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People's Liberation Army
  中国人民解放军  
China Emblem PLA.svg
Emblem of the People's Liberation Army
Founded 1 August 1927
Service branches Ground Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg PLA Ground Force
Naval Ensign of the People's Republic of China.svg PLA Navy
Air Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg PLA Air Force
Second Artillery Corps
People's Armed Police
Leadership
Chairman of Central Military Commission Hu Jintao
Minister of Ministry of National Defense General Liang Guanglie
Chief of PLA General Staff General Chen Bingde
Manpower
Military age 18–49 (compulsory de jure; voluntary de facto)
Conscription None
Available for
military service
654,229,201 males, age 16–49 (2009 est.),
.429,058,000 females, age 16–49 (2009 est.^ April 16, 2009 5:49 PM .
  • Microsoft Watch - Advertising & Search - Microsoft U.S. Search Queries Rise in March 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

^ April 16, 2009 9:49 PM .
  • Microsoft Watch - Advertising & Search - Microsoft U.S. Search Queries Rise in March 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted: 12/16/2009 3:47:59 AM [Last Edit: 12/16/2009 3:49:08 AM by Frost7] Originally Posted By Indrid_Cold: This.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

)
Fit for
military service
472,294,719 males, age 16–49 (2009 est.),
.350,991,416 females, age 16–49 (2009 est.^ April 16, 2009 5:49 PM .
  • Microsoft Watch - Advertising & Search - Microsoft U.S. Search Queries Rise in March 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

^ April 16, 2009 9:49 PM .
  • Microsoft Watch - Advertising & Search - Microsoft U.S. Search Queries Rise in March 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted: 12/16/2009 3:47:59 AM [Last Edit: 12/16/2009 3:49:08 AM by Frost7] Originally Posted By Indrid_Cold: This.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

)
Reaching military
age annually
11Million~ males (2009 est.),
10Million~ females (2009 est.)
Active personnel approximately 3,440,000[1] (ranked 1st)
Reserve personnel 1,200,000[1]
Deployed personnel Overseas: ~300 anti-pirate personel in Somalia [1]
Paramilitary: approximately 4,100,000[1]
Total: 7,540,000~ [1] (ranked 3rd)
Expenditures
Budget $80.64 billion (2010) [2] (ranked 2nd)
Percent of GDP 1,5% (2010 est.)
Industry
Domestic suppliers Norinco
Aviation Industry Corporation of China
Poly Technologies
Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corporation
Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation
Inner-Mongolia First Machine Group Company Limited
Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation
Shaanxi Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Sichuan Lantian Helicopter Company Limited
Harbin First Machinery Building Group Ltd
Aviation Industry Corporation of China
ACAC consortium
Hongdu Aviation Industry Group
China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation
Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation
Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group
Jiangnan Shipyard
China State Shipbuilding Corporation
China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation
China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation[3]
Foreign suppliers  Russia
 Israel[4][5]
 France
 Germany
Annual imports Russia
Annual exports Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia
Related articles
History History of the PLA
Modernization of the PLA
Ranks Army
Navy
Air Force
People's Liberation Army
Traditional Chinese 中國人民解放軍
Simplified Chinese 中国人民解放军
Literal meaning Chinese People's Liberation Army
.The People's Liberation Army (PLA) (Chinese: 人民解放军) is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China.^ People's Republic of China proclaimed.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ The armed forces of the People%27s Republic of China belong to the people .

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China (CCP).^ When the PLA became a national armed force with the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was an unwieldy, 5-million-strong peasant army.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although nominally cooperating with the KMT, the Chinese Communist Party used the Red Army to expand its influence while leading the anti-Japanese resistance in north China.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for "Eight One" referring to August 1 (Chinese: 八一), the date of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising.^ "The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a round device with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for "Eight One" referring to August 1 (Chinese:八一, Pinyin: bā yī), the date of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising."
  • War Flags [Archive] - Military Photos 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The People's Liberation Army, which as a good red commie bastard you know was completely a volunteer force (the people rising against the facist regime).
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ By your logic you should be getting off the Internet and joining the People's Liberation Army where you can look forward to a great life and invading Taiwan, I'm sure.
  • Chinadaily BBS - China Watch - Taiwan needs the Mainland 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC bbs.chinadaily.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

.The PLA is the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members (see List of countries by number of total troops), and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members (see List of countries by number of active troops).^ The People's Liberation Army is the world's largest standing army with 2.5 million troop .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Clinton, journalists arrive in U.S. - POLITICO.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With PLA being the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members (Wikipedia), China is the superior military power in the region.
  • Hong Kong - Economic analysis of government policies, investment climate and political risk. 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: People's Liberation Army Luhai class destroyer of the PLAN With 2.3 million active troops, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest military in the world.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.The PLA comprises five main service branches consisting of the PLA Ground Force, PLA Navy (PLAN), PLA Air Force (PLAAF), Second Artillery Corps (strategic nuclear or missile force), and the PLA Reserve Force.^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Troops (a mix from PLASAC, PLAN, PLAAF and PLAGF) 29 SU-30MKK, 5 H-6D Tankers and 3 An-124 Theater Missile Systems The Second Artillery Corps (PLASAC) are the strategic missile forces of Asian China.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The People's Armed Police (PAP), a Chinese paramilitary force under the dual leadership of the Central Military Commission and the Ministry of Public Security, is sometimes confused as a branch of the PLA (both the PLA and the PAP are under the lead of Central Military Commission).^ The Central Military Commission of the People%27s Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country .

