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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

County of Pembrokeshire Sir Benfro
WalesPembrokeshire.png
Geography
Area
- Total
- % Water
Ranked 5th
1,590 km²
? %
Admin HQ Haverfordwest
ISO 3166-2 GB-PEM
ONS code 00NS
Demographics
Population:
- (2007 est.)
- Density
 
Ranked 14th
117,900
Ranked 19th
74 / km²
Ethnicity 99.2% White
Welsh language
- Any skills
Ranked 8th
29.4%
Politics

Pembrokeshire Council
http://www.pembrokeshire.gov.uk/
Control Independent
MPs
AMs
MEPs Wales

Pembrokeshire (pronounced /ˈpɛmbrʊkʃɪər/, /ˈpɛmbrʊkʃər/, or /ˈpɛmbroʊkʃɪər/; Welsh: Sir Benfro) is a county in the southwest of Wales.

Contents

Geography

Pembroke Castle
Marloes peninsula

Pembrokeshire is a maritime county, bordered by the sea on three sides, by Ceredigion to the north east and by Carmarthenshire to the east. Its economy relies heavily on tourism, but agriculture is still important, and petrochemical and liquid natural gas industries have been developed on the banks of the Cleddau Estuary.

Its population was 114,131 at the United Kingdom Census 2001.

The administrative headquarters and historic county town is Haverfordwest and other settlements include Pembroke itself, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Fishguard, Tenby, Saundersfoot, Narberth, Neyland and Newport. St David's, in the North west of the county, is the United Kingdom's smallest city.

The highest point of the county is at Foel Cwmcerwyn (1759 ft/536 m).

The county has a coastline comprising important seabird breeding sites and numerous bays and sandy beaches. Pembrokeshire boasts a predominantly coastal National Park known as the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, of which includes a 186-mile walking trail known as the Pembrokeshire Coast Path. A large estuary and natural harbour at Milford Haven cuts deeply into the coast, formed by the confluence of the Western Cleddau (which goes through Haverfordwest), the Eastern Cleddau and rivers Cresswell and Carew. The estuary is bridged by the large Cleddau Bridge (toll bridge) which bears the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock; upstream bridges are found crossing the Cleddau at Haverfordwest and Canaston.

Large bays are Newport Bay, Fishguard Bay, St Bride's Bay and a portion of Carmarthen Bay. There are several small islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey Island, Grassholm Island, Skomer Island and Caldey Island.

In the north of the county are the Preseli Hills (Y Preselau), a wide stretch of high moorland with many prehistoric monuments and the source of the bluestones used in the construction of the inner circle of Stonehenge in England.

Elsewhere the county is relatively flat, most of the land being used for lowland farming of dairy cows, arable crops, oil seed rape, and the well-known Pembrokeshire Potato.

See the list of places in Pembrokeshire for villages, towns and the 'city' of St. David's in Pembrokeshire.

History

The county was founded as a county palatine in 1138 with Gilbert de Clare as the first Earl of Pembroke. It has long been split between its English-speaking south (known as "Little England beyond Wales") and its historically more Welsh-speaking north, along an imaginary line called the Landsker.

The Act of Union of 1536 divided the county into hundreds which followed with some modifications the lines of the ancient subdivision into cantrefs, which went back to before the Norman conquest. The 1536 hundreds were (clockwise from the north-east): Cilgerran or Kilgerran, Cemais or Kemes, Dewisland or Dewsland, Roose, Castlemartin, Narbeth and Dungleddy or Daugleddau. The Genuki web pages on Pembrokeshire include a list of the parishes within each hundred.

Media

Narberth is home to Radio Pembrokeshire, Radio Carmarthenshire and Scarlet FM broadcasting to 100,000 listeners every week.[1]

A new voluntary media organisation called Cleddau Community Media began in Pembroke Dock in 2004. Since then the company has broadcast three community radio pilot broadcasts from custom built studios in Llanreath under the name Cleddau FM.

There are five local newspapers based in Pembrokeshire. The most widely read is the Western Telegraph (part of the Newsquest group).

The independent website, PembrokeshireSport.co.uk [1], provides in-depth reports of the county’s vibrant sporting scene.

