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Bellerophon riding Pegasus (1914)
.In Greek mythology, Pegasus (Greek: Πήγασος, Pégasos, 'strong') was a winged horse sired by Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and foaled by the Gorgon Medusa.^ POSEIDON was the god of the sea, the sources of fresh water, horses and earthquakes.
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [This is a myth from Libyan Mythology whose native gods were identified with their closest Greek counterparts - Athena and Poseidon].
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology .
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] He was the brother of Chrysaor, born at a single birthing. By extension, the term Pegasus (and the plural Pegasi) can also refer to any winged horse.

Contents

Etymology

The poet Hesiod connects the name Pegasus with the word for "spring, well", pēgē: "the pegai of Okeanos, where he was born;"[2] however, the name's origins may come from the word in the Luwian language: pihassas, meaning "lightning".

Pegasus and springs

Everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring spring burst forth. One of these springs was upon the Muses' Mount Helicon, the Hippocrene ("horse spring"),[3] opened, Antoninus Liberalis suggested,[4] at the behest of Poseidon to prevent the mountain swelling with rapture at the song of the Muses; another was at Troezen.[5] Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him. Hesiod also says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus.

Birth

Pegasus, as the horse of Muses, was put on the roof of Poznań Opera House (Max Littmann, 1910)
There are several versions of the birth of the winged stallion and his brother Chrysaor in the far distant place at the edge of Earth, Hesiod's "springs of Oceanus, which encircles the inhabited earth, where Perseus found Medusa:
.One is that they sprang from the blood issuing from Medusa's neck as Perseus was beheading her,[6] similar to the manner in which Athena was born from the head of Zeus.^ ATHENA The Goddess of Warcraft was, according to some, the daughter of Poseidon and Tritonis (contrary to the usual account in which she springs fully-grown from the head of Zeus).
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, fed by the Gorgon's blood. .A variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusa's blood and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making.^ They were sons of Poseidon and the sea-goddess Halia.
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

The last version bears resemblance to the birth of Aphrodite.
Pedigree of Pegasus
Sire
Poseidon
Cronos Ouranos Gaïa or Nyx
Gaïa or Nyx
Gaïa Chaos
Chaos
Rhea Ouranos Gaïa or Nyx
Gaïa or Nyx
Gaïa Chaos
Chaos
Dam
Medusa
Phorcys Pontos Ether or Ouranos
Gaïa
Gaïa Chaos
Chaos
Ceto Pontos Ether or Ouranos
Gaïa
Gaïa Chaos
Chaos

Bellerophon

Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in his fight against both the Chimera and the Amazons. There are varying tales as to how Bellerophon found Pegasus; the most common[7] says that the hero was told by Polyeidos to sleep in the temple of Athena, where the goddess visited him in the night and presented him with a golden bridle. The next morning, still clutching the bridle, he found Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring.[8] When the steed saw the bridle, he approached Bellerophon and allowed him to ride. .Bellerophon slew the Chimera on Pegasus' back, and then tried to ride the winged horse to the top of Mount Olympus to see the gods.^ PEGASOS An Immortal winged Horse owned by the hero Bellerophon.
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

However, Zeus sent down a gadfly to sting Pegasus and cause Bellerophon to fall.[9]

Perseus

Parthian era bronze plate depicting Pegasus ("Pegaz" in Persian), excavated in Masjed Soleyman, Khūzestān, Iran.
Michaud's Biographie universelle relates that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning is released. .Then, according to certain versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him to Perseus, who flew to Ethiopia to help Andromeda.^ AUGEIAS A King of Elis (in southern Greece) who was, according to some, a son of Poseidon (but other accounts make him a son of Helios, Phorbas or Poseidon's son Eleios).
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.In fact Pegasus is a late addition to the story of Perseus, who flew on his own with the sandals loaned him by Hermes.^ There is a story that this Kalkhinia mated with Poseidon; her child was reared by Leukippos, who at his death handed over to him the kingdom.
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

Olympus

Pegasus left Bellerophon and continued to Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus' other steeds

Catasterism

Because of his faithful service to Zeus, he was honored with transformation into a constellation.[11] .On the day of his catasterism, when Zeus transformed him into a constellation, a single feather fell to the earth near the city of Tarsus.^ According to some, he was a son of Poseidon and Larissa (though others call him a son of Zeus or Earth-Born).
  • FAMILY OF POSEIDON : Greek mythology 15 January 2010 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Legacy

World War II

Bellerophon on Pegasus spears the Chimera, on an Attic red-figure epinetron 425–420 BC
Pegasusflash.jpgThe divisional shoulder flash of British airborne forces

