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Pears
European Pear branch with fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae or Spiraeoideae [1]
Tribe: Pyreae[1]
Genus: Pyrus
L.
Species

About 30 species; see text

The pear is a fruit tree of genus Pyrus (pronounced /ˈpaɪrəs/) and also the name of the tree's edible pomaceous fruit.[2] The pear is classified in subtribe Pyrinae within tribe Pyreae. The apple (Malus × domestica), which it resembles in floral structure, is also a member of this subcategory.

The English word “pear” is probably from Common West Germanic *pera, probably a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek api(r)os, which is likely of Semitic origin. The place name Perry can indicate the historical presence of pear trees. The term "pyriform" is sometimes used to describe something which is "pear-shaped".

Contents

History

Callery Pears in flower
Pear, "La France" (Japan)
Bartlett pears (European type) ready to pick
Pear blossoms
Another image of Pear blossoms
Clapps Favorite (a European type), perfect for picking

The cultivation of the pear in cool temperate climates extends to the remotest antiquity, and there is evidence of its use as a food since prehistoric times. Many traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings. The word “pear”, or its equivalent, occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found—a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic.

Pears grow in the sublime orchard of Alcinous, in Odyssey vii: "Therein grow trees, tall and luxuriant, pears and pomegranates and apple-trees with their bright fruit, and sweet figs, and luxuriant olives. Of these the fruit perishes not nor fails in winter or in summer, but lasts throughout the year."

The pear was cultivated also by the Romans, who did not eat them raw[citation needed]: Pliny's Natural History recommended stewing them with honey and noted three dozen varieties. The Roman cookbook attributed to Apicius, De re coquinaria, has a recipe for a spiced stewed-pear patina, or soufflé (IV.2.35). c A certain race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of perry (see also cider). Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their early ripening and apple-like fruit, may be referred to P. cordata, a species found wild in western France, and in Devonshire and Cornwall. Pears have been cultivated in China for approximately 3000 years. The genus is thought to have originated in present-day western China in the foothills of the Tian Shan, a mountain range of Central Asia, and to have spread to the north and south along mountain chains, evolving into a diverse group of over 20 widely recognized primary species[citation needed]. The enormous number of varieties of the cultivated European pear (Pyrus communis subsp. communis), are without doubt derived from one or two wild subspecies (P. communis subsp. pyraster and P. communis subsp. caucasica), widely distributed throughout Europe, and sometimes forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests. In England, where an ancient pear tree gave its name to[citation needed] Pirio (Perry Barr, a district of Birmingham) in Domesday, the pear is sometimes considered wild; there is always the doubt that it may not really be so, but the produce of some seed of a cultivated tree deposited by birds or otherwise, which has germinated as a wild-form spine-bearing tree. Court accounts of Henry III of England record pears shipped from Rochelle and presented to the King by the Sheriffs of London.[3] The French names of pears grown in English medieval gardens suggests that their reputation, at the least, was French; a favored variety in the accounts was named for Saint Rule or Regul', bishop of Senlis.[4]

Asian species with medium to large edible fruit include P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. × bretschneideri, P. × sinkiangensis, and P. pashia. Other small-fruited species are frequently used as rootstocks for the cultivated forms.

Botany

Pears are native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old World, from western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia. They are medium sized trees, reaching 10–17 m tall, often with a tall, narrow crown; a few species are shrubby. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 2–12 cm long, glossy green on some species, densely silvery-hairy in some others; leaf shape varies from broad oval to narrow lanceolate. Most pears are deciduous, but one or two species in southeast Asia are evergreen. Most are cold-hardy, withstanding temperatures between −25 °C and −40 °C in winter, except for the evergreen species, which only tolerate temperatures down to about −15 °C. The flowers are white, rarely tinted yellow or pink, 2–4 cm diameter, and have five petals.[5] Like that of the related apple, the pear fruit is a pome, in most wild species 1–4 cm diameter, but in some cultivated forms up to 18 cm long and 8 cm broad; the shape varies in most species from oblate or globose, to the classic pyriform 'pear-shape' of the European Pear with an elongated basal portion and a bulbous end.

The fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated. Enclosed within its cellular flesh is the true fruit: five cartilaginous carpels, known colloquially as the "core". From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens.

The pear is very similar to the apple in cultivation, propagation and pollination. The pear and the apple are also related to the quince.

Pears and apples cannot always be distinguished by the form of the fruit; some pears look very much like some apples. One major difference is that the flesh of pear fruit contains stone cells (also called "grit"). Pear trees and apple trees do have several visible differences. Another interesting difference is that apples, when placed carefully in water, will float; pears will sink.

There are about 30 primary species, major subspecies, and naturally occurring interspecific hybrids of pears[citation needed].

Major recognized taxa

Vicar of Winkfield pear, a heritage variety, no longer commonly found, British Columbia, Canada
  • Pyrus amygdaliformis—Almond-leafed Pear
  • Pyrus armeniacifolia
  • Pyrus boissieriana
  • Pyrus × bretschneideri—Chinese white pear; also classified as a subspecies of Pyrus pyrifolia
  • Pyrus calleryana—Callery Pear
  • Pyrus communis subsp. communis—European Pear (cultivars include Beurre d'Anjou, Bartlett and Beurre Bosc)
  • Pyrus communis subsp. caucasica (syn. P. caucasica)
  • Pyrus communis subsp. pyraster—Wild European Pear (syn. P. pyraster)
  • Pyrus cordata—Plymouth Pear
  • Pyrus cossonii—Algerian Pear
  • Pyrus dimorphophylla
  • Pyrus elaeagnifolia—Oleaster-leafed Pear
  • Pyrus fauriei
  • Pyrus gharbiana
  • Pyrus glabra
  • Pyrus hondoensis
  • Pyrus koehnei—Evergreen pear of southern China and Taiwan
  • Pyrus korshinskyi
  • Pyrus mamorensis
  • Pyrus nivalis—Snow Pear
  • Pyrus pashia—Afghan Pear
  • Pyrus ×phaeocarpa
  • Pyrus pseudopashia
  • Pyrus pyrifolia—Nashi Pear, Sha Li
  • Pyrus regelii
  • Pyrus salicifolia—Willow-leafed Pear
  • Pyrus × serrulata
  • Pyrus × sinkiangensis—thought to be an interspecific hybrid between P. ×bretschneideri and Pyrus communis
  • Pyrus syriaca
  • Pyrus ussuriensis—Siberian Pear
  • Pyrus xerophila

Cultivation

The pear may be readily raised by sowing the pips (seeds) of ordinary cultivated or of wilding kinds, these forming what are known as free or pear stocks, on which the choicer varieties are grafted for increase. For new varieties the flowers can be cross-bred to preserve or combine desirable traits. The fruit of the pear is produced on spurs, which appear on shoots more than one year old.[citation needed]

Three species account for the vast majority of edible fruit production, the European Pear Pyrus communis subsp. communis cultivated mainly in Europe and North America, the Chinese white pear (bai li) Pyrus ×bretschneideri, and the Nashi Pear Pyrus pyrifolia (also known as Asian Pear or Apple Pear), both grown mainly in eastern Asia. There are thousands of cultivars of these three species. A species grown in western China, P. sinkiangensis, and P. pashia, grown in southern China and south Asia, are also produced to a lesser degree.

Other species are used as rootstocks for European and Asian pears and as ornamental trees. The Siberian Pear, Pyrus ussuriensis (which produces unpalatable fruit) has been crossed with Pyrus communis to breed hardier pear cultivars. The Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Bradford') in particular has become widespread in North America and is used only as an ornamental tree. The Willow-leafed Pear (Pyrus salicifolia) is grown for its attractive slender, densely silvery-hairy leaves.