Pembrokeshire news and community information can be found on the My Pembrokeshire website [2].

The artists Gwen John and her brother Augustus were both born in Pembrokeshire. Graham Sutherland painted locally between 1934 and 1936, gaining inspiration from the landscape.

Transport

The main towns in the county are well served with bus and train services, but those living in more rural parts have little or no access to public transportation.

There are no motorways in Pembrokeshire. There are currently demands for the A40 from St. Clears to Haverfordwest to be made fully dual carriageway. The road is used heavily by traffic from the ferry port in Fishguard which then follows the A40 south to Haverfordwest and then meets the dual carriageway at St. Clears.[2]

The nearest motorway to the county town of Haverfordwest is the M4 which terminates at Pont Abraham in Carmarthenshire, some 46 miles (74 km) to the east.

The A477 which runs from St. Clears to the port of Pembroke Dock is 24 miles (39 km) long, of which only 2 miles (3.2 km) are part-dual carriageway. This road is heavily used by businesses and tourists visiting Pembrokeshire and improvements to the road have been made in recent years.

The Cleddau Bridge connects South Pembrokeshire with North Pembrokeshire across the Cleddau Estuary.

There are three branch railway lines- terminating at Fishguard, Pembroke Dock and Milford Haven. The latter two have 2-hourly services but the Fishguard branch has only 2 services each day, timed to meet the ferries to Ireland

Haverfordwest (Withybush) airport provides general aviation services.

Industry

Tourism

The main industry in Pembrokeshire is tourism. Tenby, Saundersfoot and the surrounding areas attract the most visitors.

Oil and gas

The banks of the Cleddau Estuary are dominated by the oil and gas industry with two oil refineries, two large liquified natural gas (LNG) terminals and a large National Grid switching centre. A gas-fired power station has been proposed for the site of the old oil-fired Pembroke Power Station which closed in 1997 and was subsequently demolished in 2000. The two oil refineries in Pembrokeshire are:

  • Chevron (formerly Texaco): 214,000 bpd (barrels per day) and
  • Murco (formerly Amoco/Elf): 108,000 bbl/d (17,200 m3/d)

There was a third (Esso) refinery that operated from 1960-1983. The LNG terminals on the north side of the river, just outside Milford Haven are now complete, and opened in 2008. A completed but controversial pipeline runs through many rural farms and country sides. The LNG Terminals will supply around 40% of the UK with gas once completed.

Agriculture

Pembrokeshire's mild climate means that crops such as its famous new potatoes often arrive in British shops earlier in the year than produce from other parts of the UK. As well as arable crops such as potatoes, the other main agricultural activities are dairy farming of cattle for milk and cheese, sheep farming, beef production and some other arable crops, such as rapeseed. Falling farm incomes have led to diversification into other novel farming and tourism related activities. From 1,700 km² of land, about 1,260 (74%) are used by agriculture. The majority of this land (60%) is down to permanent grassland and 26% is arable. Farm revenues are less than the UK average, but agriculture still provides 7,000 jobs.

The former large sea fishing industry around Milford Haven is now greatly reduced, although limited commercial fishing still takes place.

In 2009 The Pembrokeshire Tea Co started the establishment of a tea plantation in Pembrokeshire, making use of its mild micro climate. This is Wales' first tea plantation and has been covered widely by BBC Radio Wales See: http://www.pembrokeshiretea.co.uk/Tea/Our_blog/Entries/2009/9/15_Interview_now_on_iplayer.html

Flag

UnofficialFlagofPembrokeshire.svg

The flag of Pembrokeshire consists of a yellow cross on a blue field. In the centre of the cross is a green pentagon bearing a red and white Tudor rose. The rose is divided quarterly and counterchanged: the inner and outer roses have alternating red and white quarters.[3][4]

On television and film

Pembrokeshire is a popular location for filming locations. The following is a list of movies and television programmes filmed in Pembrokeshire:

Local government

Under the Local Government Act 1888, an elected county council was set up to take over the functions of the Pembrokeshire Quarter Sessions. This, and the administrative county of Pembrokeshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, with Pembrokeshire forming two districts of the new county of Dyfed: South Pembrokeshire and Preseli - the split being made at the request of local authorities in the area.[5] In 1996, under the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, the county of Dyfed was broken up into its constituent parts, and Pembrokeshire has been a unitary authority.

