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Pensacola, Florida
—  City  —
Pensacola in 1885

Nickname(s): The City of Five Flags
Motto: Enhancing the Quality of Life for all Citizens
Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 30°26′0″N 87°12′0″W / 30.433333°N 87.2°W / 30.433333; -87.2Coordinates: 30°26′0″N 87°12′0″W / 30.433333°N 87.2°W / 30.433333; -87.2
Country  United States
State  Florida
County  Escambia
 - Mayor Mike Wiggins
 - City 39.7 sq mi (102.7 km2)
 - Land 22.7 sq mi (58.8 km2)
 - Water 17.0 sq mi (43.9 km2)
Elevation 102 ft (31 m)
Population (2006)
 - City 53,248
 Density 2,478.7/sq mi (956.8/km2)
 Metro 437,125
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 850
FIPS code 12-55925[1]
GNIS feature ID 0294117[2]

Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County.[3] As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 56,255 and as of 2006, the estimated population was 53,248.[4] However, the Pensacola–Ferry PassBrent Metropolitan Statistical Area, comprising Escambia and Santa Rosa counties, had a population of 439,877.[5]

Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, which connects to the Gulf of Mexico. A large United States Naval Air Station, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola (near the community of Warrington) and is home to the Blue Angels flight demonstration team and the National Museum of Naval Aviation. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center.

Pensacola is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags" due to the five governments that have flown flags over it during its history: the flags of Spain (Castile), France, Great Britain, the Confederate States of America, and the United States. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches" (due to the white sand prevalent along beaches in the Florida panhandle), "Cradle of Naval Aviation" (the National Museum of Naval Aviation is located at the Pensacola Naval Air Station, home of the legendary Blue Angels), "Western Gate to the Sunshine State," "America's First Settlement," "Emerald Coast," "Redneck Riviera," and "Red Snapper Capital of the World."



Pensacola was the first European-inhabited settlement in what would later become the United States of America.

Pensacola, Florida has a rich and colorful history dating nearly 450 years, being the first European settlement in the continental United States (1559)[6][7][8] and controlled by five countries. Pensacola's location has caused great turmoil, with many buildings destroyed by wars, and by numerous major hurricanes. The location, south of the original British colonies, and as the dividing line between French Louisiana and Spanish Florida, along the Perdido River, has caused the possession of the city to change multiple times. Pensacola has been under the possession of the Spanish, French, British, United States and Confederate States, and has remained a part of the United States since the end of the American Civil War. Along with wars, numerous hurricanes have been a massive factor in Pensacola history. They destroyed numerous houses and left many people homeless.

Pensacola: site of 1698 settlement near Fort Barrancas is marked "X" (above left end of Santa Rosa Island).

Early exploration of Pensacola Bay (called Polonza or Ochuse) spanned decades, with Ponce de León (1513), Pánfilo de Narváez (1528), and Hernando de Soto (1539) plus others charting the area.[8]

Due to prior exploration, the first settlement of Pensacola was large, landing on August 15, 1559,[8] and led by Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano with over 1,400 people on 11 ships from Vera Cruz, Mexico.[7] However, weeks later, the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559,[7][8] which killed hundreds, sank five ships, grounded a caravel, and ruined supplies. The 1,000 survivors divided to relocate/resupply the settlement, but due to famine and attacks, the effort was abandoned in 1561.[7] About 240 people sailed to Santa Elena (today's Parris Island, South Carolina), but another storm hit there, so they sailed to Cuba and scattered.[7] The remaining 50 at Pensacola were taken back to Mexico, and the Viceroy's advisers concluded northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle, for 135 years.[7]

Pensacola was permanently reestablished by the Spanish in 1696 on the mainland, near Fort Barrancas (see map),[9] and became the largest city in Florida, as the capital of the British colony of West Florida in 1763. Another major hurricane devastated the settlement in 1722, causing the French occupation to evacuate, and the Spanish returned.

The Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola:[10]

  • Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (1698-1719): the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria (east of present Fort Barrancas) and a village with church;[10]
  • Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa (1722-1752): this next presidio was on Santa Rosa Island near the site of present Fort Pickens, but hurricanes battered the island in 1741 and 1752, and the presidio was closed and moved to the mainland;[10]
  • Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola (1754-1763): the final presidio was about five miles east of the first presidio, over in the present-day historic district of downtown Pensacola, named from "Panzacola" (of Spain).[10]

From 1763, the British went back to the mainland area of fort San Carlos de Barrancas, building the Royal Navy Redoubt, and Pensacola became the capital of the 14th British colony, West Florida. After Spain joined the American Revolution late, in 1779, the Spanish captured East Florida and West Florida, regaining it from (1781-1819) in the 1781 Battle of Pensacola.[6] In an 1819 Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis), Spain renounced its claims to West Florida and ceded East Florida to the U.S. (US$5 million).[6] In 1821, with Andrew Jackson as provisional governor, Pensacola became part of the United States.[6]

St. Michael's Cemetery was established in the 18th Century at a location which at the time was on the distant eastern outskirts of the city. Initially owned by the Church of St. Michael, it is now owned and managed by St. Michael's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc.[11] Preliminary studies indicate that there are over 3200 marked burials as well as a large number unmarked.[citation needed]




Pensacola is located at 30°26′13″N 87°12′33″W / 30.43694°N 87.20917°W / 30.43694; -87.20917 (30.436988, -87.209277).[12]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 102.7 km² (39.7 sq mi). 22.7 square miles (58.8 km²) of it is land and 17.0 square miles (43.9 km²) of it (42.77%) is water.


The climate of Pensacola is subtropical, with mild winters and hot, humid summers. Summer temperatures are characterized by highs in the low 90s and lows in the mid 70s. The average high in July is 91 °F (32.8 °C), with 59 days per year reaching at least 90 °F (32.2 °C).[13] The average low in July is 75 °F (23.9 °C).[14] Evening thunderstorms are common during the summer months. Temperatures above 100 °F (37.7 °C) are rare, and last occurred in July 2000, when seven days over 100 °F were recorded.[15] The hottest temperature ever recorded in the city was 106 °F (41.1 °C) on July 14, 1980.[14]

Average highs in January are 61 °F (16.1 °C) and average lows are 43 °F (6.1 °C).[14] There are, on average, fifteen nights per year of below freezing temperatures.[16] Temperatures below 20 °F are rare, and last occurred in January 2003, when a low of 18 °F (-7.7 °C) was seen.[17] The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was 5 °F (-15 °C) on January 21, 1985.[14] Snow is rare in Pensacola, but does occasionally fall. The most recent frozen precipitation occurred on December 25 and December 26, 2004, when the city received ice pellets.[18][19]

The city receives 64.28 inches (1633 mm) of precipitation per year, with a rainy season in the summer. The rainiest month is July, with 8.02 inches (204 mm), while 3.89 inches (99 mm) falls in April, the driest month.[14]

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F   80   82   86   96   98 101 106 104   98   92   86   81
Norm High °F 61.2 64.4 70.2 76.2 83.4 89.0 90.7 90.1 87.0 79.3 70.3 63.4
Norm Low °F 42.7 45.4 51.7 57.6 65.8 72.1 74.5 74.2 70.4 59.6 51.1 44.7
Rec Low °F    5   15   22   33   48   56   61   60   43   32   25   11
5.3 /
Source: [1]


Flooding in Downtown Pensacola from Hurricane Katrina

Pensacola's location on the Florida Panhandle makes it vulnerable to hurricanes. Major hurricanes which have made landfall at or near Pensacola include Eloise (1975), Frederic (1979), Juan (1985), Erin (1995), Opal (1995), Georges (1998), Ivan (2004), and Dennis (2005).

Pensacola and several surrounding areas were devastated by Hurricane Ivan. Pensacola found itself on the eastern side of the eyewall, which sent a large storm surge into Escambia Bay that eventually destroyed most of the I-10 Escambia Bay Bridge.[20] The storm heavily damaged the bridge. It knocked 58 spans off of the eastbound and westbound bridges and misaligned another 66 spans causing the bridge to close to traffic in both directions.[21] Over six billion dollars in damage occurred in the metro area and more than 10,000 homes were destroyed, with another 27,000 heavily damaged. NASA created a comparison image to illustrate the massive damage. Hurricane Ivan drove up the cost of housing in the area, leading to a severe shortage of affordable housing. In July 2005, Hurricane Dennis made landfall just east of the city, sparing it the blow it had received from Ivan the year before. However, hurricane and near-hurricane force winds were recorded in downtown, causing moderate damage.

