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Peak District
National Park of England
Peak District entrance stone on Hathersage Road, Sheffield
Country England
Counties Derbyshire, Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire
Highest point
 - location Kinder Scout, Derbyshire
 - elevation 2,087 ft (636 m) [1]
Area 555 sq mi (1,437 km2) [2]
Population 38,100 (2000) [2]
Geology Gritstone, Limestone
Founded 1951
Management National Park Authority
For public Most areas open to the public
Visitation 22 million (2006) [3]
Timezone GMT (UTC±0)
 - summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Peak District National Park (shaded bright green) within England
Wikimedia Commons: Peak District
Website: www.peakdistrict.gov.uk

The Peak District is an upland area in central and northern England, lying mainly in northern Derbyshire, but also covering parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire, and South and West Yorkshire.

Most of the area falls within the Peak District National Park, whose designation in 1951 made it the first national park in the British Isles.[4] An area of great diversity, it is conventionally split into the northern Dark Peak, where most of the moorland is found and whose geology is gritstone, and the southern White Peak, where most of the population lives and where the geology is mainly limestone-based. Proximity to the major cities of Manchester and Sheffield and the counties of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Greater Manchester, Cheshire and Staffordshire coupled with easy access by road and rail, have all contributed to its popularity. With an estimated 22 million visitors per year, the Peak District is thought to be the second most-visited national park in the world (after the Mount Fuji National Park in Japan).[3][5]

Contents

Geography

The Peak District forms the southern end of the Pennines and much of the area is uplands above 1,000 feet (300 m), with a high point on Kinder Scout of 2,087 feet (636 m).[1] Despite its name, the landscape lacks sharp peaks, being characterised by rounded hills and gritstone escarpments (the "edges"). The area is surrounded by major conurbations, including Huddersfield, Manchester, Sheffield, Derby and Stoke-on-Trent.

The National Park covers 555 square miles (1,440 km2)[2] of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, Greater Manchester and South and West Yorkshire, including the majority of the area commonly referred to as the Peak. Its northern limits lie along the A62 road between Marsden and Meltham, north west of Oldham, while its southern most point is on the A52 road on the outskirts of Ashbourne in Derbyshire. The Park boundaries were drawn to exclude large built-up areas and industrial sites from the park; in particular, the town of Buxton and the adjacent quarries are located at the end of the Peak Dale corridor, surrounded on three sides by the Park. The town of Bakewell and numerous villages are, however, included within the boundaries, as is much of the (non-industrial) west of Sheffield. As of 2009, it is the fourth largest National Park in England and Wales.[6] In the UK, the designation "National Park" means that there are planning restrictions to protect the area from inappropriate development and a Park Authority to look after it, but does not imply that the land is owned by the government, nor that it is uninhabited.

High Peak panorama between Hayfield and Chinley

12% of the Peak District National Park is owned by the National Trust, a charity which aims to conserve historic and natural landscapes. It does not receive government funding.[7] The three Trust estates (High Peak, South Peak and Longshaw) include the ecologically or geologically significant areas of Bleaklow, Derwent Edge, Hope Woodlands, Kinder Scout, Leek and Manifold, Mam Tor, Dovedale, Milldale and Winnats Pass.[8][9][10] The Peak District National Park Authority directly owns around 5%, and other major landowners include several water companies.[11]

Geology

Much of the Peak District, and its adjacent areas, approximate to the structure of an eroded dome (see the image below). The Carboniferous Coal Measures lie just outside the district, especially on the eastern side. Below the Coal Measures are the shales and sandstones of the Millstone Grit. The grit forms the moorland of the Dark Peak, and also extends in two ridges southwards on the west and east sides of the district. The shales occur at the base of the grit.

A cross section of the Peak District, from west to east, showing the approximate structure of an eroded dome
Thor's Cave seen from the Manifold Way

Between the two gritstone ridges, the underlying early Carboniferous limestone is at the surface, forming the centre of the dome. This is the White Peak. After the Carboniferous period, the whole region saw massive earth movements, raising and folding the rocks in the area. The folding was not even, as the rocks in the west were folded more than in the east. The region was raised in a north–south line which resulted in this dome-like shape[12] and the shale and sandstone were worn away until limestone was exposed. At the end of this period, the Earth's crust sank here which led to the area being covered by sea, depositing a variety of new rocks.[13]

The covering of the sea meant that the limestone often cracked under the pressures and molten rock, often rich in minerals, was forced into the fissures. As the molten rock slowly cooled, the minerals crystallised resulting in mineral veins and rakes which have been mined for lead since Roman times.[13]

The Peak District was over-run by ice during at least one of the ice ages of the last 2 million years (probably the Anglian glaciation of around 450,000 years ago) as evidenced by the patches of glacial till or boulder clay which can be found across the area. It was not however covered by ice during the last Devensian glaciation which peaked around 20 - 22,000 years ago. However a mix of Irish Sea and Lake District ice did butt up against its western margins. Glacial meltwaters eroded a complex of sinuious channels along this margin of the Peak District during this period.[14] Glacial meltwaters also contributed to the formation and development of many of the caves in the limestone area.[15] Wild animal herds roamed the area, and their remains have been found in several of the local caves.[13]

The different types of rock that lie beneath the soil strongly influence the landscape; they determine the type of vegetation that will grow, and ultimately the type of animal that will inhabit the area.[16] Limestone has fissures and is soluble in water, therefore rivers have been able to carve deep, narrow valleys. These rivers then often find a route underground, creating caverns. Millstone Grit on the other hand is insoluble but porous, so it absorbs water which often seeps through the grits, until it meets the less porous shales beneath, creating springs when it reaches the surface again. The shales are friable and easily attacked by frost, so they form areas which are vulnerable to landsides, as on Mam Tor.[12]

Rivers

The high moorland plateau of the Dark Peak, and the high ridges of the White Peak are the sources of many rivers, which have been the Peak District's principal asset. In a report for the Manchester Corporation, the engineer John Frederick Bateman wrote in 1846:

Within ten or twelve miles of Manchester, and six or seven miles from the existing reservoirs at Gorton, there is this tract of mountain land abounding with springs of the purest quality. Its physical and geological features offer such peculiar features for the collection, storage and supply of water for the use of the towns in the plains below that I am surprised that they have been overlooked.