Places of interest

Geography

Visitor attractions

Historical places

Beaches

References

External links

Further reading

  • James, J. Ivor, Molleston Baptist Church-Reflections on the Founders' Tercentenary, V.G. Lodwick & Sons Ltd., Carmarthen, copyright 1968.

Coordinates: 51°50′42″N 4°50′32″W / 51.845°N 4.84222°W / 51.845; -4.84222


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Pembrokeshire [1] is the westernmost county in South Wales bording Carmarthenshire to the east and Ceredigion to the northeast.

Map of Pembrokeshire
Map of Pembrokeshire
  • Caldey, [2].
  • Ramsey
  • Skomer
  • Skokholm
  • St Catherines

Get in

By boat

Ferries from Pembroke Dock and Fishguard connect the area with Ireland.

By train

The main line from Cardiff and Swansea passes through Carmarthen on the way to Haverfordwest and Fishguard.

Get around

There is a bus service linking Haverfordwest, St Davids and Fishguard, but most travellers will drive, cycle or walk.

  • St. David's Cathedral
  • Pentre Ifan standing stones [3]. A megalithic burial chamber dating from around 4000 B.C. Located near Fishguard.
  • Oakwood Theme Park [4]
  • Blue Lagoon Water Park [5]
  • Walk the Pembrokeshire coastal path
  • Bluestone, Bluestone Leisure Ltd, The Grange, Canaston Wood, Narberth, Pembrokeshire SA67 8DE, +44(01834) 862 400, [6]. a holiday village situated in the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. It offers 5 star accommodation in a number of luxury lodges  edit
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PEMBROKESHIRE (Sir Benfro, Dyfed), the most westerly county of South Wales, bounded N.E. by Cardigan, E. by Carmarthen, S. by the Bristol Channel and W. and N.W. by St Bride's Bay and Cardigan Bay of St George's Channel, Area 615 sq. m. The whole coast is extremely indented, extending over 140 m. in length. The principal inlets are Milford Haven, St Bride's Bay, Freshwater Bay, Fishguard Bay and Newport Bay. The chief promontories are Cemmaes, Dinas, Scrumble, St David's, St Ann's and St Gowan's Heads. Five islands of moderate size lie off the coast, viz. Ramsey, Grassholm, Skomer and Skokholm in St Bride's Bay, and Caldy Island (Ynys Pyr) opposite Tenby; the last named having a population of about 70 persons. Rare birds, such as peregrine falcons, ravens and choughs are not uncommon, while guillemots, puffins and other sea-fowl breed in immense numbers on the Stack Rocks, on Ramsey Island and at various points of the coast. Seals are plentiful in the caves of St Bride's Bay and Cardigan Bay. The county is undulating, and large tracts are bare, but the valleys of the Cleddau, the Nevern, the Teifi and the Gwaun are well-wooded. The Preselley Mountains stretch from Fishguard to the border of Carmarthen, the principal heights being Preselley Top (1760 ft.) and Cam Englyn (1022 ft.). Treffgarn Rock in the Plumstone Mountains is popularly supposed to mark the northern limit of the ancient settlement of the Flemings. The principal rivers are the Teifi, forming the northern boundary of the county from Abercych to Cardigan Bay; the Nevern and the Gwaun, both falling into Cardigan Bay; and the Eastern and Western Cleddau, forming the Daugleddau after their junction below Haverfordwest. All these streams contain trout and salmon. There are no lakes, but the broad tidal estuaries of the Daugleddau and other rivers, which fall into Milford Haven and are locally called "pills," constitute a peculiar feature of south Pembrokeshire scenery.