Although Pensacola only received a glancing blow from 2005's devastating Hurricane Katrina, light to moderate damage was reported in the area. There was significant damage to Pensacola AC condenser units, but minimal structural damage.[22] Katrina also undermined a large percentage of Pensacola's tourist base from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.


Pensacola is served by Interstate 10 and the Interstate 110 spur connecting I-10 with downtown Pensacola. Major air traffic in the Pensacola and greater northwest Florida area is handled by Pensacola Regional Airport. Airlines currently serving Pensacola Regional Airport are Air Tran Airways, American Airlines, ASA, Comair, Continental Airlines, Continental Express, DayJet, Delta Air Lines, SkyWest Airlines, and US Airways. Amtrak train service and Greyhound bus service are also available.[23][24] However, Amtrak suspended service to Pensacola (and the rest of the Gulf Coast) because of damage caused by Hurricane Katrina. As of October 2008, it is still unknown whether Amtrak service will be restored.

The local bus service is the Escambia County Area Transit (ECAT).[25] In December 2007, ECAT announced that it would cut many of its routes citing poor rider frequency. However in January 2008, ECAT announced that it would expand service to neighboring Gulf Breeze and change existing routes to more convenient locations. [26]


Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1850 2,164
1860 2,876 32.9%
1870 3,347 16.4%
1880 6,845 104.5%
1890 11,750 71.7%
1900 17,747 51.0%
1910 22,982 29.5%
1920 31,035 35.0%
1930 31,579 1.8%
1940 37,449 18.6%
1950 43,479 16.1%
1960 56,752 30.5%
1970 59,507 4.9%
1980 57,619 −3.2%
1990 58,165 0.9%
2000 56,255 −3.3%
Est. 2006 53,248 −5.3%
Population 1850-2000.[27]

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 56,255 people, 24,524 households, and 14,665 families residing in the city, and 402,000 people in the Pensacola MSA. The population density was 2,478.7 people per square mile (956.8/km²). There were 26,995 housing units at an average density of 1,189.4/sq mi (459.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 64.91% White, 30.58% African American, 1.77% Asian, 0.52% Native American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, and 1.61% from two or more races. 2.07% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 24,524 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92.

In addition to the Christian majority, Pensacola is home to a small but significant Jewish community, whose roots stretch back to the mid to late 1800s. The first Florida chapter of B'nai Brith was founded downtown in 1874, as well as the first temple, Beth-El, in 1876. Paula Ackerman, the first woman who performed rabbinical functions in the United States, was a Pensacola native and led services at Beth-El. Apart from the Reform Beth-El, Pensacola is also served by the Conservative B'nai Israel Synagogue.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,779, and the median income for a family was $42,868. Males had a median income of $32,258 versus $23,582 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,438. About 12.7% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

The population of Pensacola belies its standing within the state and the region. A longtime opposition to annexation in the areas surrounding the city has held its 2000 Census population figure at 56,255. However, the 2000 Census population of Pensacola Urbanized Area was 321,875, the eighth largest in the state.

Law and government

Council Members
District Council Member
1 P.C. Wu
2 Sam Hall
3 Maren DeWeese
4 Larry B. Johnson
5 John Jerralds
6 Jewel Canada-Wynn
7 Ronald Townsend
8 (at large) Diane Mack
9 (at large) Megan B. Pratt

The City of Pensacola is governed by an elected City Council with nine seats, two of which are considered "at large." The city government also has an elected mayor; Mike Wiggins.


Like other parts of the South, Pensacola was solidly Democratic for more than a century after the Civil War. Until the 1970s, most local elections were determined by the Democratic primary. However, from the 1960s onward, the staunchly conservative military and Bible Belt city became increasingly Republican. However, Democrats continued to win most elections at the state and local level well into the 1990s, though most of them were very conservative even by Southern Democratic standards.

This changed in 1994, when Republican attorney Joe Scarborough defeated Vinnie Whibbs, the son of popular former Democratic mayor Vince Whibbs, in a landslide to represent Florida's 1st congressional district, which is based in Pensacola. Republicans also swept all of the area's seats in the state legislature. Since then, Republicans have dominated every level of government, although municipal elections are officially nonpartisan. In August 2005, registered Republicans outnumbered Democrats for the first time in the area's history. As of August 2005, in Escambia County, 44% of the residents are registered Republicans compared to 39.91% of the population having registered as Democrats with another 13.21% having no party affiliation.[28]

In the 2004 presidential election, 65% of Escambia County residents voted for George W. Bush over John Kerry. The Pensacola area has not supported a Democrat for President since John Kennedy in 1960. In 1968, Pensacola and the rest of North Florida supported American Independent Party candidate George Wallace.