He was referring to Longdendale, and the upper valley of the River Etherow. The western side of the Peak District is drained by the rivers Etherow, Goyt, and Tame, which are tributaries of the River Mersey. The north east is drained by tributaries of the River Don, itself a tributary of the Yorkshire Ouse. Of the tributaries of the River Trent, that drain the south and east, the River Derwent is the most prominent. It rises in the Peak District on Bleaklow just east of Glossop and flows through the Upper Derwent Valley with its three reservoirs, the Howden Reservoir, Derwent Reservoir and Ladybower Reservoir. The River Noe and the River Wye are tributaries.[18] The River Manifold[19] and River Dove[20], rivers of the south west, whose sources are on Axe Edge Moor also flow into the Trent, while the River Dane[21] flows into the River Weaver.

Ecology

The gritstone and shale of the Dark Peak supports heather moorland and blanket bog environments, with rough sheep pasture and grouse shooting being the main land uses. The limestone plateaux of the White Peak are more intensively farmed, with mainly dairy usage of improved pastures. Some sources also recognise the South West Peak (near Macclesfield) as a third type of area, with intermediate characteristics.[22]

Woodland forms around 8% of the Peak National Park.[11] Natural broad-leaved woodland is found in the steep-sided, narrow dales of the White Peak and the deep cloughs of the Dark Peak, while reservoir margins often have coniferous plantations.

Lead rakes, the spoil heaps of ancient mines, form another distinctive habitat in the White Peak, supporting a range of rare metallophyte plants, including Spring Sandwort (Minuartia verna; also known as leadwort), Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) and Mountain Pansy (Viola lutea).[23]

Climate

With the majority of the area being in excess of 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level,[24] and being situated to the west of the country with a latitude of 53 degrees, the Peak District experiences a relatively high amount of rainfall each year compared to the rest of England and Wales, averaging 40.35 inches (1,025 mm) in 1999. The Dark Peak tends to receive more rainfall each year in comparison to the White Peak as it is higher in altitude. This higher rainfall however, does not seem to affect the areas temperature, as it averages out at the same as England and Wales at 10.3 °C (50.5 °F).[25] During the 1970s, the Dark Peak regularly recorded over 70 days of snowfall each year. Since then though, this number has decreased markedly, possibly due to climate change caused by global warming. Despite this, frost cover is still seen for 20-30% of the winter on the moors of the Dark Peak but for only 10% on the White Peak.[26]

The Moorland Indicators of Climate Change Initiative was set up in 2008 to collect data on climate change in the area. Students investigated the interaction between people and the moorlands, and their overall effect on climate change to discover whether the moorlands are a net carbon sink or source, based on the fact that upland areas of Britain are a significant global carbon store in the form of peat. Human interaction in terms of direct erosion and fire as well as the effects of global warming are the major variables that they considered.[27]

Economy

People filling up bottles with water at St Ann's Well, Buxton

Tourism is the major local employment for Park residents (24%), with manufacturing industries (19%) and quarrying (12%) also being important; only 12% are employed in agriculture.[28] The cement works at Hope is the largest single employer within the Park.[29] Tourism is estimated to provide 500 full-time jobs, 350 part-time jobs and 100 seasonal jobs.[30]

Limestone is the most important mineral quarried, mainly for roads and cement; shale is extracted for cement at Hope, and several gritstone quarries are worked for housing.[29] Lead mining is no longer economic, but fluorite, baryte and calcite are extracted from lead veins, and small-scale Blue John mining occurs at Castleton.

The springs at Buxton and Ashbourne are exploited to produce bottled mineral water, and many of the plantations are managed for timber. Other manufacturing industries of the area are varied; they include David Mellor's cutlery factory in Hathersage, Ferodo brake linings in Chapel-en-le-Frith and electronic equipment in Castleton. There are approximately 2,700 farms in the National Park, most of them under 40 hectares (99 acres) in area. 60% of farms are believed to be run on a part-time basis where the farmer has a second job.[30]

History

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Early history

View of the Edale valley from Mam Tor

The Peak District has been inhabited from the earliest periods of human activity, as is evidenced by occasional finds of Mesolithic flint artefacts and by palaeoenvironmental evidence from caves in Dovedale and elsewhere. There is also evidence of Neolithic activity, including some monumental earthworks or barrows (burial mounds) such as that at Margery Hill.[31] In the Bronze Age the area was well populated and farmed, and evidence of these people survives in henges such as Arbor Low near Youlgreave, or the Nine Ladies Stone Circle at Stanton Moor. In the same period, and on into the Iron Age, a number of significant hillforts such as that at Mam Tor were created. Roman occupation was sparse but the Romans certainly exploited the rich mineral veins of the area, exporting lead from the Buxton area along well-used routes. There were Roman settlements, including one at Buxton which was known to them as "Aquae Arnemetiae" in recognition of its spring,[32] dedicated to the local goddess.

Theories as to the derivation of the Peak District name include the idea that it came from the Pecsaetan or peaklanders, an Anglo-Saxon tribe who inhabited the central and northern parts of the area from the 6th century AD when it fell within the large Anglian kingdom of Mercia.[33]

Mining and quarrying

In medieval and early modern times the land was mainly agricultural, as it still is today, with sheep farming, rather than arable, the main activity in these upland holdings. However, from the 16th century onwards the mineral and geological wealth of the Peak became increasingly significant. Not only lead, but also coal, fluorite, copper (at Ecton), zinc, iron, manganese and silver have all been mined here.[34] Celia Fiennes, describing her journey through the Peak in 1697, wrote of

...those craggy hills whose bowells are full of mines of all kinds off black and white and veined marbles, and some have mines of copper, others tinn and leaden mines, in w[hi]ch is a great deale of silver.

