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Pay television, premium television, or premium channels refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analog and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. Some parts of the world, notably in France and the US, have also offered encrypted analog terrestrial signals, available for subscription. Also, some providers offer channels owned by the same company in a single package. For example, American satellite provider DirecTV offers the Encore channels along with the Starz! channels in its "Starz Super Pack"; [1] and The Movie Channel, Flix and The Sundance Channel along with Showtime in its "Showtime Unlimited" package. [2] HBO in turn almost always packages Cinemax and its sister networks with HBO.

The subscription television concept was invented by Zenith Radio Corporation and originally introduced in 1951 as Phonevision.[3]

Unlike other cable networks, premium services are almost always subscribed to a la carte, meaning that one can, for example, subscribe to HBO without subscribing to Showtime (In Canada, there are slight modifications, as most providers include U.S. superstations with their main premium package by default). However, subscribing to an "individual" service automatically includes access to all of that service's available multiplex channels and, in some cases, access to content via video-on-demand. Also in Canada, HBO Canada is included in two separate packages: The Movie Network package, as well as the Movie Central package (as the two services are split to serve Western Canada and Eastern Canada, respectively).

Most premium channels air unedited, commercial-free movies, as well as sporting events and original shows. Most premium channels also air ratings bumpers before each program, containing the film/episode rating (this does not apply to live sporting events), since the mid-1980s, additional features included in the program such as closed captioning and whether the program is broadcast in stereo and since the 1990s in the United States, content descriptors that describe what is included in the program (such as "MV" for mild violence, "SSC" for strong sexual content, etc.).

Contents

Price

Pay television channels come in different price ranges. Many channels carrying advertising combine this income with a lower subscription fee. These are called "mini-pay" channels and are often sold as a part of a package with numerous similarly priced channels. Sometimes, the channels are also sold "à la carte", allowing consumers to select which channels they subscribe to.

There are also premium television services which have a significantly higher price than the mini-pay channels, but they compensate for their higher price by carrying little or no advertising and also providing a higher quality output.

As advertising sales are sensitive to the business cycle, some broadcasters try to balance them with more stable income from subscriptions.

1948 - Cable TV began as Community Access Television (CATV) in Pennsylvania by John Walson to provide television signals to people in the mountains who bought sets from his appliance store in Mahanoy City, charging $100 per hookup and $2 per month.

Distribution

Pay television has become popular with cable and satellite television.

There have also been some subscription services on analogue terrestrial television; but free-to-air television has always dominated, and scrambled services have been. Canal+ has operated a national pay channel in the French terrestrial network since 1984 and will do so until the closedown of analogue television. Spanish Canal+ did also broadcast nationally between 1990-2005. Some US stations launched services such SuperTV, Wometco, Prism, Preview, SelecTV and ON-TV in the late '70s, but those services disappeared as they couldn't handle the competition from cable television.

In some countries, the launch of digital terrestrial television has meant that pay television has become increasingly popular in countries with regular antennas.

The major distributors of pay television in Australia are Foxtel, Optus Television, Austar and Transact, all of which provide cable services in some metropolitan areas, and satellite for regional areas of the country.

Most pay TV services now offer multiplex packages, in which the service offers several channels of programming rather than just one.

Ambiguities

Pay-per-view

Pay-per-view (PPV) services are similar to subscription-based pay TV services in that customers must pay to have the broadcast decrypted for viewing, but usually only entail a one-time payment for a single or time-limited viewing. Programs offered via pay-per-view are most often movies or sporting events, but may also include other events, such as concerts.

Free-to-view

"Free" variants are free-to-air (FTA) and free-to-view (FTV); however FTV services are normally encrypted and decryption cards either come as part of an initial subscription to a pay TV bouquet or can be purchased for a one-time cost.

Selective access of free content

  • FTA and FTV systems may still have selective access. ABC Asia-Pacific is one example. This channel's content is free-to-air but NRL games are encrypted.

Partial list of premium services

References

See also


Simple English

Pay television or premium television are subscription-based television services. They are found mainly on digital or satellite television. Some parts of the world, like France and the US, have also offered encrypted analogue terrestrial signals, available if you pay a subscription.








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