Table of contents

Geology

Pembrokeshire is divisible into a northern portion occupied mainly by Ordovician and Silurian strata, which have been subjected to pressures from the north, the strike of the beds being south-west-north-east; and a southern portion, the westerly continuation of the South Wales coalfield, with associated Lower Carboniferous, Old Red Sandstone and narrow belts of Silurian rocks, the whole having been considerably folded and faulted by pressure from the south, which has produced a general north-westsouth-east strike. In the neighbourhood of St Davids are the PreCambrian granitic rocks (Dimetian) and volcanic rocks (Pebedian). These are surrounded by belts of unconformable Cambrian strata (Lingula Flags, Tremadoc beds), followed by Ordovician (Arenig, Llandeilo and Bala beds) with associated igneous rocks. These comprise gabbros and diabases of Strumble Head, Fishguard, Llanwnda, Prescelly; diorites north-west of St Davids, bostonites and porphyrites about Abercastle and the basaltic laccolite of Pen Caer, besides various contemporaneous acid lavas and tuffs. The Ordovician and Silurian rocks extend southward to the neighbourhood of Narberth and Haverfordwest, where Arenig, Llandeilo and Bala beds (Slade and Red Hill beds; Sholeshook and Robeston Walthen Limestone) and Llandovery beds are recorded. The Coal Measures, highly inclined and anthracitic, stretch across from Carmarthen Bay to the shore of St Bride's Bay; they are bordered on the north and south-east by the Millstone Grits, Carboniferous Limestone series and Old Red Sandstone. On account of the folding the limestone appears again farther south at Pembroke, Caldy Island and St Gowan's Head; most of the remaining ground about Milford Haven being occupied by Old Red Sandstone with infolded strips of Silurian. A fairly large tract of blown-sand occurs in Freshwater Bay south of Milford Haven. Silver-bearing lead has been mined at Llanfyrnach.

Climate and Industries

The climate is everywhere mild, and in the sheltered valleys near the coast sub-tropical vegetation flourishes in the open air. In the south the rainfall is small, and the districts round Pembroke suffer from occasional droughts. The chief industry is agriculture, wherein stock-raising is preferred to the growing of cereals. Of cattle the long-horned,. jet-black Castlemartin breed is everywhere conspicuous. South Pembroke has long been celebrated for its horses, which are bred in great numbers by the farmers. The deep-sea fisheries of Tenby and Milford are valuable; and fresh fish of good quality is exported by rail to the large towns. Oysters are found at Langwm and near Tenby; lobsters and crabs abound on the western coast. The South Wales coalfield extends into south Pembroke, and coal is worked at Saundersfoot, Begelly, Templeton, Kilgetty and other places. There are slate quarries at Glogue, Cilgerran and elsewhere; copper has been worked near St Davids, and lead at Llanfyrnach.

Communications

The South Wales branch of the Great Western railway enters Pembrokeshire from the east near Clynderwen Junction, whence the main line leads to Fishguard Harbour with its important Irish traffic. Other lines proceed to Neyland and Milford Haven by way of Haverfordwest, and a branch line from Clynderwen to Goodwick joins the main line at Letterston. Fhe Whitland-Cardigan branch traverses the north-east by way of Crymmych and Cilgerran. Another line running south-west from Whitland proceeds by way of Narberth and Tenby to Pembroke Dock.

Population and Administration

The area of Pembrokeshire is 395,151 acres with a population in 1891 of 89,138 and 1901 of 88,732, showing a slight decrease. The municipal boroughs are Pembroke (pop. 15,853); Haverfordwest (6007); and Tenby (4400). The hamlet of Bridgend and a part of St Dogmell's parish are included within the municipal limits of Cardigan. Newport (Trefdraeth) (1222), the chief town of the barony of Kemes, or Cemmaes, still possesses a mayor and corporation under a charter granted in 1215 by Sir Nicholas Marteine, lord of Kemes, whose hereditary representative still nominates the mayor and aldermen, but its surviving municipal privileges are practically honorary. Milford Haven (5102), Narberth (1070) and Fishguard (2002) are urban districts. Other towns are St Davids (1710), St Dogmells (Liandudoch) (1286); and Cilgerran (1038). Pembrokeshire lies in the South Wales circuit, and assizes are held at Haverfordwest. Two members are returned to parliament; one for the county, and one for the united boroughs of Pembroke, Haverfordwest, Tenby, Fishguard, Narberth, Neyland, Milford and Wiston (Castell Gwys). Ecclesiastically, the county contains 153 parishes and lies wholly in the diocese of St Davids.