Coal measures occur on the western and the eastern fringes of the Peak District, and evidence of past workings can be found from Glossop down to The Roaches, and from Stocksbridge to Baslow. Mining started in medieval times and was at its most productive in the 18th and early 19th centuries and in some cases continuing into the early 20th century. The earliest mining took place at and close to outcrops and miners eventually followed the seams deeper underground as the beds dipped beneath hillsides. At Goyt’s Moss and Axe Edge, deep seams were worked and steam engines raised the coal and dewatered the mines.[36] Coal from the eastern mines was used in lead smelting, and coal from the western mines for lime burning.[37]

Lead mining peaked in the 17th and 18th centuries; high concentrations of lead have been found in the area dating back from this period, as well as discovering peat on Kinder Scout suggesting that lead smelting occurred.[38] Lead mining began to decline from the mid-19th century, with the last major mine closing in 1939, though lead remains a by-product of fluorite, baryte and calcite mining.[23] Not all mines were deep underground; Bell pits were a cheap and easy way at getting at an ore that lay close to the surface of flat land. A shaft was sunk into the ore and enlarged at the bottom for extraction. The pit was then enlarged further until it became unsafe or worked out, then another pit would be sunk adjacent to the existing one.[38]

Fluorite or fluorspar is called Blue John in the Peak District, the name allegedly coming from the French Bleu et Jaune which describes the colour of the bandings. Blue John is now scarce, and only a few hundred kilograms are mined each year for ornamental and lapidary use. The Blue John Cavern in Castleton is a show cave; mining still takes place in the nearby Treak Cliff Cavern.[39]

Industrial limestone quarrying for the manufacture of soda ash started in the Buxton area as early as 1874. In 1926 this operation became part of ICI.[40] Large-scale limestone and gritstone quarries flourished as lead mining declined, and remain an important if contentious industry in the Peak. Twelve large limestone quarries operate in the Peak; Tunstead near Buxton is one of the largest quarries in Europe.[41] Total limestone output was substantial. At the 1990 peak, 8.5 million tonnes was quarried.[29]

Introduction of textiles

Textiles have been exported from the Peak for hundreds of years. Even as early as the 1300s, the area traded in unprocessed wool.[42] There was a number of skilled hand spinners and weavers in the area. By the 1780s, inventors such as Richard Arkwright developed machinery to produce textiles more quickly and to a higher standard. The early mills were narrow and low in height, of light construction, powered by water wheels and containing small machines. Interior lighting was by daylight, and ceiling height was only 6–8 ft. These Arkwright type mills are about 9 feet (2.7 m) wide.[43] The Peak District was the ideal location, with its rivers and humid atmosphere. The local pool of labour was quickly exhaused and the new mills such as Litton Mill and Cressbrook Mill in Millers Dale brought in children as young as four from the workhouses of London as apprentices.[44]

With the advance of technology, the narrow Derbyshire valleys became unsuited to the larger steam driven mill, but the Derbyshire mills remained, and continued to trade in finishing and niche products. The market town of Glossop benefitted from the textile industry. The town's economy was linked closely with a spinning and weaving tradition which had evolved from developments in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Until World War I, Glossop had the headquarters of the largest textile printworks in the world. In the 1920s, the firm was refloated on the easily available share capital; thus it was victim of the stockmarket crash. Their product lines becoming vulnerable to the new economic conditions, and resulted in the industry's decline.[45]

Waterways

The streams of the Peak District have been dammed to provide headwater for numerous water driven mills, weirs have been built across the rivers for the same purpose. Though there is no canal within the National Park boundary, waters from the Dark Peak fed the Ashton Canal, and Huddersfield Narrow Canal. Waters from the White Peak fed the Macclesfield Canal. The Peak Forest Canal was built to bring lime from the quarries at Dove Holes for the construction industry. The canal terminated at Bugsworth and the journey was completed using the Peak Forest Tramway.

The large reservoirs along the Longdendale valley known as the Longdendale Chain were designed in the 1840s and completed in February 1877. They provided compensation water to ensure a continuous flow along the River Etherow which was essential for local industry, and provided pure water for Manchester.[17] The Upper Derwent Valley reservoirs were built from the mid 20th century onward to supply drinking water to the East Midlands and South Yorkshire.

Development of tourism

The area has been a tourist destination for centuries, with an early tourist description of the area, De Mirabilibus Pecci or The Seven Wonders of the Peak by Thomas Hobbes, being published in 1636.[46] Much scorn was poured on these seven wonders by subsequent visitors, including the journalist Daniel Defoe who described the moors by Chatsworth as "a waste and houling wilderness" and was particularly contemptuous of the cavern near Castleton known as the 'Devil's Arse' or Peak Cavern.[47] Visitor numbers did not increase significantly until the Victorian era, with railway construction providing ease of access and a growing cultural appreciation of the Picturesque and Romantic. Guides such as John Mawe's Mineralogy of Derbyshire (1802)[48] and William Adam's Gem of the Peak (1843)[49] generated interest in the area's unique geology.

Buxton has a long history as a spa town due to its geothermal spring which rises at a constant temperature of 28°C. It was initially developed by the Romans around AD 78, when the settlement was known as Aquae Arnemetiae, or the spa of the goddess of the grove. It is known that Bess of Hardwick and her husband the Earl of Shrewsbury, "took the waters" at Buxton in 1569, and brought Mary, Queen of Scots there in 1573.[50] The town largely grew in importance in the late 18th century when it was developed by the 5th Duke of Devonshire in style of the spa of Bath. A second resurgence a century later attracted the eminent Victorians such as Dr. Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood,[51] who were drawn by the reputed healing properties of the waters. The railway reached Buxton in 1863.[52] Buxton has many notable buildings such as 'The Crescent' (1780–1784), modelled on Bath's Royal Crescent, by John Carr, 'The Devonshire' (1780–1789), 'The Natural Baths', and 'The Pump Room' by Henry Currey. The Pavilion Gardens were opened in 1871.[50] Buxton Opera House was designed by Frank Matcham in 1903 and is the highest opera house in the country. Matcham was the theatrical architect who designed the London Palladium, the London Coliseum, and the Hackney Empire.

