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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911


Under Dutch Rule (1624-1664).' Cornelis Jacobsen Mey Director..1624-1625William van Hu1st „1625-1626Peter Minuit. Governor1626-1632David Pieterzen de Vries.1632-1633Wouter van Twiller William Kieft. 1638-1647-1638 1633 - Peter Stuyvesant1647-1664Under Swedish Rule (1638-1655).2 the Duke of York (1664-1673).

. Deputy. Commander on the Delaware Commander on the Delaware Under Dutch Rule (1673-1674).

Anthony Colve Peter Alrichs.. Deputy on the Delaware1673-1674-1673-1674 Under the Duke of York (1674-1681).

Sir Edmund Andros1674-1681Under the Proprietors (1681-1693).

William Markham Deputy-Governor1681-1682William Penn1682-1684Thomas Lloyd. President of the Council1684-1686Thomas Lloyd Robert Turner Arthur Cook. Executive Commissioners1686-1688John Simcock John Eckley John Blackwell Deputy-Governor.1688-1690' Governors of New Netherland and of the Dutch settlements on the Delaware.

2 The Swedish colonies on the Delaware conquered by the Dutch in 1655.

Thomas Lloyd President of the Council Thomas Lloyd. .. Deputy-Governor. William Markham 3. .

Under1759-1763„1763-1771 President of the Council 1771 Lieutenant-Governor1771-1773-1773-1776 Period of Sta Benjamin Franklin, Chairman of Thomas Wharton, Jr... George Bryan 4.. Acting Joseph Reed William Moore John Dickinson Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Thomas Mifflin Thomas McKean Simon Snyder William Finley Joseph Heister John A. Shulze George Wolf Joseph Ritner D. R. Porter F. R. Shunk W. F. Johnston 5 William Bigler James Pollock W. F. Packer A. G. Curtin John W. Geary John F. Hartranft .

Henry M. Hoyt. Robert E. Pattison. James A. Beaver. Robert E. Pattison. Daniel H. Hastings. .

William A. Stone. Samuel W. Pennypacker Edwin S. Stuart John K. Tener Bibliography. - For the physiography of Pennsylvania, see W. S. Tower's " Regional and Economic Geography of Pennsylvania,' in the Bulletins of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia, vols. iv., v. and vi. (Philadelphia, 1904-1908); J. P. Lesley, A Summary Description of the Geology of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1892-1895) C. B. Trego, A Geography of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1843) and Topographic and Geologic Survey of Pennsylvania,1906-1908 (Harrisburg, 1909). For industrial statistics see reports of the Twelfth United States Census, the Special Reports on Manufactures in 1905, by the United States Census Bureau, the annual reports on the Mineral Resources of the United States, by the United States Geological Survey, and the Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture. For the administration of the state see: The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, adopted December 16, 1873, amended November 5, 1901 (Harrisburg, 1902); S. George et al. (editors), Laws of Pennsylvania, 1682-1700, preceded by the Duke of York's Laws, 1676-1682 (Harrisburg, 1879); A. J. Dallas (editor), Laws of Pennsylvania, 1700-1801 (Philadelphia and Lancaster, 1797-1801); Laws of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania 3 Lloyd was deputy-governor of the province, the present state of Pennsylvania; Markham of the lower counties, the present state of Delaware.

4 The state was governed by a supreme executive council in 1777-1790.

5 Governor Shunk resigned in July 1848 and was succeeded by W. F. Johnston, president of the state senate.

Peter Minuit Peter Hollender John Printz. John Pappegoya John Claude Rysingh Under Richard Nicolls Robert Carr. Robert Needham Francis Lovelace John Carr .

1638-1641-1641-16421642-1653-1653-16541654-1655-1664-16671664-1667-1664-16681667-1673-1668-1673tehood (1776-).





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the Crown (1693-1695).

1693-1695 1693-1695

... Deputy-Governor. Proprietors (1695-1776).