History

Pembrokeshire, anciently known to the Welsh as Dyfed, was originally comprised in the territory of the Dimetae, conquered by the Romans. During the 6th century St David, or Dewi Sant, moved the chief seat of South Welsh monastic and ecclesiastical life from Caerleon-on-Usk to his native place Menevia, which, known in consequence as Tyddewi, or St Davids, continued a centre of religious and educational activity until the Reformation, a period of l000 years. On the death of Rhodri Mawr in 877, Dyfed fell nominally under the sway of the princes of Deheubarth, or South Wales; but their hold was never very secure, nor were they able to protect the coast towns from the Scandinavian pirates. In 1081 William the Conqueror penetrated west as far as St Davids, where he is said to have visited St David's shrine as a devout pilgrim. In 1092 Arnulf de Montgomeri, son of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, did homage to the king for the Welsh lands of Dyfed. With the building of Pembroke Castle, of which Gerald de Windsor was appointed castellan, the Normans began to spread over southern Dyfed; whilst Martin de Tours, landing in Fishguard Bay and building the castle of Newport at Trefdraeth, won for himself the extensive lordship of Kemes (Cemmaes) between the river Teifi and the Preselley Mountains. The systematic planting of Flemish settlers in the hundred of Rhos, or Roose, in or about the years 1106, 1108 and 111 r with the approval of Henry I., and again in 1156 under Henry II., marks an all-important episode in the history of Pembrokeshire. The castles of Haverfordwest and Tenby were now erected to protect these aliens, and despite the fierce attacks of the Welsh princes their domain grew to be known as "Little England beyond Wales," a district whereof the language, customs and people still remain characteristic. In 1138 Gilbert de Clare, having previously obtained Henry I.'s permission to enjoy all lands he might win for himself in Wales, was created earl of Pembroke in Stephen's reign with the full powers of an earl palatine in Dyfed. The devolution of this earldom is dealt with in a separate article.

In 1536, by the Act of Union (27 Henry VIII.), the king abolished all special jurisdiction in Pembrokeshire, which he placed on an equal footing with the remaining shires of Wales, while its borders were enlarged by the addition of Kemes, Dewisland and other outlying lordships. By the act of 1536 the county returned to parliament one knight for the shire and two burgesses; one for the Pembroke boroughs and one for the town and county of Haverfordwest, both of which since 1885 have been merged in the Pembroke-and-Haverfordwest parliamentary division. The Reformation deprived the county of the presence of the bishops of St Davids, who on the partial dismantling of the old episcopal palace at St Davids removed their chief seat of residence to Abergwiliy, near Carmarthen. Meanwhile the manor of Lamphey was granted to the family of Devereux, earls of Essex, and other episcopal estates were alienated to court favourites, notably to Sir John Perrot of Haroldstone (1517-1592), afterwards lord-deputy of Ireland. During the Civil Wars the forces of the parliament, commanded by Colonel Laugharne and Captain Swanley, reduced the royal forts at Tenby, Milford and Haverfordwest. In February 1797 some French frigates appeared off Fishguard Bay and landed about 1400 Frenchmen at Llanwnda. The invaders soon capitulated to the local militia, practically without striking a blow. The 19th century saw the establishment of the naval dockyard at Paterchurch and the building of docks and quays at Neyland and Milford. In 1906 extensive works for crosstraffic with Ireland were opened at Fishguard Harbour.

Many of the old Pembrokeshire families, whose names appear prominent in the county annals, are extinct in the county itself. Amongst these may be mentioned Perrot of Haroldstone, Devereux of Lamphey, Barlow of Slebech, Barrett of Gilliswick, Wogan of Wiston, Elliot of Amroth and Owen of Henllys. Amongst ancient families still existing are Philipps of Lydstep and Amroth (descendants of the old Welsh lords of Cilsant); Philipps of Picton Castle (a branch of the same house in the female line); Lort of Stackpole Court, now represented by Earl Cawdor; Scourfield of Moate; Bowen of Llwyngwair; Edwardes, Lords Kensington, of St Brides; Meyrick of Bush; Lort-Philipps of Lawrenny; Colby of Ffynone; Stokes of Cuffern; Lloyd of Newport Castle (in which family is vested the hereditary lordship of the barony of Kemes); Saunders-Davies of Pentre; and Gower of Castle Malgwyn.