During World War II, the silhouetted image of Bellerophon the warrior, mounted on the winged Pegasus, was adopted by the United Kingdom's newly-raised parachute troops in 1941 as their upper sleeve insignia. The image clearly symbolized a warrior arriving at a battle by air, the same tactics used by paratroopers. The square upper-sleeve insignia comprised Bellerophon/Pegasus in light blue on a maroon background. The insignia was designed by famous English novelist Daphne du Maurier, who was married to the commander of the 1st Airborne Division (and later the expanded British Airborne Forces), General Frederick "Boy" Browning. The maroon background on the insignia was later used again by the Airborne Forces when they adopted the famous maroon beret in Summer 1942. The beret is often said to be the origin of the German nickname for British airborne troops, The Red Devils when in fact this nickname was not a reference to the colour of their headgear but was due to the red mud that the soldiers were covered in after heavy rain when fighting during operations in North Africa (Operation Husky). Today's Parachute Regiment carries on the maroon beret tradition.
During the airborne phase of the Normandy invasion on the night of 5–6 June 1944, British 6th Airborne Division captured all its key objectives in advance of the seaborne assault, including the capture and holding at all costs of a vital bridge over the Caen Canal, near Ouistreham. In memory of their tenacity, the bridge has been known ever since as Pegasus Bridge.

Corporate and commercial uses

Pegasus logo has been used for over 29 years, by Courier Company Pegasus Express Ltd, and is seen on all vehicles and trailers, and depots in Scotland/England.
Pegasus has been the symbol of the Mobil brand of gas and oil, marketed by the Exxon Mobil Corporation, since the 1930s and, more recently, FBR Capital Markets, an investment bank based in Arlington, Virginia.[13] As such, it has also been a symbol of Dallas, Texas, gracing its skyline atop the Magnolia building and in Pegasus Plaza.
The Poetry Foundation also uses Pegasus as its logo; the Buell Motorcycle Company uses Pegasus as a visual branding element. The former Pegaso truck maker from Spain derived its name and logo from Pegasus, although the logo portrayed a merely fast, wingless horse silhouette. Reader's Digest also has a Pegasus logo.
A Pegasus is the emblem of the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, which names its bar the Pegasus. Pegasus is the University of Exeter's Classics and Ancient History Departmental Journal. It has had many entries from notable Classicists as well as two articles from J. K. Rowling a former student of the University's Classics and Ancient History Department.[14]
The Taiwanese company Asus took its name from the creature, omitting the first three letters in order for the company to appear first in telephone listings.
Mascot of the Kentucky Derby Festival, a community celebration leading up to the Run for the Roses (aka: the Kentucky Derby) in Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
Turkish Pegasus Airlines uses word and emblem (amblem in Turkish) of pegasus.
PEGASYS (Hoffmann–La Roche) for the treatment of hepatitis C, is a once-a-week injection that works to reduce the amount of hepatitis C virus in the body.
Pegasus is known for being the mascot of TriStar Pictures.
Pegasus is the name of a medevac helicopter based at the University of Virginia Medical Center. Pegasus[15] transports critically injured patients within 120 NM (220 km; 140 mi) of Charlottesville, Virginia. The name was chosen because it was different from most other medevac programs, and there are stories of Pegasus carrying wounded soldiers from battle.[16]
Pegasus is also featured on the coat of arms of Robinson College, part of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The University of Strathclyde, in Glasgow Scotland, uses an online service called PEGASUS (Portal Engine Giving Access To Strathclyde University Systems)to provide its students with crucial information. Pegasus was chosen for the academic seal of the University of Central Florida, in 1963, by its first president, Dr. Charles Millican, who co-designed it.
A pegasus also appears in the turbines of all Air France aircrafts.
Nike Inc. has produced a brand of running shoe named the Air Pegasus 26.
Pegasus Mail is the name of an email client.
ASUSTeK Computer Inc. ASUS comes from the last four letters of Pegasus, the winged horse in Greek mythology that represents the inspiration of art and learning. ASUSTek believes their product embodies the strength, creative spirit and purity symbolized by this regal and agile mythical creature.[17]

Popular culture

The winged horse that has provided an instantly recognizable corporate logo or emblem of inspiration, has found many uses in market-driven popular culture.

Theatre

In the Broadway production of Xanadu, protagonist Kira rides on Pegasus to Mount Olympus during the number "Suspended in Time."