Chuck Baldwin, the 2008 presidential nominee of the Constitution Party, is the pastor of Crossroad Baptist Church in Pensacola.

Regional representatives

Pensacola is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Jeff Miller (R) and in the U.S. Senate by Bill Nelson (D) and George S. LeMieux (R), in the state senate by Don Gaetz (R) and Durell Peaden (R), and in the state house by Clay Ford (R), Dave Murzin (R), and Greg Evers (R).[29]

As of January 2007, Pensacola, and the rest of the State of Florida, is served by Charlie Crist (R) as governor, who replaced term-limited Governor Jeb Bush (R).

Sister cities

According to Sister City International, Pensacola has the following sister cities:[30]

City, schools, libraries and hospitals

Public primary and secondary education schools in Pensacola are administered by the Escambia County School District. The current superintendent of schools for Escambia County is Jim Paul. The University of West Florida, which resides north of the city, is the primary tertiary school in the area. UWF also has the largest library in the region, the John C. Pace Library.

Universities and colleges

High schools in the City of Pensacola


The West Florida Regional Library is a system of libraries with five locations throughout the Pensacola area. They offer fiction and non-fiction books, magazines, books on cassette or CD, DVD and VHS films and music. Each library offers public access computers, children's materials, and a variety of reading materials.

Genealogy and local history resources are available at the Main Branch downtown. Library staff and various volunteers from the West Florida Genealogy Society are available to help start the research process. The Friends of the Library hold periodic book sales where donated and discarded items are sold to the public. Donations of books or audio-video items in good condition are welcome at the main library.



Festivals and holidays

Major holidays in Pensacola include Memorial Day (Memorial Day Weekend), Mardi Gras, and the Fiesta of Five Flags. Celebrations of note in Pensacola are the Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival, the Seafood Festival, Crawfish Festival, Gay Pride(LGBT),[32] (Memorial Day Weekend), The King Mackerel and Cobia Tournament, Florida Springfest (although canceled in 2006 through 2008), Gracefest (a Christian music festival), Lobsterfest, University of West Florida Festival On The Green, The Diesel Dee Diesel Dyow Attempts, the Bushwhacker Festival and the Bill Fishing Tournament.

Historic Seville Square and it adjacents parks, Fountain Park and Bartram Park are the sites of most of Pensacola's festivals. In the summer on Thursdays and on the Thursday in the beginning of the Christmas season, the Pensacola Heritage Foundation presents local bands in its famous gazebo for free and very popular concerts. In December the Pensacola Christmas Market is a popular event in Seville Square as is the Great Gulf Coast Arts Festival and Seafood Festival are in the fall and the Cajun Crawfish Festival is in the spring. Festivals in Seville Square is a successful tradition begun by local preservations in the early 60's led by Mary Turner Rule Reed and the Pensacola Heritage Foundaion who started the movement to save and restore this square and Pensacola's old settlement around it.

City media

The largest daily newspaper in the area is the Pensacola News Journal. Pensacola is also home to WEAR-TV, the ABC affiliate for Pensacola, Fort Walton Beach, and Mobile, Alabama, and WSRE-TV, the local PBS member station, which is operated by Pensacola Junior College. Other television stations in the market include WALA-TV the Fox affiliate, and, WKRG the CBS affiliate, also WPMI, the NBC affiliate, which all are located in Mobile. Cable service in the city is provided by Cox Communications. Pensacola Magazine, the city's monthly glossy magazine, and Northwest Florida's Business Climate, the only business magazine devoted to the region, are published locally.

Sports teams

Pensacola is home to several semiprofessional sports teams, including the Pensacola Lightning NAFL team (ranked fourth in the nation out of 147 teams in 2007) (now defunct), the Pensacola Pelicans of the American Association (of Independent Baseball) (AA), and the Gulf Coast Riptide of the Women's Football Alliance (WFA), who earned 8 consecutive Division Championships when they were the Pensacola Power of the National Women's Football Association (NWFA). Roy Jones, Jr., named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 1990s by the Boxing Writers Association of America and a former pound for pound champion, fights out of Pensacola. Pensacola also has a ECHL hockey team by the name of the Pensacola Ice Pilots.