Antiquities

There are few remaining traces in the county of the Roman occupation of Dimetia, but in British encampments, tumuli, cromlechs and monumental stones Pembrokeshire is singularly rich. Of the cromlechs the best preserved are those at Longhouse, near Mathry; at Pentre Evan in the Nevern Valley; and at Llech-y-dribedd, near Moylgrove; whilst of the many stone circles and alignments, that known as Pare-y-Marw, or "The Field of the Dead," near Fishguard, is the least injured. Stones inscribed in Ogam characters are not uncommon, and good examples exist at Caldy Island, Bridell, St Dogmells and Cilgerran. There are good specimens of Celtic floriated churchyard crosses at Carew, Penally and Nevern. Interesting examples of medieval domestic architecture are the ruins of the former episcopal mansions at Llawhaden, St Davids and Lamphey, the two latter of which were erected by Bishop Gower between the years 1328-1347. With the exception of the cathedral at St Davids and the principal churches of Haverfordwest and Tenby, the parish churches of Pembrokeshire are for the most part small, but many are ancient and possess fine monuments or other objects of interest, especially in "Little England beyond Wales." Amongst the more noteworthy are the churches at Stackpole Elidur, Carew, Burton, Gumfreston, Nevern, St Petrox and Rudbaxton, the last-named containing a fine Jacobean monument of the Hayward family. Pembrokeshire has long been famous for its castles, of which the finest examples are to be observed at Pembroke; Manorbier, built in the 12th century and interesting as the birthplace and home of Giraldus Cambrensis; Carew, exhibiting many interesting features both of Norman and Tudor architecture; and Picton, owned and inhabited by a branch of the Philipps family. Other castles are the keep of Haverfordwest and the ruined fortresses at Narberth, Tenby, Newport, Wiston, Benton, Upton and Cilgerran. There are some remains of monastic houses at Tenby and Pembroke, but the most important religious communities were the priory of the Augustinian friars at Haverfordwest and the abbey of the Benedictines at St Dogmells. Of this latter house, which was founded by Martin de Tours, first lord of Kemes, at the close of the 11th century, and who owned the priories of Pill and Caldy, considerable ruins exist near the left bank of the Teifi about 1 m. below Cardigan. Of the ancient preceptory of the Knights of St John at Slebech scarcely a trace remains, but of the college of St Mary at St Davids founded by Bishop Houghton in 1377, the shell of the chapel survives in fair preservation. Pembrokeshire contains an unusually large number of county seats, particularly in the south, which includes Stackpole Court, the residence of Earl Cawdor, a fine mansion erected in the 18th century; Picton Castle; Slebech, once the seat of the Barlows; Orielton, formerly belonging to the Owens; and Ffynone, the residence of the Colby family.

Customs, &c. - The division of Pembrokeshire ever since the 12th century into well-defined Englishry and Welshry has produced two distinct sets of languages and customs within the county. Roughly speaking, the English division, the Anglia Transwalliana of Camden, occupies the south-eastern half and comprises the hundreds of Roose, Castlemartin, Narberth and Dungleddy. In the Welshry, which includes the hundreds of Dewisland and Cilgerran together with the old barony of Kemes, the language, customs, manners and folk-lore of the inhabitants are almost identical with those of Cardigan and Carmarthen. The old Celtic game of Knappan, a pastime partaking of the nature both of football and hockey, in which whole parishes and even hundreds were wont to take an active part, was prevalent in the barony of Kemes so late as the 16th century, as George Owen of Henllys, the historian and antiquary, records; and the playing of knappan lingered on after Owen's day. Amongst the settlers of the Englishry, who are of mingled AngloSaxon, Flemish, Welsh and perhaps Scandinavian descent, many interesting superstitions and customs survive. The English spoken by these dwellers in "Little England beyond Wales" contains many curious idioms and words and the pronunciation of some of the vowels is peculiar. Certain picturesque customs, many of them dating from pre-Reformation times, are still observed, notably in the neighbourhood of Tenby. Such are the sprinkling of persons with dewy evergreens on New Year's morning; the procession of the Cutty Wren on St Stephen's day, and the constructing of little huts at Lammastide by the farm boys and girls. As early as the opening years of the 19th century, cripples and ophthalmic patients were in the habit of visiting the ancient hermitage at St Gowan's Head to bathe in its sacred well; and Richard Fenton, the county historian alludes (c. 1808) to the many crutches left at St Gowan's chapel by grateful devotees. Belief in ghosts, fairies, witches, &c., is still prevalent in the more remote places, and the dress of the fishwives of Langwm near Haverfordwest is highly picturesque with its short skirt, scarlet shawl and buckled shoes.