See also

References

  1. ^ Medusa, in her archaic centaur-like form, appears in the incised relief on a mid-seventh century BCE vase from Boeotia at the Louvre (CA795), illustrated in John Boardman, Jasper Griffin and Oswyn Murray, Greece and the Hellenistic World (Oxford University Press) 1988, fig p 87.
  2. ^ Noted by Karl Kerenyi, The Heroes of the Greeks, 1959:80: "In the name Pegasos itself the connection with a spring, pege, is expressed."
  3. ^ Pausanias, 9. 31. 3.
  4. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 9
  5. ^ Pausanias, 2. 31. 9.
  6. ^ Hesiod, Theogony281; Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 2. 42, et al. Harris, Stephen L. and Gloria Platzner. Classical Mythology: Images and Insights. 2nd ed. (New York: Mayfield Publishing), 1998. 234.
  7. ^ For example in Pindar, Olympian Ode 13.
  8. ^ The double fountain at Corinth; the connection with Pegasus is noted by Strabo (8.6.21) among many others.
  9. ^ Parallels are in the myths of Icarus and Phaëton.
  10. ^ Michaud, Joseph F. & Michaud, Louis G. (1833), Michaud Frères, ed. (in French), [http://books.google.fr/books?id=HGRIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA284&dq=P%C3%A9gase&lr=&as_brr=0 Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, ou Histoire, par ordre alphabétique, de la vie publique et privée de tous les hommes qui se sont fait remarquer par leurs écrits, leurs actions, leurs talents, leurs vertus ou leurs crimes], 5, http://books.google.fr/books?id=HGRIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA284&dq=P%C3%A9gase&lr=&as_brr=0, retrieved 23 June 2009 
  11. ^ Aratus, Phaenomena 206; Scott Littleton, Mythology. The Illustrated Anthology of World Myth & Storytelling London: Duncan Baird, 2002:147. ISBN 1-903296-37-4
  12. ^ Grimal, Pierre. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Trans. by A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1996. 349.
  13. ^ Pegasus - The Flying Horse
  14. ^ Pegasus
  15. ^ Pegasus
  16. ^ Pegasus - The Myth, The Name
  17. ^ http://usa.asus.com/ContentPage.aspx?Content_Type=AboutASUS&Content_Id=162

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Pegasus by Henry Head
1914-1918
From Destroyers and Other Verses (Oxford, 1919)

The wind is still; from far and wide the air
Resounds with Sabbath bells, calling to prayer
And from the vast, unfathomable blue
Hums a propeller’s penetrating drone.
We stand enchanted, and our eyes pursue
An aeroplane, that climbs the summer sky
To drift alone
On mountainous clouds of ever-virgin snow,
Suspended like a black-winged dragon-fly,
That turning gleams,
Dove-grey and silver in the morning beams;
Or like a dead leaf, loosened from a height,
Spins in its perilous flight.
We catch our breath like children at a show
Of martial arts and heroic deeds,
On every glittering incident intent,
Forgetting for a time terrestrial creeds
For joy that man now rides the firmament.
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain). Flag of the United States.svg

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Latin Pegasus, the mythical winged horse

Proper noun

Pegasus
  1. (zoology): A genus of small fishes, having large pectoral fins, and the body covered with hard, bony plates. Several species are known from the East Indies and China.

English

Pegasus and Bellerophon, from Mabie, Hamilton Wright (Ed.):Myths Every Child Should Know (1914) (1)

Etymology

From Latin < Ancient Greek Πήγασος (Pegasos) < πηγή (pege), spring, fount).

Proper noun

Singular
Pegasus
Plural
-
Pegasus
  1. (Greek mythology) A winged horse fabled to have sprung from the body of Medusa when she was slain. He is noted for causing, with a blow of his hoof, Hippocrene, the inspiring fountain of the Muses, to spring from Mount Helicon. Bellerophon rode Pegasus when he defeated the Chimaera.
  2. (astronomy) An autumn constellation of the northern sky, near the vernal equinoctial point, said to resemble the mythical horse. Its three brightest stars, with the brightest star of Andromeda, form the square of Pegasus. It contains the stars Markab and Algenib.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Finnish

Proper noun

Pegasus (stem Pegasu-*)
  1. (astronomy) The constellation Pegasus.

See also

  • Pegasos

Simple English

[[File:|256px|thumb|right|Bellerophon riding Pegasus]] Pegasus (Greek: Πήγασος, Pégasos, 'strong') is a flying horse with wings in Greek mythology. He is the son of Poseidon and the Gorgon Medusa.[1] In cartoons and other stories, Pegasus was said to be the horse of the legendary hero Hercules.

References

  1. Medusa, in her archaic centaur-like form, appears in the incised relief on a mid-seventh century BCE vase from Boeotia at the Louvre (CA795), illustrated in John Boardman, Jasper Griffin and Oswyn Murray, Greece and the Hellenistic World (Oxford University Press) 1988, fig p 87.
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Citable sentences

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