There is a great tradition of public access and outdoor recreation in the area. The Peak District formed a natural hinterland and rural escape for the populations of industrial Manchester and Sheffield, and remains a valuable leisure resource in a largely post-industrial economy.

Modern history

The Kinder Trespass in 1932 was a landmark in the campaign for national parks and open access to moorland in Britain. At the time, such open moors were closed to all; they were strongly identified with the game-keeping interests of landed gentry who used them only 12 days a year.[53] The Peak District National Park became the United Kingdom's first national park on 17 April 1951. The first Long distance footpath in the United Kingdom was the Pennine Way, which starts at the Nags Head Inn, in Grindsbook Booth, part of Edale village.

The northern moors of Saddleworth and Wessenden, above Meltham, gained notoriety in the 1960s as the burial site of several children murdered by Ian Brady and Myra Hindley.[54]

Transport

History

The first roads in the Peak were constructed by the Romans, although they may have followed existing tracks. The Roman network is thought to have linked the settlements and forts of Aquae Arnemetiae (Buxton), Chesterfield, Ardotalia (Glossop) and Navio (Brough and Shatton), and extended outwards to Danum (Doncaster), Manucium (Manchester) and Derventio (Little Chester, near Derby).[55] Parts of the modern A515 and A53 roads south of Buxton are believed to run along Roman roads.

Packhorse routes criss-crossed the Peak in the Medieval era, and some paved causeways are believed to date from this period, such as the Long Causeway along Stanage Edge. However, no highways were marked on Christopher Saxton's map of Derbyshire, published in 1579.[56] Bridge-building improved the transport network; a surviving early example is the three-arched gritstone bridge over the River Derwent at Baslow, which dates from 1608 and has an adjacent toll-shelter.[57] Although the introduction of turnpike roads (toll roads) from 1731[58] reduced journey times, the journey from Sheffield to Manchester in 1800 still took 16 hours, prompting Samuel Taylor Coleridge to remark that "a tortoise could outgallop us!"[59] From around 1815 onwards, turnpike roads both increased in length and improved in quality. An example is the Snake Pass, which now forms part of the A57, built under the direction of Thomas Telford in 1819–21; the name refers to the crest of the Duke of Devonshire.[59] The Cromford Canal opened in 1794, carrying coal, lead and iron ore to the Erewash Canal.

Totley Tunnel on the Manchester to Sheffield line

Within several years, the improved roads and the Cromford Canal both saw competition from new railways, with work on the first railway in the Peak commencing in 1825.[59] Although the Cromford and High Peak Railway (from the Cromford Canal at High Peak Junction to Whaley Bridge) was an industrial railway, passenger services soon followed, including the Woodhead Line (Sheffield to Manchester via Longdendale) and the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway. Not everyone regarded the railways as an improvement:

You enterprised a railroad through the valley, you blasted its rocks away, heaped thousands of tons of shale into its lovely stream. The valley is gone, and the gods with it; and now, every fool in Buxton can be at Bakewell in half-an-hour, and every fool in Bakewell at Buxton.

By the second half of the 20th century, the pendulum had swung back towards road transport. The Cromford Canal[60] was largely abandoned in 1944, and several of the rail lines passing through the Peak were closed as uneconomic in the 1960s as part of the Beeching Axe. The Woodhead Line was closed between Hadfield and Penistone; parts of the trackbed are now used for the Trans Pennine Trail, the stretch between Hadfield and Woodhead being known specifically as the Longdendale Trail.[61] The Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway is now closed between Rowsley and Buxton where the trackbed forms part of the Monsal Trail.[62] The Cromford and High Peak Railway is now completely shut, with part of the trackbed open to the public as the High Peak Trail.[63] Another disused rail line between Buxton and Ashbourne now forms the Tissington Trail[64]

Road network

The main roads through the Peak District are the A57 (Snake Pass) between Sheffield and Manchester, the A628 (Woodhead Pass) between Barnsley and Manchester via Longdendale, the A6 from Derby to Manchester via Buxton, and the Cat and Fiddle road from Macclesfield to Buxton. These major roads, together with other minor roads and lanes in the area, are attractive to drivers, but the Peak's popularity makes road congestion and the availability of parking spaces a significant problem, especially during summer, and led to the proposal of a congestion charge in 2005, but this was later rejected.[65]

Public transport

The Peak District is readily accessible by public transport, which reaches even central areas. Train services into the area are along the Hope Valley Line from Sheffield and Manchester, the Derwent Valley Line from Derby to Matlock, and the Buxton Line and Glossop Line linking those towns to Manchester. Coach (long-distance bus) services provide access to Matlock, Bakewell and Buxton from Derby, Nottingham and Manchester through National Express, and there are regular buses from the nearby towns of Sheffield, Glossop, Stoke, Leek and Chesterfield. The nearest airport is Manchester.[66]

For such a rural area, the smaller villages of the Peak are relatively well served by internal transport links. There are many minibuses operating from the main towns (Bakewell, Matlock, Hathersage, Castleton, Tideswell and Ashbourne) out to the small villages. The Hope Valley and Buxton Line trains also serve many local stations (including Hathersage, Hope and Edale).[67]

The National Park Authority announced, in October 2009, that Cycle England will be investing £1.25 million, to be spent by 2011, to build and improve cycle routes within the National Park for use by leisure and commuting cyclists.[68] It is hoped that this investment will help reduce traffic congestion and environmental pollution, as well as giving commuters and visitors a viable alternative to travelling around the National Park by car.