Harvest

Summer and autumn pears are gathered before they are fully ripe, while they are still green, but snap off when lifted. If left to ripen and turn yellow on the tree, the sugars will turn to starch crystals and the pear will have a gritty texture inside[citation needed]. In the case of the 'Passe Crassane', long the favored winter pear in France, the crop should be gathered at three different times, the first a fortnight or more before it is ripe, the second a week or ten days after that, and the third when fully ripe. The first gathering will come into eating last, and thus the season of the fruit may be considerably prolonged.

Diseases and pests

Production

Pear and quince output in 2005
Top ten pear producers — 11 June 2008
Country Production (tonnes) Footnote
 People's Republic of China 12625000 F
 Italy 840516
 United States 799180
 Spain 537400
 Argentina 520000 F
 South Korea 425000 F
 Turkey 349420
 Japan 325000 F
 South Africa 325000 F
 Netherlands 224000 F
World 20105683 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official, or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

Uses

Pear, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 242 kJ (58 kcal)
Carbohydrates 15.46 g
Sugars 9.80 g
Dietary fiber 3.1 g
Fat 0 g
Protein 0.38 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.012 mg (1%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.025 mg (2%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.157 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.048 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 0.028 mg (2%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 7 μg (2%)
Vitamin C 4.2 mg (7%)
Calcium 9 mg (1%)
Iron 0.17 mg (1%)
Magnesium 7 mg (2%)
Phosphorus 11 mg (2%)
Potassium 119 mg (3%)
Zinc 0.10 mg (1%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Pears are consumed fresh, canned, as juice, and dried. The juice can also be used in jellies and jams, usually in combination with other fruits or berries. Fermented pear juice is called perry or pear cider.

Pears ripen at room temperature. They will ripen faster if placed next to bananas in a fruit bowl. Refrigerate pears to slow further ripening. Pear Bureau Northwest offers tips on ripening and judging ripeness: While the skin on Bartlett pears changes from green to yellow as they ripen, most varieties show little color change as they ripen. Because pears ripen from the inside out, the best way to judge ripeness is to "Check the Neck." To Check the Neck for ripeness, apply gentle thumb pressure to the neck, or stem end of the pear. If it yields to gentle pressure, then the pear is ripe, sweet, and juicy. If it is firm, leave pear at room temperature and Check the Neck daily for ripeness. Source: Pear Bureau Northwest

Pear wood is one of the preferred materials in the manufacture of high-quality woodwind instruments and furniture. It is also used for wood carving, and as a firewood to produce aromatic smoke for smoking meat or tobacco.

The culinary or cooking pear is green but dry and hard and only edible after several hours of cooking. Two Dutch cultivars are "Gieser Wildeman" and "Saint Remy". They are traditionally stewed in wine with spices and served both warm and cold.[6]

Gieser Wildeman simmered in red wine.

Health benefits

Pears are an excellent source of dietary fiber and a good source of Vitamin C. According to the FDA's final rule dated July 25, 2006 "Food Labeling; Guidelines for Voluntary Nutrition Labeling of Raw Fruits, Vegetables, and Fish," the nutritional content of a medium-sized fresh pear weighing 166g/5.9oz is as follows:

Calories: 100
Calories from Fat: 0
Total Fat: 0g/0%
Saturated Fat: 0g/0%
Trans Fat: 0g/0%
Cholesterol: 0 mg/0%
Sodium: 0 mg/0%
Potassium: 190 mg/5%
Total Carbohydrate: 26 mg/9%
Dietary Fiber: 6g/24%
Sugars: 16g
Protein: 1g
Vitamin A: 0%
Vitamin C: 10%
Calcium: 2%
Iron: 0%

Pears are less allergenic than many other fruits, and pear juice is therefore sometimes used as the first juice introduced to infants.[7] However, caution is recommended for all fruit juice consumption by infants as studies have suggested a link between excessive fruit juice consumption and reduced nutrient intake as well as a tendency towards obesity.[8] Pears are low in salicylates and benzoates and are therefore recommended in exclusion diets for allergy sufferers[9]. Along with lamb and rice, pears may form part of the strictest exclusion diet for allergy sufferers[10] although allergies to these foods are possible[11][12][13].

