a very old, historical city. It is 30 km south of Milan.

= History of Pavia

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The town of Pavia (then known as Ticinum) was a big city and a special military area for the Romans.

Here, in 476, Odoacer won against Flavius Orestes after a long war. To make the city pay for helping his enemy, Odoacer completely ruined Pavia, but Orestes was able to escape to a city called Piacenza, where Odoacer followed and killed him, and removed from the throne his son Romulus Augustus. This is often thought of as the end of the Western Roman Empire. A late name of the city in Latin was Papia (probably related to the Pope), which developed to the Italian name Pavia. Sometimes it's called Ticinum Papia, using both Latin names. After the Lombards conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom. During the Rule of the Dukes, it was ruled by Zaban. It continued to act as the administrative centre of the kingdom, but by the reign of Desiderius, it had fallen to a first-rate defensive work and Charlemagne took it in the Siege of Pavia (June, 774) assuming the kingship of the Lombards. Pavia remained the capital of the Italian Kingdom and the centre of royal coronations until the diminution of imperial authority there in the twelfth century. In the 12th century Pavia acquired the status of a self-governing commune. In the political division between Guelphs and Ghibellines that characterizes the Italian Middle Ages, Pavia was traditionally Ghibelline, a position that was as much supported by the rivalry with Milan as it was a mark of the defiance of the Emperor that led the Lombard League against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who was attempting to reassert long-dormant Imperial influence over Italy.

In the time after that, Pavia was an important and busy town. Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV gave the Palatinate to his brother during his stay in Italy. Pavia held out against the domination of Milan, finally yielding to the Visconti family, rulers of that city in 1359; under the Visconti Pavia became an intellectual and artistic centre, being the seat from 1361 of the University of Pavia founded around the nucleus of the old school of law, which attracted students from many countries. The Battle of Pavia (1525) marks a watershed in the city's fortunes, since by that time, the former cleavage between the supporters of the Pope and those of the Holy Roman Emperor had shifted to one between a French party (allied with the Pope) and a party supporting the Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Thus during the Valois-Habsburg Italian Wars, Pavia was naturally on the Imperial (and Spanish) side. The defeat and capture of king Francis I of France during the battle ushered in a period of Spanish occupation which lasted until 1713. Pavia was then ruled by the Austrians until 1796, when it was occupied by the French army under Napoleon. In 1815, it again passed under Austrian administration until the Second War of Italian Independence (1859) and the unification of Italy one year later.



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