Activities

Paragliding from Mam Tor

The Peak District provides opportunities for many types of outdoor activity. An extensive network of public footpaths and numerous long-distance trails, over 1,800 miles (2,900 km) in total,[69] as well as large open-access areas, are available for hillwalking and hiking. Bridleways are commonly used by mountain bikers, as well as horse riders. Some of the long-distance trails, such as the Tissington Trail and High Peak Trail, re-use former railway lines; they are well used by walkers, horse riders and cyclists.[64] The Park authorities run cycle hire centres at Ashbourne, Parsley Hay and Middleton Top. Wheelchair access is possible at several places on the former railway trails, and cycle hire centres offer vehicles adapted to wheelchair users.[64] There is a programme to make footpaths more accessible to less-agile walkers by replacing climbing stiles with walkers' gates.[70]

The many gritstone outcrops, such as Stanage Edge and The Roaches, are recognised as some of the finest rock climbing sites in the world[71] (see rock climbing in the Peak District); they were the first to be climbed. The Peak limestone was then discovered.[72] It is more unstable but provides many testing climbs. For example Thor's Cave was explored in the early 1950s by Joe Brown and others. Eleven limestone routes there are listed by the BMC, ranging in grade from Very Severe to E7, and several more have been claimed since the guidebook's publication; a few routes are bolted.[73]

Beneath the ground, the potholer enjoys natural caves, the potholes and old mine workings found in the limestone of the Peak. Peak Cavern is the largest and most important cave system which is even linked to the Speedwell system at Winnats. The only significant potholes are Eldon Hole and Nettle Pot. There are many old mine workings, which often were extensions of natural cave systems. Systems can be found at Castleton, Winnats, Matlock, Stoney Middleton, Eyam, Monyash and Buxton.[74]

Some of the area's large reservoirs, for example Carsington Water, have become centres for water sports, including sailing, fishing and canoeing, in this most landlocked part of the UK. Other activities include air sports such as hang gliding and paragliding, birdwatching, fell running, off-roading, and orienteering.[71]

Visitor attractions

The spa town of Buxton was developed by the Dukes of Devonshire as a genteel health resort in the eighteenth century; now the largest town in the Peak District, it has an opera house with a theatre, museum and art gallery.[75] Another spa town is Matlock Bath, popularised in the Victorian era. Bakewell is the largest settlement within the National Park; its five-arched bridge over the River Wye dates from the 13th century.[76] Buxton, Matlock and Matlock Bath, Bakewell, Leek and the small towns of Ashbourne and Wirksworth, on the fringes of the Park, all offer a range of tourist amenities.

Historic buildings include Chatsworth House, seat of the Dukes of Devonshire and among Britain's finest stately homes; the medieval Haddon Hall, seat of the Dukes of Rutland; Hardwick Hall, built by powerful Elizabethan Bess of Hardwick; and Lyme Park, an Elizabethan manor house transformed by an Italianate front. Many of the Peak's villages and towns have fine parish churches, with a particularly magnificent example being the fourteenth century Church of St John the Baptist at Tideswell, sometimes dubbed the 'Cathedral of the Peak'. 'Little John's Grave' can be seen in the Hathersage churchyard.

A well dressing at Hayfield

The picturesque village of Castleton, overshadowed by the Norman Peveril Castle, has four show caves, the Peak, Blue John, Treak Cliff, and Speedwell, and is the centre of production of the unique semi-precious mineral, Blue John.[77] Other show caves and mines include the Heights of Abraham, reached by cable car, at Matlock Bath, and Poole's Cavern in Buxton. The small village of Eyam is known for its self-imposed quarantine during the Black Death of 1665.[78]

The Mining Museum at Matlock Bath, which includes tours of the Temple Lead Mine, and the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site and Brindley Water Mill at Leek give insight into the Peak's industrial heritage. The preserved steam railway between Matlock and Rowsley, the National Tramway Museum at Crich and the Cromford Canal chart the area's transport history. The Life in a Lens Museum of Photography & Old Times in Matlock Bath presents the history of photography from 1839.

Well dressing ceremonies are held in most of the villages during the spring and summer months, in a tradition said to date from pagan times.[79] Other local customs include Castleton's annual Garland Festival and Ashbourne's Royal Shrovetide Football, played annually since the 12th century. Buxton hosts two opera festivals, the Buxton Festival and the International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival, as well as the Buxton Festival Fringe, and the Peak Literary Festival is held at various locations twice a year.

Peak District food specialities include the dessert Bakewell pudding, very different from the nationally available Bakewell tart, and the famous cheese Stilton, one of whose areas of production is the village of Hartington.

Conservation issues

Walkers above the Derwent Reservoir

The proximity of the Peak to major conurbations, an estimated 20 million people live within an hour's drive,[80] poses unique challenges to managing the area. The Peak Park Authority and the National Trust, with other landowners, attempt to balance keeping the upland landscape accessible to visitors for recreation, whilst protecting it from intensive farming, erosion and pressure from visitors themselves. An inevitable tension exists between the needs of the 38,000 residents of the Peak Park,[28] the many millions of people who visit it annually,[81] and the conservation requirements of the area.

The uneven distribution of visitors creates further stresses. Dovedale alone receives an estimated two million visitors annually;[9] other highly visited areas include Bakewell, Castleton and the Hope Valley, Chatsworth, Hartington and the reservoirs of the Upper Derwent Valley.[82] Over 60% of visits are concentrated in the period May–September, with Sunday being the busiest day.[82]

Footpath erosion

The number of footpath users on the more popular walking areas in the Peak District has contributed to serious erosion problems, particularly on the fragile peat moorlands of the Dark Peak. The recent use of some paths by mountain bikers is believed by some to have exacerbated an existing problem.[83] Measures taken to contain the damage have included the permanent diversion of the official route of the Pennine Way out of Edale, which now goes up Jacob's Ladder rather than following the Grindsbrook, and the diverting of expensive stone paving of many moorland footpaths.[84]