AUTHORITIES. - Richard Fenton, A Historical Tour through Pembrokeshire (London, 1810); Edward Laws, History of Little England beyond Wales (London, 1888); Basil Jones and E. A. Freeman, History and Antiquities of St David's (London, 1856), &c.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /pɛmˈbrʊkʃə(r)/

Proper noun

Singular
Pembrokeshire

Plural
-

Pembrokeshire

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

  1. A maritime traditional county of Wales, bordered by Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire.
  2. A local government principal area, bordered by Carmarthenshire and Ceredigion.

Translations

  • Welsh: Sir Benfro f.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

This article requires significantly more historical detail on the particular phases of this location's historical development. The ideal article for a place will give the reader a feel for what it was like to live at that location at the time their relatives were alive there..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..
Pembrokeshire principal area
Image:WalesPembrokeshire.png
Geography
Area
- Total
- % Water
Ranked 5th
1,590 km²
? %
Admin HQ Haverfordwest
ISO 3166-2 GB-PEM
ONS code 00NS
Demographics
Population:
- (2006 est.

)
- Density
 

Ranked 14th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
117,300


Ranked 19th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
74

/ km²
Ethnicity 99.2% White
Welsh language
- Any skills
Ranked 8th
29.4%
Politics
Arms of Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire Council
http://www.pembrokeshire.gov.uk/
Control Independent
MPs
AMs
MEPs Wales

Pembrokeshire (Welsh: Sir Benfro ) is a county in the southwest of Wales.

Contents

Geography

Pembroke Castle
Marloes peninsula

Pembrokeshire is a maritime county, surrounded by the sea on all sides except in the northeast where it is bounded by Ceredigion (Cardiganshire) and in the east where it is bounded by Carmarthenshire.

The population (2001 census) was 114,131. The administrative headquarters and historic county town is Haverfordwest. Other settlements include Pembroke itself, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Fishguard, Tenby, Saundersfoot, Narberth, Neyland and Newport. St David's, in the west of the county, is the United Kingdom's smallest city.

The highest point is at Foel Cwmcerwyn (1759 ft/536 m).

The county boasts 170 miles (≈275 km) of magnificent coastline comprising important seabird breeding sites and numerous bays and sandy beaches. Almost all of the coast is included in the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. A large estuary and natural harbour known as Milford Haven cuts deeply into the coast, being formed by the confluence of the Western Cleddau (which goes through Haverfordwest), the Eastern Cleddau and rivers Creswell and Carew. The estuary is bridged by Cleddau Bridge as part of the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock : the next bridges upstream on the Cleddaus are at Haverfordwest and by Canaston Bridge.

Major bays include Newport Bay, Fishguard Bay and St Bride's Bay. There are many small islands off the coast of the county, the largest of which are Ramsey Island, Skomer Island and Caldey Island.

In the north are the Preseli Hills (Mynyddoedd Preseli), a wide stretch of high moorland with many prehistoric monuments. Elsewhere the county is relatively flat, most of the land being used for lowland farming.

See the list of places in Pembrokeshire for villages, towns and cities in Pembrokeshire.

History

The county was founded as a county palatine in 1138 with Gilbert de Clare as the first Earl of Pembroke. It has long been split between its mainly English-speaking south (known as "Little England beyond Wales") and its mainly Welsh-speaking north, along an imaginary line called the Landsker.