. Deputy-Governor. 169


. Deputy-Governor. 170

President of the Council 170














President of the Council 173





President of the Council 174





Deputy-Governor .





the Committee of Safety1776-1777President of the Council1777-1778President of the Council 1777 President of the Council1778-1781-1781 - 1782-1782-17851785-1788 „1788-1790Federalist.. 17 90 - I 799 Democratic-Republican 1 799 - I 808 Benjamin Fletcher William Markham Under the William Markham William Penn Andrew Hamilton Edward Shippen John Evans. Charles Gookin. Sir William Keith Patrick Gordon James Logan George Thomas Anthony Palmer James Hamilton Robert H. Morris William Denny. James Hamilton John Penn. James Hamilton Richard Penn. John Penn 1911 - (Philadelphia, 1801 sqq. and Harrisburg, 1802 sqq.); and The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1896 sqq.), published under an act of 1887. Some valuable information is to be found in B, A. and M. L. Hinsdale, History and Civil Government of Pennsylvania ... (Chicago, 1899); and in the various editions of Smull's Legislative Handbook and Manual. For the history of penal and charitable institutions, see the Annual Reports of the Board of Commissioners of Public Charities (Harrisburg, 1871 sqq.); the Annual Reports of the Committee on Lunacy (Harrisburg, 1883 sqq.); and Amos H. Mylin, Penal and Charitable Institutions of Pennsylvania (2 vols., Harrisburg, 1897), an official publication, well written and handsomely illustrated. For educational history, see N. C. Schaeffer, The Common School Laws of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1904); B. A. Hinsdale, Documents Illustrative of American Educational History (Washington, 1895); and J. P. Wickersham, History of Education in Pennsylvania (Lancaster, 1886), one of the best state histories of education. For finance and banking, see the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditorgeneral, sinking fund commissioners, and the commissioner of banking, all published at Harrisburg; An Historical Sketch of the Paper Money of Pennsylvania, by a member of the Numismatic Society of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1862); and B. M. Mead, A Brief Review of the Financial History of Pennsylvania ... to .the Present Time (1682-1881) (Harrisburg, 1881).

The only complete history of the entire period is Howard M. Jenkins, et al., Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1903). This is especially valuable for the detailed histories ,of gubernatorial administrations from 1790 to 1903. The third volume contains useful chapters on education, the judiciary, the medical profession, journalism, military affairs, internal improvements, &c. S. G. Fisher, Pennsylvania, Colony and Commonwealth (Philadelphia, 1897) contains the best short account of the colonial :and revolutionary history, but it gives only a very brief summary of the period since 1783. W. R. Shepherd, History of Proprietary Government in Pennsylvania (New York, 1896), a detailed study .of the proprietary from the political, governmental and territorial points of view, is scholarly, and gives a good account of the boundary disputes with Maryland, Virginia, New York and Connecticut. Among the older standard works are Samual Hazard, Annals of Pennsylvania from the Discovery of the Delaware, 1609-1682 (Philadelphia, 1850), an elaborate account of the early Dutch and Swedish settlements on the Delaware river and bay; and Robert Proud, History of the Pennsylvania from 7681 until after the year 1742 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1797-1798), written from the Quaker standpoint. For early literary history, see M. K. Jackson, Outline of the Literary History of Colonial Pennsylvania (New York, 1908). W. H. Egle, Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1877), contains trustworthy histories of individual counties by various writers. J. B. McMaster and F. D. Stone, Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788 (Philadelphia, 1888), is a useful work. For the anti-Masonic movement, see Charles McCarthy, The Anti-Masonic Party (Washington, 1903). S. G. Fisher, The Making of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1896), introductory to the same author's Colony and Commonwealth, is an interesting study of the various nationalities and religions represented among the settlers of the state. For the period of Quaker predominance (1681-1756), see Isaac Sharpless, History of Quaker Government in Pennsylvania (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1898-1899). See also J. Taylor Hamilton's " History of the Moravian Church " (Nazareth, Pa., 1900), vol. vi. of the Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society; Proceedings and Addresses of the Pennsylvania German Society, vols. vii. and viii. (Reading, 1897-1898); J. F. Sachse, German Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania, 1694-1708 (Philadelphia, 1895), and German Sectarians of Pennsylvania,1708-1800 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1899-1901). The chief sources are the Pennsylvania Archives (first series, 12 vols., Philadelphia, 1852-1856; second series, 19 vols., Harrisburg, 1874-1893; and third series, 4 vols., Harrisburg, 1894-1895); Colonial Records, 1683-5790 (16 vols., Philadelphia, 1852); and Samuel Hazard, Register ,of Pennsylvania {16 vols., Philadelphia, 1828-1836). The Pennsylvania Historical Society, organized in Philadelphia in 1825, has published 14 vols. of Memoirs (1826-1895), a Bulletin of 13 numbers (1845-1847), one volume of Collections (1853), and the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, a Quarterly (1877 sqq.). There is a good account of the public archives, both printed and manuscript, in the first report of the Public Archives Commission of the American Historical Association, published in vol. ii. of the annual report of the association for the year 1900 (Washington, 1901).

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