Quarrying

Large-scale limestone quarrying has been a particular area of contention. Most of the mineral extraction licences were issued by national government for 90 years in the 1950s, and remain legally binding. The Peak Park Authority has a policy of considering all new quarrying and licence renewal applications within the area of the National Park in terms of the local and national need for the mineral and the uniqueness of the source, in conjunction with the effects on traffic, local residents and the environment.[29] Some licenses have not been renewed; for example, the RMC Aggregates quarry at Eldon Hill was forced to close in 1999, and landscaping is ongoing.[85] The proposals dating from 1999 from Stancliffe Stone Ltd to re-open dormant gritstone quarries at Stanton Moor have been seen as a test case. They are hotly contested by ecological protesters and local residents on grounds that the development would threaten nearby Bronze Age remains, in particular the Nine Ladies Stone Circle, as well as the natural landscape locally.[81] As of 2007, negotiations are ongoing to shift the development to the nearby Dale View quarry, a less sensitive area.[86]

Peak District in literature and arts

The landscapes of the Peak have formed an inspiration to writers for centuries. Various places in the Peak District have been identified by Ralph Elliott and others as locations in the 14th century poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight; Lud's Church for example, is thought to be the Green Chapel.[87]

Chatsworth House - The setting for a recent adaptation of Pride and Prejudice

Key scenes in Jane Austen's 1813 novel Pride and Prejudice are set in the Derbyshire Peak District.[88] Peveril of the Peak (1823) by Sir Walter Scott is a historical novel set at Peveril Castle, Castleton during the reign of Charles II.[89][90] William Wordsworth was a frequent visitor to Matlock; the Peak inspired several of his poems, including an 1830 sonnet to Chatsworth House.[91] The village of Morton in Charlotte Brontë's 1847 novel Jane Eyre is based on Hathersage, where Brontë stayed in 1845, and Thornfield Hall might have been inspired by nearby North Lees Hall.[92][93] Snowfield in George Eliot's first novel Adam Bede (1859) is believed to be based on Wirksworth, where her uncle managed a mill; Ellastone (as Hayslope) and Ashbourne (as Oakbourne) are also featured.[91]

Beatrix Potter, the author of Peter Rabbit, used to visit her uncle Edmund Potter at his printworks in Dinting Vale. She used cloth patterns from his Pattern Sample book to dress her characters. Mrs Tiggywinkle's shawl, in The Tale of Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle, is based on pattern number 222714.[94]

Children's author Alison Uttley (1884–1976) was born at Cromford; her well-known novel, A Traveller in Time, set in Dethick, recounts the Babington Plot to free Mary, Queen of Scots from imprisonment.[95] Crichton Porteous (1901–91) set several books in specific locations in the Peak; Toad Hole, Lucky Columbell and Broken River, for example, are set in the Derwent Valley.[96] More recently, Geraldine Brooks's first novel, Year of Wonders (2001), blends fact and fiction to tell the story of the plague village of Eyam,[97] which also inspired Children of Winter by children's novelist, Berlie Doherty (b. 1943). Doherty has set several other works in the Peak, including Deep Secret, based on the drowning of the villages of Derwent and Ashopton by the Ladybower Reservoir, and Blue John, inspired by the Blue John Cavern at Castleton.[98]

Many works of crime and horror have been set in the Peak. The Terror of Blue John Gap by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) recounts terrible events at the Blue John mines,[99] and Sherlock Holmes investigates the kidnapping of a child in the region in The Adventure of the Priory School.[100] Many of the horror stories of local author Robert Murray Gilchrist (1878–1916) feature Peak settings.[91] More recently, Stephen Booth has written a series of crime novels set in various real and imagined Peak locations,[101] while In Pursuit of the Proper Sinner, an Inspector Lynley mystery by Elizabeth George, is set on the fictional Calder Moor.[102]

Ladybower Reservoir in the Upper Derwent Valley saw the filming of The Dam Busters

Other writers and poets who lived in or visited the Peak include Samuel Johnson, William Congreve, Anna Seward, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Lord Byron, Thomas Moore, Richard Furness, D. H. Lawrence, Richmal Crompton and Nat Gould.[91][95]

The landscapes and historic houses of the Peak are also popular settings for film and television. The classic 1955 film, The Dam Busters, was filmed at the Upper Derwent Valley reservoirs, where practice flights for the bombing raids on the Ruhr dams had been made during World War II.[103] In recent adaptations of Pride and Prejudice, Longnor has featured as Lambton, while Lyme Park and Chatsworth House have stood in for Pemberley.[104][105] Haddon Hall not only doubled as Thornfield Hall in two different adaptations of Jane Eyre, but has also appeared in several other films including Elizabeth, The Princess Bride and The Other Boleyn Girl.[106] The long-running television medical drama Peak Practice is set in the fictional village of Cardale in the Derbyshire Peak District; it was filmed in Crich, Matlock and other Peak locations.[107]

See also

References

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External links

Coordinates: 53°21′N 1°50′W / 53.35°N 1.833°W / 53.35; -1.833


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The Peak District [1] (also called "The Peak") is the name given to a picturesque upland area of the Midlands of England. There are no precise boundaries; the term comprises most rural areas and small towns which lie between (and are within easy reach of) Sheffield, Huddersfield, Leeds, Manchester, Stockport, Buxton, Congleton, Stoke-on-Trent, Derby, and Chesterfield. Popular activities in the area include hiking, visiting country houses, climbing and potholing.

"Peak Distict" is often used as shorthand for the Peak District National Park, a smaller area with defined boundaries and some special protection. The name of the district is thought to have come from an ancient tribe once resident in the area and the hills and moors of the area, although spectacular in their own way, are not classic "mountain peaks" as might be imagined from the name.

Understand

The Peak District is sometimes called the Derbyshire Peak District, but the area also covers parts of Greater Manchester, Staffordshire, Cheshire, West Yorkshire, and South Yorkshire.

The central and most rural area of the Peaks falls within the Peak District National Park, but the boundaries are not prominent (marked by roadside signs, but no barriers) and are irrelevant to most visitors: many well-known Peak villages and towns (e.g. Glossop, Buxton, Hayfield) are outside the Park. This was England's first national park and is still the most visited, largely because of its accessible location within reach of the large cities of Manchester and Leeds & Sheffield, in the Northwest, and Yorkshire. The Peak District National Park Authority provides public facilities (car parks, lavatories, visitor centres) and works to maintain the rural nature of the Park, without turning it into an open-air museum; however, most land is still owned by the traditional landlords, and (although public access is very good - see below) contains working farms and towns.