The Act of Union of 1536 divided the county into hundreds which followed with some modifications the lines of the ancient subdivision into cantrefs, which went back to before the Norman conquest. The 1536 hundreds were (clockwise from the north-east): Cilgerran or Kilgerran, Cemais or Kemes, Dewisland or Dewsland, Roose, Castlemartin, Narbeth and Dungleddy or Daugleddau. The Genuki web pages on Pembrokeshire include a list of the parishes within each hundred.

Media

Narberth is home to Radio Pembrokeshire, Radio Carmarthenshire and Scarlet FM broadcasting to 100,000 listeners every week.[1]

There are five local newspapers based in Pembrokeshire. The most widely read is The Western Telegraph (part of the Newsquest group).

Transport

The main towns in the county are well served with bus and train services, but those living in more rural parts have little or no access to public transportation.

There are no motorways in Pembrokeshire and only 12 miles of dual-carriageway. There are currently demands for the dualing of the A40 from St. Clears to Fishguard. The road is used heavily by traffic from the ferry port in Fishguard which then follows the A40 south to Haverfordwest and then meets the dual-carriageway at St. Clears.[1]

The nearest motorway to the county town of Haverfordwest is the M4 which terminates at Cross Hands in Carmarthenshire, some 46 miles to the east.

The A477 which runs from St. Clears to the port of Pembroke Dock is 24 miles long, of which only 2 miles is dual-carriageway. This road is heavily used by businesses and tourists visiting Pembrokeshire and improvements to the road have been made in recent years..

The Cleddau Bridge connects south Pembrokeshire with North Pembrokeshire across the Cleddau Estuary.

For more details on this topic, see Cleddau Bridge.

Industry

Tourism

The main industry in Pembrokeshire is tourism. Tenby and its surrounding area attracting the most visitors.

Oil and Gas

The banks of the Cleddau Estuary are dominated by the oil and gas industry with two oil refineries, two large liquified natural gas (LNG) terminals and a large National Grid switching centre. A gas-fired power station has been proposed for the site of the old coal-fired Pembroke Power Station which closed in 1997 and subsequently demolished in 2000.

The two oil refineries in Pembrokeshire are:

  • Chevron: 214,000 bpd (barrels per day)
  • Murco: 108,000 bpd


The LNG terminals on the north side of the Cleddau are scheduled to open in 2008.

Agriculture

Pembrokeshire's mild climate means that crops such as its famous new potatoes often arrive in British shops earlier in the year than produce from other parts of the UK. As well as arable crops such as potatoes, the other main agricultural activities are dairy farming of cattle for milk and cheese, sheep farming, beef production and some other arable crops, such as rapeseed. Falling farm incomes have led to diversification into other novel farming and tourism related activities. From 1700 km² of land, about 126,000 (74%) are used by agriculture. The majority of this land (60%) is down to permanent grassland and 26% is arable. Farm revenues are less than the UK average, but agriculture still provides 7,000 jobs.

The former large fishing industry around Milford Haven is now greatly reduced, although limited commercial fishing still takes place.

Flag

The unofficial flag of Pembrokeshire consists of a yellow cross on a blue field. In the centre of the cross is a green pentagon bearing a red and white Tudor rose. The rose is divided quarterly and counterchanged: the inner and outer roses have alternating red and white quarters. [2]

On Television and Film

Pembrokeshire is a popular location for filming locations. The following is a list of movies and television programmes filmed in Pembrokeshire:

Local government

See also: Pembrokeshire County Council

Under the Local Government Act 1888, an elected county council was set up to take over the functions of the Pembrokeshire Quarter Sessions. This, and the administrative county of Pembrokeshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, with Pembrokeshire forming two districts of the new county of Dyfed : South Pembrokeshire and Preseli - the split being made at the request of local authorities in the area.[3]

In 1996, under the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, the county of Dyfed was broken up into its constituent parts, and Pembrokeshire has been a unitary authority.

Places of interest

Geography

Visitor attractions

Historical places

References

  1. ^ AM calls for A40 funds - western telegraph - 9.11.2006
  2. ^ crwflags.com
  3. ^ Wood, Bruce. The Process of Local Government Reform: 1966-1974. 1976.

External links


CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 51°50′42″N, 4°50′32″WLatitude: 51°50′42″N
Longitude: 4°50′32″W

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