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These people helped run the successful agencies responsible for Taiwans economic development, including the Commission for Rural Reconstruction JCRR and the Ministry of Economic Affairs.
  • Mainland China and Taiwan Relation: Where will it go 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.cie-gnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Military service is compulsory, in theory, for all men who attain the age of 18; women may register for duty in the medical, veterinary, and other technical services at ages as young as 14. However, a draft in China has never been enforced due to large numbers of volunteers from China's huge population.^ I, and many sincere Chinese people are the people who least want to see the potential conflict between China and USA. Both are great countries, it will be a disaster for human being if two countries fight each other in the future, due to what?
  • seattlepi.com: Sound Off 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this aroused controversy since large-scale redemption is expected upon any such conversion due to the deep price discount.
  • Eurekahedge - Institutional Investors in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.eurekahedge.com [Source type: News]

^ Military service/education for emos and dissidents continues in this manner until the age of 38, at which point all dissidents are summarily executed because by then they will have emo capitalist pig-dog thoughts as directed by an entirely fair constitutional law.
  • Democratic People's Republic of Mindanao - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demobilized servicemen are carried in a ready reserve, which is reinforced by a standby reserve of veterans and by the militia.
.The PLA is formally under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CCP; there is also an identical commission in the government, but it has no clear independent functions.^ Since there is no tradition or mechanism in China for independent professional bodies with a regulatory function, a national accreditation system seems unlikely unless the government develops an interest in regulating this new - and small - profession.
  • Conference Interpreting in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.aiic.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the CCP Politburo's control of the PRC government and military, there are hundreds of similar connections between lower-level Communist Party officials and the State, military, and commercial bureaucracies in the PRC. For example, 25 of the 29 Ministers in charge of Ministries and Commissions under the State Council are members of the CCP Central Committee.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most obvious practical example of direct Communist Party control of the PLA is Jiang Zemin's position as Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and the entire CMC's direct control of the PLA. Jiang is also the first Communist Party Secretary to enforce CCP control over the military completely by appointing no military officers to the powerful CCP Politburo Standing Committee, although two officers remain on the Politburo.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the Central Military Commission (CMC).^ The operation of the NSSF is overseen by the NSSF Council established under the State Council.
  • Eurekahedge - Institutional Investors in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.eurekahedge.com [Source type: News]

^ The State Central Military Commission, an organization within the State bureaucracy, is theoretically a separate decision-making body, but in reality it has no unique powers because its membership generally mirrors that of the Party's CMC. The PRC's Ministry of Defense, the principal State bureaucracy for dealing with military affairs, is likewise composed of Communist Party CMC members, and its role is primarily a ceremonial one.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the rise of emo culture and corruptive shows such as High School Musical, Disney Channel was prohibited under law from the Supreme People's Assembly, as well as the National Defense Commission.
  • Democratic People's Republic of Mindanao - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ministry assures continuing CCP control over the armed forces, and its primary role is that of a liaison office with foreign militaries.^ The slogan "the Party controls the gun" is often repeated in speeches by both CCP and PLA officials, serving as a constant reminder of CCP supremacy over the military.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Al-Tunisi was the military emir of Baghdad’s southern belt and took over the role of emir of foreign terrorists when al-Masri became the overall leader.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The political and military leaderships has made a concerted effort to create a professional military force restricted to national defense and to the provision of assistance in domestic economic construction and emergency relief.^ International Security Agreement: 5.0 Under the Basic Law, the constitution that established the special political, social and economic status of Hong Kong Special Administration, Peoples Republic of China will unconditionally provide national defense to HKSAR. The People Liberation Army (PLA) is the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members.
  • Hong Kong - Economic analysis of government policies, investment climate and political risk. 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pressure on Taiwan is the continued military threat which has led to political and economic instability and is bad for the Taiwan stock market and the Taiwan economy in general.
  • Mainland China and Taiwan Relation: Where will it go 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.cie-gnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, provision was made for the creation of directly-elected regional assemblies, to enable the decentralization of government, and for the establishment of an advisory state council, which was to deliberate on administrative issues.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This conception of the role of the PLA requires the promotion of specialized officers who can understand modern weaponry and handle combined arms operations.^ Awarded to special operations personnel who have proven themselves during any period the unit was engaged in active combat.
  • Brainpecker.com :: View topic - BF2 Stats V2.11 for Nuke Released 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.brainpecker.com [Source type: General]

^ The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve socialism, increases the number of intellectuals and creates conditions to give full scope to their role in socialist modernization.
  • Gender and Law in China 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.genderandlaw.org.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Troops around the country are stationed in seven military regions and more than 20 military districts.^ In its 36th anniversary statement, the NPA said that it is now operating in 130 guerilla fronts covering significant portions of nearly 70 provinces in around 800 municipalities, and more than 9,000 barrios all over the country.

