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Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Nitrariaceae
Genus: Peganum

See text.

Peganum L. is a genus under the recently separated family Nitrariaceae (Sheahan & Chase 1996). Formerly it used to be included in the family Zygophyllaceae.

The genus has five species, occurring in warm temperate to subtropical regions across the world:

  • Peganum harmala L. - Harmal, Esfand svanta, Haoma or Syrian Rue (Mediterranean region east to India)
  • Peganum mexicanum Gray (Mexico)
  • Peganum nigellastrum Bunge (China)
    • Canthin-6-one alkaloids:[1]
      • Luotonin C
      • Luotonin D
    • Phenylpropanoids:[1]
      • Dihydrosinapyl ferulate
      • Dihydroconiferyl ferulate
    • Aerial parts
    • Other alkaloids:[1]
      • Harmine
      • 3-phenylquinoline,
      • 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)quinoline and
      • 3-(1H-indol-3-yl)quinoline
  • Peganum rothschildianum F.Buxbaum (Tunisia)
  • Peganum texanum M.E.Jones (southern North America)


  • Sheahan, M. C. & Chase, M. W. (1996). A phylogenetic analysis of Zygophyllaceae R. Br. based on morphological anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 279-300

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