History

Landscape

The Peak District is mountainous. However, many hills are steep, with a few summits sufficiently prominent to warrant the description "peak". The name is a little obscure, but many sources including the National Park Authority's web site [2] refer to a local 7th-century Anglian tribe, the Peacsaetna ("Peak Dwellers").

The Peak District is traditionally split into two contrasting areas, essentially defined by their geology. The White Peak (Derbyshire Dales) is a limestone plateau of green fields with a rolling hills and many incised dales (areas around Ashbourne, Dovedale, Matlock, Bakewell, Longnor). The Dark Peak (or High Peak) is a series of higher, wilder and boggier gritstone plateaux (moorlands) and edges (areas north of Castleton and Hathersage).

High Peak and Derbyshire Dales are also names of local authority districts of Derbyshire.

Flora and fauna

The limestone dales of the White Peak are nationally famous for rare flora, including orchids (in flower spring and early summer) and the rare Jacob's Ladder.

The peaty gritstone moors of the Dark Peak support a more limited flora (largely heather, bilberry and sphagnum moss) and a specialist fauna. Heather moorland in the Dark Peak is maintained for the commercial shooting of Red Grouse (a subspecies of the Willow Grouse unique to the British Isles, which differs from its counterpart on the European mainland by not having a white winter plumage). Other specialist moorland bird species include Ring Ouzel, Golden Plover and Curlew. Mountain Hares were introduced to the Dark Peak in the 19th century and still remain on Bleaklow and Kinder Scout. A feral colony of Wallabies that survived for many years in the Roaches area of the Staffordshire Peak is probably now extinct, as is a remnant population of Black Grouse (though a reintroduction scheme is currently being attempted elsewhere in the Peak District).

Climate

The High Peak in particular can experience severe winter weather and walkers need to be suitably equipped because it is really cold. Cross-Pennine road routes (particularly the Manchester to Sheffield Snake and Woodhead passes) are quickly blocked by snow in winter weather.

Get in

There are several main roads crossing the Peak District, but even these (let alone the myriad smaller roads) can get very crowded on fine-weather weekends.

The main train stations are:

There are coach (long-distance bus) services to the main towns (Buxton, Bakewell, Matlock).

The bus services are better than most rural areas of England (there tend to be MORE buses on Sunday). The towns and bigger villages have a good daytime service from the nearest big towns and cities, and some buses to most of their nearest villages.

Fees/permits

Entry to the National Park is free. Most car parks charge a fee (roadside parking is difficult on some roads), and country houses (whether private, or owned by the National Trust) charge admission.

However:

  • The National Park is not owned by the state (it is basically an area with more stringent planning requirements).
  • The Peak District is criss-crossed by official footpaths which are free to walk, and bridlepaths which are also open to riders and cyclists. These are moderately well-signposted where they meet roads, but are easier to follow with an Ordnance Survey map.
  • Many of the wilder areas are designated Access Land, where access on foot is permitted free of charge (even off the footpaths, but subject to certain conditions and occasional closures).
  • Many popular areas are owned by the National Trust, who usually grant generous access to walkers (similar to, and usually designated as, Access Land).
  • The Chatsworth Estate allows similar generous access to walkers.
  • Bakewell (pretty riverside town and home of the famous Bakewell Pudding)
  • Buxton (Georgian spa town)
  • Castleton (show caves and a Norman castle)
  • Lyme Park (stately home and grounds - Pemberley in BBC Pride and Predjudice)
  • Chatsworth (famous stately home in impressive grounds - Austen's inspiration for Pemberley)
  • Haddon Hall (medieval manor house, gradually extended through the centuries)
  • Dovedale (attractive, though busy, limestone valley)
  • Eyam (attractive village with plague-related history)
  • High Peak and Tissington Trails (popular cycling routes on disused railways)
  • Kinder Scout (high gritstone plateau)
  • Manifold Valley (cycling opportunities and limestone scenery)
  • Matlock Bath (inland riverside resort with caves and visitor attractions)
  • The Roaches (walking and climbing area in the Staffordshire Peak District)
  • Stanage Edge (popular walking and climbing area, famous training ground for Brtish mountaineers)

Do

Hiking

The Peak District is a traditional destination for hikers and it has an important place in the early history of the British walking and rights-of-way movement.

A number of long-distance walking routes are wholly or partly within the Peak District:

  • The Pennine Way[3] (251 miles) begins at Edale and passes through the northern section of the Park on its journey to the Scottish border.
  • The Pennine Bridleway[4] (partially complete; 208 miles) has a similar route to the Pennine Way; the Peak section runs from Carsington Reservoir to Hayfield.
  • The Limestone Way [5] (50 miles) traverses the White Peak from Castleton to Matlock, Ashbourne and Rocester.
  • The Gritstone Trail [6] (35 miles) runs from Lyme Park to Kidsgrove, along the western edge of the Park.
  • The Midshires Way[7] (225 miles) starts in Stockport and runs southeastwards across the Peak District to Wirksworth then southwards through the Midlands to Buckinghamshire.
  • The central section of the Trans-Pennine Trail[8] (200 miles) crosses the Dark Peak via Longdendale (Woodhead Pass).

Keen walkers should invest in the Ordnance Survey 1:25000 Explorer sheets OL1 ("The Peak District – Dark Peak area") and/or OL24 ("The Peak District – White Peak area"). Between them these two sheets cover most of the National Park area and show public rights-of-way and Access Land (of which there is much in the Dark Peak). Most outdoor shops stock these and other maps, and there are large numbers of guidebooks with walking routes.

Potholing

Potholes are limited to the limestone White Peak and are concentrated around Castleton, Buxton, Matlock and Eyam. There are show caves in Castleton, Buxton and Matlock Bath; the more committed should make contact with the Derbyshire Caving Association [9]. Many caves are associated with old lead mines and are not for the inexperienced.