Pears can be useful in treating inflammation of mucous membranes, colitis, chronic gallbladder disorders, arthritis, and gout. Pears can also be beneficial in lowering high blood pressure, controlling blood cholesterol levels, and increasing urine acidity. They are good for the lungs and the stomach.[citation needed]

Most of the fiber is insoluble, making pears a good laxative. The gritty fiber content may cut down on the number of cancerous colon polyps. Most of the vitamin C, as well as the dietary fiber, is contained within the skin of the fruit.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Potter, D.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R.C.; Oh, S.H.; Smedmark, J.E.E.; Morgan, D.R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K.R.; Arsenault, M.P.; Dickinson, T.A.; Campbell, C.S. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ Evelyn Cecil, A History of Gardening in England 2006:35ff
  4. ^ Cecil 2006.
  5. ^ ""Pear Fruit Facts Page Information", CE.CN". http://www.bouquetoffruits.com/fruit-facts/pear-facts.html. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  6. ^ Article with recipes on Dutch stewed pears http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/566/
  7. ^ "The wonder of pears". FreeDiets. http://www.freediets.com/fruits-vegetables/the-wonder-of-pears. 
  8. ^ P. Q. Samour, K. K. Helm, C. E. Lang (eds) 2003. Handbook of Pediatric Nutrition, second edition, Aspen Publishers, Inc, Gaithersburg, MD.
  9. ^ A. R. Gibson, R. L. Clancy, 1978. An Australian exclusion diet, The Medical Journal of Australia 1:290:292
  10. ^ A. Morris 2008 A Guide to Suspected Food Allergy, Surrey Allergy Clinic, U. K.
  11. ^ wrongdiagnosis.com, rice allergy
  12. ^ wrongdiagnosis.com, lamb allergy
  13. ^ wrongdiagnosis.com, pear allergy
  14. ^ Phyllis A. Balch, CNC/Prescription for dietary wellness.-2nd ed.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PEAR (Pyrus communis), a, member of the natural order Rosaceae, belonging to the same genus as the apple (P. malus), which it resembles in floral structure. In both cases the socalled fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit. From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens. The form of the pear and of the apple respectively, although usually characteristic enough, is not by itself sufficient to distinguish them, for there are pears which cannot by form alone be distinguished from apples, and apples which cannot by superficial appearance be recognized from pears. The main distinction is the occurrence in the tissue of the fruit, or beneath the rind, of clusters of cells filled with hard woody deposit in the case of the pear, constituting the "grit," while in the apple no such formation of woody cells takes place. The appearance of the tree - the bark, the foliage, the flowers - is, however, usually quite characteristic in the two species. Cultivated pears, whose number is enormous, are without doubt derived from one or two wild species widely distributed throughout Europe and western Asia, and sometimes forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests. In England, where the pear is sometimes considered wild, there is always the doubt that it may not really be so, but the produce of some seed of a cultivated tree deposited by birds or otherwise, which has degenerated into the wild spine-bearing tree known as Pyrus communis. The cultivation of the pear extends to the remotest antiquity. Traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings; it is mentioned in the oldest Greek writings, and was cultivated by the Romans. The word "pear" or its equivalent occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found - a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic. A certain race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of Perry (see Cider). Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their precocity and apple-like fruit, may be referred to P. cordate, a species found wild in western France, and in Devonshire and Cornwall.

Karl Koch considered that cultivated pears were the descendants of three species - P. persica (from which the bergamots have descended), P. elaeagrifolia and P. sinensis. J. Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis. With reference to the Celtic race, P. cordata, it is interesting to note its connexion with Arthurian legend and the Isle of Avalon or Isle of Apples. An island in Loch Awe has a Celtic legend containing the principal features of Arthurian story; but in this case the word is "berries" instead of "apples." Dr Phene visited Armorica (Brittany) with a view of investigating these matters, and brought thence fruits of a small berry-like pear, which were identified with the Pyrus cordata of western France.