Music scene and subculture

There are various Punk, Folk and Indie bands such as This Bike is a Pipe Bomb.[citation needed] Jim White was raised in Pensacola before moving to Georgia after Hurricane Ivan.[citation needed] There is also a gothic and Industrial bands in the greater Pensacola Area.[citation needed]

MC Chris and The Horror Pops have performed locally in nightclubs.[citation needed]

The Arts and Theatre

A 2008 revival in Dada and surrealism in the area has surfaced in the area.[citation needed] Art shows have become more frequent.[citation needed] Events are planned by the Arts Council of Northwest Florida, including Gallery Night; a monthly event in which downtown businesses host artwork from featured area artists.[citation needed]

There are a number of different performance venues in the Pensacola Area, including the Pensacola Civic Center, often used for big ticket events, and the Saenger Theater, used for performances and mid level events. Other theatres used for live performances, plays and musicals include the Pensacola Little Theatre, Pensacola Junior College, University of West Florida and Loblolly Theatre. Pensacola is also home to the Pensacola Symphony and the Choral Society of Pensacola.

See also


  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ Pensacola, Florida (FL) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, news, sex offenders
  5. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005. United States Census Bureau.
  6. ^ a b c d Johnson, Jane. "Santa Rosa Island - a History (Part 1)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Pinson, Steve. "The Tristan de Luna Expedition". Pensacola Archeology Lab. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  8. ^ a b c d ""History" (Luna colony at Ochuse/Pensacola)". State of Florida, Office of Cultural & Historical Programs. 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  9. ^ "Floripedia: Pensacola, Florida". University of South Florida. 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa". University of West Florida. 2003. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  11. ^ "St. Micheal's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc". Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  13. ^ "Mean Number of Days With Maximum Temperature 90 °F or Higher". National Climatic Data Center. 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Monthly Averages for Pensacola, Fla.". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  15. ^ "History for Pensacola, Florida on Saturday, July 1, 2000". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  16. ^ "Mean Number of Days With Minimum Temperature 32 °F or Less". National Climatic Data Center. 2004-06-23. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  17. ^ "History for Pensacola, Florida on Friday, January 24, 2003". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  18. ^ "History for Pensacola, Florida on Saturday, December 25, 2004". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  19. ^ "History for Pensacola, Florida on Sunday, December 26, 2004". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  20. ^ "Bridge Replacement over Escambia Bya". Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  21. ^ "Repairing Florida's Escambia Bay Bridge". ACP Construction. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ : Locations : Pensacola, Florida
  25. ^ "About ECAT". ECAT. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  26. ^ "ECAT to expand service in Gulf Breeze". Pensacola News Journal. Retrieved 2008-01-11. 
  27. ^ "Census Of Population And Housing". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  28. ^ Stafford, David H. "Voter Statistics". Escambia County Supervisor of Elections. 
  29. ^ "Representatives, Regular Session 2007". Florida House of Representatives. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  30. ^ "Online Directory: Florida, USA". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  31. ^ Berrett, Dan. "The Complete List of the 1,000 Top U.S. Schools". Newsweek. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  32. ^ Nelson, Melissa (2007-05-27). "Gays Flock to Fla. Panhandle for Holiday". Associated Press (ABC News). Retrieved 2007-05-27. 

External links

Simple English

Pensacola, Florida
—  City  —
[[File:‎|250px|none|alt=|Pensacola in 1885.]]Pensacola in 1885.
File:Seal of Pensacola,
Nickname(s): The City of Five Flags
Motto: Enhancing the Quality of Life for all Citizens
Coordinates: 30°26′0″N 87°12′0″W / 30.433333°N 87.2°W / 30.433333; -87.2Coordinates: 30°26′0″N 87°12′0″W / 30.433333°N 87.2°W / 30.433333; -87.2
Country  United States
State  Florida
County Escambia
 - Mayor Mike Wiggins
 - City 39.7 sq mi (102.7 km2)
 - Land 22.7 sq mi (58.8 km2)
 - Water 17.0 sq mi (43.9 km2)
Elevation 102 ft (31 m)
Population (2006)
 - City 53,248
 Density 2,478.7/sq mi (956.8/km2)
 Metro 437,125
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 850
FIPS code 12-55925[1]
GNIS feature ID 0294117[2]

Pensacola is a city of Florida in the United States. It is the county seat of Escambia County.



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