  • Brierlow Bar Bookstore, on the A515 south of Buxton, [10]. Stocks a good range of local-interest titles as well as a wide range of general-interest titles at bargain prices.
  • Jewellery made from Blue John (a purplish mineral unique to the Peak District) is available—at a price—in Castleton and elsewhere.

Eat

Several outlets in Bakewell serve the famous Bakewell Pudding (a dessert made with almonds and eggs). Locally reared Derbyshire Lamb is often available in pubs and restaurants; locally shot Grouse is much harder to find. Farmers' markets are held near Hartington and in Buxton. The (relatively expensive) Chatsworth Farm Shop at Pilsley serves a range of local and organic produce, some of it sourced from the Estate.

Drink

Peak District pubs are varied but often interesting.

  • A visit to the Three Stags' Heads at Wardlow Mires on the A623 between Chapel-en-le-Frith and Baslow is an interesting experience. This small roadside pub has an old-fashioned and plain (even scruffy), but cosy, interior, with open fires, good food, lurcher- and greyhound-related memorabilia and some robust country attitudes (which may not be to everyone's taste). The proprietors make a point of not serving draught lager.
  • Bolehill Farm Cottages (Peak District Cottages), Monyash Road Bakewell (2 miles from Bakewell), 01629 812359, [11]. checkin: 15:00; checkout: 10:00. Our eight peak district cottages are located in a courtyard setting surrounded by a spectacular rural landscape yet only 2 miles from the Peak District Market town of Bakewell from £180. (53.2023N,1.7192W) edit
  • Wheeldon Trees Farm (Peak District Cottages), Earl Sterndale (5 miles from Buxton), 01298 83219, [12]. checkin: 15:00; checkout: 10:00. 8 award winning 4* holiday cottages near Buxton, Bakewell in Derbyshire Peak District sleeping up to 28. Dog, pet, children, family, group friendly from £195. (53.1929,-1.8476) edit

Lodging

There are few hotels, though a few exist in larger towns; Peak District accommodation is largely in pubs and bed-and-breakfast establishments.

There is a good network of Youth Hostels: [13]

  • Alstonefield
  • Bakewell
  • Bretton
  • Castleton
  • Crowden
  • Dimmingsdale
  • Edale
  • Eyam
  • Gradbach Mill
  • Hartington
  • Hathersage
  • Ilam Hall
  • Langsett
  • Matlock
  • Meerbrook
  • Ravenstor
  • Shining Cliff
  • Youlgreave

though at least one of these (Langsett) is scheduled for closure.

Camping

Camping is expressly forbidden on most Access Land so should officially only be undertaken at designated campsites or with the permission of the landowner.

There are campsites at:

Stay safe

Peak District towns, villages, and footpaths are generally quiet and safe (or busy and safe on summer weekends). As with anywhere in England, towns and larger villages can get a little boisterous at pub closing time.

Apart from during severe winter weather, all but the most remote areas of the Peak District are relatively safe. But the Peak Sistrict has several Mountain Rescue Teams who are called out regularly to assist people who have got into difficulties either through unforseeable accidents or (all too often) through lack of preparation or becuase of wilfull disregard of the dangers. Those taking part in outdoor activities should be aware of the dangers and not exceed their abilities and experience. Cave and Mountain Rescue Teams can be contacted via the standard 999 emergency services number.

The most dangerous areas, even on apparently benign summer days are the peat plateaux which form the top of the highest peaks in the park, Kinder Scout, Bleaklow and Black Hill. The "old" Pennine Way route used to reach Kinder Downfall via Grindsbrook Clough and the Kinder Scout plateau, and many hikers still use this route, whether they are starting the Pennine Way or are on a day walk. After periods of heavy rains, the peat becomes completely waterlogged and turns into a dangerous bog, not unlike quicksand. There are no reports of hikers actually drowning in the bog, but there have been cases of lone hikers sinking too deeply to extricate themselves and dying from exposure.

The dangers are reduced significantly by following common sense: don't cross the plateaux alone ; don't assume that warm, dry weather with good visibility will last more than the next hour (you can't see the other side of the moor, so you don't know what weather is approaching) ; take waterproofs and spare warm clothing  ; let someone know your planned route, and stick to it ; make sure you have a compass and know how to use it. When mist or rain descends and distant summits disapper, the flat tops of the peat moors are very disorientating, with no close summits or other landmarks that can be matched to even a large-scale map. Climbing in and out of the peat "groughs" soon destroys the best "sense of direction" and without a compass it is almost impossible to avoid walking in circles.

The mountain rescue teams are volunteers who put their lives on the line - they should be regarded as a last lifeline for people who have genuinely unavoidable accidents not as a "fallback" to compensate for ignorance, foolhardiness, lack of fitness, bad planning, poor equipment, or "fashion" sportswear and footwear.

If you are planning to cross the Kinder plateau for the first time, you may be slighlty safer if you go on a Saturday, in the hope that there will be a string of other (possibly equally lost) hikers to follow.

Get out

This is a region of contrasts, with wild moorland, classic walking country which encompasses every kind of activity, from a gentle stroll to the lofty challenge of the Peaks themselves. The leafy lanes and quiet villages are ideal for that feeling of getting away from it all. With towns such as Buxton, with its wonderful architecture and cultural life, along with picturesque Bakewell and the attractions of Matlock, you’ll be spoiled for choice with places to stay and things to see and do.

From cosy farmhouses and welcoming guest houses to international hotels, you’ll find all the hospitality and comfort you need for a really memorable break. There’s plenty to see, such as breathtaking caverns where the precious Blue John stone is mined, the night-time spectacle of the Matlock Illuminations and a trip back in time at the Crich Tramway Village.

Many companies will run professional days out for parties, including Aspire Adventure Activities.

For a photographic panoramic tour of what the Peak District has to offer visit Peak District View.

This is a usable article. It has information about the park, for getting in, about a few attractions, and about accommodations in the park. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Peak District

Plural
-

Peak District

  1. A national park in northern England.

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