Cultivation

The pear may be readily raised by sowing the pips of ordinary cultivated or of wilding kinds, these forming what are known as free or pear stocks, on which the choicer varieties are grafted for increase. For new varieties the flowers should be fertilized with a view to combine, in the seedlings which result from the union, the desirable qualities of the parents. The dwarf and pyramid trees, more usually planted in gardens, are obtained by grafting on the quince stock, the Portugal quince being the best; but this stock, from its surface-rooting habit, is most suitable for soils of a cold damp nature. The pear-stock, having an inclination to send its roots down deeper into the soil, is the best for light dry soils, as the plants are not then so likely to suffer in dry seasons. Some of the finer pears do not unite readily with the quince, and in this case double working is resorted to; that is to say, a vigorous-growing pear is first grafted on the quince, and then the choicer pear is grafted on the pear introduced as its foster parent.

In selecting young pear trees for walls or espaliers, some persons prefer plants one year old from the graft, but trees two or three years trained are equally good. The trees should be planted immediately before or after the fall of the leaf. The wall trees require to be planted from 25 to 30 ft. apart when on free stocks, and from 15 to 20 ft. when dwarfed. Where the trees are trained as pyramids or columns they may stand 8 or 10 ft. apart, but standards in orchards should be allowed at least 30 ft., and dwarf bush trees half that distance.

In the formation of the trees the same plan may be adopted as in the case of the apple. For the pear orchard a warm situation is very desirable, with a soil deep, substantial, and thoroughly drained. Any good free loam is suitable, but a calcareous loam is the best. Pear trees worked on the quince should have the stock covered up to its junction with the graft. This is effected by raising up a small mound of rich compost around it, a contrivance which induces the graft to emit roots into the surface soil.

and also keeps the stock from becoming hard or bark-bound. The fruit of the pear is produced on spurs, which appear on shoots more than one year old. The mode most commonly adopted of training wall pear-trees is the horizontal. For the slender twiggy sorts the fan form is to be preferred, while for strong growers the half-fan or the horizontal is more suitable. In the latter form old trees, the summer pruning of which has been neglected, are apt to acquire an undue projection from the wall and become scraggy, to avoid which a portion of the old spurs should be cut out annually.

The summer pruning of established wall or espalier-rail trees consists chiefly in the timely displacing, shortening back, or rubbing off of the superfluous shoots, so that the winter pruning, in horizontal training, is little more than adjusting the leading shoots and thinning out the spurs, which should be kept close to the wall and allowed to retain but two or at most three buds. In fan-training the subordinate branches must be regulated, the spurs thinned out, and the young laterals finally established in their places. When horizontal trees have fallen into disorder, the branches may be cut back to within 9 in. of the vertical stem and branch, and trained in afresh, or they may be grafted with other sorts, if a variety of kinds is wanted.

Summer and autumn pears should be gathered before they are fully ripe, otherwise they will not in general keep more than a few days. The Jargonelle should be allowed to remain on the tree and be pulled daily as wanted, the fruit from standard trees thus succeeding the produce of the wall trees. In the case of the Crassane the crop should be gathered at three different times, the first a fortnight or more before it is ripe, the second a week or ten days after that, and the third when fully ripe. The first gathering will come into eating latest, and thus the season of the fruit may be considerably prolonged. It is evident that the same method may be followed with other sorts which continue only a short time in a mature state.

Diseases

The pear is subject to several diseases caused by fungi. Gymnosporangium sabinae, one of the rusts (Uredineae) passes one stage of its life-history on living pear leaves, forming large raised spots or patches which are at first yellow but soon become red and are visible on both faces; on the lower face of each patch is a group of cluster-cups or aecidia containing spores which escape when ripe. This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium. The gelatinous, generally reddish-brown masses of spores - the teleutospores - formed on the juniper in the spring germinate and form minute spores - sporidia - which give rise to the aecidium stage on the pear. Diseased pear leaves should be picked off and destroyed before the spores are scattered and the various species of juniper on which the alternate stage is developed should not be allowed near the pear trees.

Pear scab is caused by a parasitic fungus, Fusicladium pyrinum, very closely allied and perhaps merely a form of the apple scab fungus, F. dendriticum. As in .` the case of the apple disease it forms large irregular blackish blotches on the fruit and leaves, the injury being often very severe especially in a cool, damp season. The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread. As a preventive repeated spraying with dilute Bordeaux mixture is recommended, during the flowering season and early development of the fruit. Similar spraying is recom- (From a specimen in the British Museum.) mended for pear-leaf blister Pear Scab (Fusicladium pyrinum). caused by Taphrina bullata, which forms swollen areas on 1, Leaf showing diseased areas. the leaves. Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests. Thus stalks (conidiophores) X250. the younger branches are often injured by the pearl oyster scale (Aspidiotus ostreaeformis), which may be removed by washing in winter with soft soap and hot water. A number of larvae of Lepidoptera feed on the leaves - the remedy is to capture the mature insects when possible. The winter moth (Cheimatobia brumata) must be kept in check by putting greasy bands round the trunks from October till December or January, to catch the wingless females that crawl up and deposit their eggs in the cracks and crevices in the bark. The caterpillars of the leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina) and of the goat moth (Cossus ligniperda) sometimes bore their way into the trunks and destroy the sap channels. If badly bored, the trees are useless; but in Pear-leaf Cluster-cups (Gymnosporangium sabinae). 1, Leaf showing groups of cups or aecidia. 2, Early stage of disease. 3, Cups enlarged X 5.

the early stages if the entrance of the caterpillars has been detected, a wire should be pushed into the hole. One of the worst pests of pear trees is the pear midge, known as Diplosis pyrivora or Cecidomyia nigra, the females of which lay their eggs in the flowerbuds before they open. The yellow maggots devour the seeds and thus ruin the crop. When deformed fruits are noticed they should be picked off and burned immediately. Species of aphides may be removed by tobacco infusion, soapsuds or other solutions. A gall mite (Phytoptus pyri) sometimes severely injures the leaves, on which it forms blisters - the best remedy is to cut off and burn the diseased leaves.

The Alligator or Avocado Pear is Persea gratissima, a member of the natural order Lauraceae, and a native of the West Indies and other parts of tropical America. It is a tree of 25 to 30 ft. high and bears large pear-shaped fruits, green or deep purple in colour, with a firm yellowish-green marrow-like pulp surrounding a large seed. The pulp is much esteemed in the West Indies and is eaten as a salad, usually with the addition of pepper, salt and vinegar. The pulp contains much oil, which is used for lighting and soap-making, and the seeds yield a deep indelible black stain which is used for marking linen.

Prickly pear is the popular name for species of Opuntia (see Cactus).

The name wooden pear is applied to the fruits of Xylomelum (nat. ord. Proteaceae), an Australian genus of trees with very thick, woody, inversely pear-shaped fruits which split into two parts when ripe.


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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


The pear is mentioned in the Talmud (see Löw, "Aramäische Pflanzennamen," p. 152). It does not seem to have been extensively cultivated. The Septuagint erroneously rendered απίον (= "pear") for "baka"-trees (1Chr 14:14).

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Simple English

Pear
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae
Genus: Pyrus
L.

Pear is a fruit that resembles a teardrop. Ripe pears have a flavor that is best when it is cool. They are juicy. Pears do not ripen well on trees. They can be soft in the center. It is harvested when it is fully ready to be picked. They can be baked, canned or frozen. They can be made into jams, jellies or juice. They can also be made into pies and put into salads or baby food. Pear trees grow on heavy soil. It is eighty three percent water. It has a green or red skin. The pear came from Europe, Africa and Asia.

Pears are in the subfamily Maloideae with apples. It is a subfamily of the family Rosaceae.

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