^ Over the last 30 years, more than 20,000 foreign students have graduated from BLCU. Every year, about 3000 students from many countries, and more than 1000 Chinese students study here.
  • Foreign Language Schools - Chinese Language Schools in China: Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.multilingualbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China has been working on improving its military and modernizing its weapons, but more than that, it has been constantly reaching out to other countries and nurturing diplomatic ties.
  • Afternoon Headlines – 06 May 2009 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC maxkeiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chairman Hu Jintao has defined the missions of the PLA as:
  • Consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party
  • Help ensure China’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and domestic security in order to continue national development
  • Safeguard China’s expanding national interests
  • Help maintain world peace[6]

Contents

History

.The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang Uprising when troops of the Kuomintang (KMT) rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long,Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai shortly after the end of the first Kuomintang–Communist alliance.^ Jahrestag des Nanchang-Aufstands 1927.
  • Volksbefreiungsarmee − Power-oldie Lexikon 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC lexikon.power-oldie.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is also directly under the control of the Communist Party.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1911 the revolution deposed the Qing Dynasty and a republic was proclaimed under the leadership of the KMT (Kuomintang), headed by Sun Yat-sen .
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were then known as the Chinese Red Army (simplified Chinese: 红军traditional Chinese: 紅軍pinyin: hóngjūn).^ European merchants could not directly meet with Chinese civilians, so they had to work in association with Chinese merchants known as the Cohong.
  • WHKMLA : History of China's Open Ports 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.zum.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a round device with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for "Eight One" referring to August 1 (Chinese:八一, Pinyin: bā yī), the date of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising."
  • War Flags [Archive] - Military Photos 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red Chinese will raise all sort stinks if they think Vietnam is gaining an upper hand in term of weapon acquisitions.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March.^ Although the Red Army fought several conventional battles against the Japanese (and KMT troops), guerrilla operations were the primary mode of warfare.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ After Sun's death in 1926, Chiang Kai-shek took over.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communist China is no Historical At the end of Long March, only some 20,000 out of about 90,000 soldiers (Chinese Red Army ) had started the march ultimately made it to the final destination of Yan'an in October,1935.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

Vintage Chinese propaganda poster, showing the PLA. The caption reads, "An Army of the People is Invincible". The soldier on top is shown to be holding a copy of Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong.
.During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units.^ The Red Army was nominally integrated into the Chinese national army forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Long_March During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), the Chinese Red Army was nominally integrated into the Chinese national army forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Chinese_4th_Army In 1937 the Red Army joined in a second united front with the KMT against the invading Japanese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.During this time, these two military groups primarily used guerrilla warfare, but also fought several conventional battles with the Japanese and the Kuomintang.^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China also ceded the full sovereignty of Taiwan, Penghu groups, and Liaotung peninsula to Japan, and ports in these cities automatically become Japanese territory.
  • WHKMLA : History of China's Open Ports 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.zum.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During that time, we've had famine, disease, a civil war, two world wars, a depression, a dust bowl, myriad recessions, and all sorts of natural disasters.
  • seattlepi.com: Sound Off 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the end of the Sino-Japanese War, the Communist Party merged the two military groups and renamed the multi-million strong force the "People's Liberation Army" and eventually won the Chinese Civil War.^ People's Liberation Army, 43rd anniversary .
  • China stamps. China PRC mint stamps, used China stamps, souvenir sheets, booklets, China New Year Greeting stamps, China First Day Covers for sale. Buying China stamps. 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.siyer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People's Liberation Army, 60th anniversary .
  • China stamps. China PRC mint stamps, used China stamps, souvenir sheets, booklets, China New Year Greeting stamps, China First Day Covers for sale. Buying China stamps. 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.siyer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The People's Liberation Army is the world's largest standing army with 2.5 million troop .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Clinton, journalists arrive in U.S. - POLITICO.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet help transformed itself from a peasant army into a modern one.^ Having access to a wide range of opinions is one of the checks and balances that helps prevent a society from falling into tyranny and one-party rule.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ But we can also say what majority of soviet POW's captured and losses inflicted was in the beginning of the war, after surprise attack, during the the initial disorder in Soviet army.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Husaca having undertaken to transform one part into cotton oil.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In November 1950, the PLA or People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.^ Later attempts by the Republic of China to rejoin the UN have either been blocked by the People's Republic of China , who has veto power on UN Security Council , or rejected by the United Nations Secretariat or a United Nations General Assembly committee responsible for the General Assembly's agenda [17] .

^ With the expulsion of the Chiang Kai-shek 's representatives, and effectively the Republic of China , the representatives of the People's Republic of China were invited to assume China's seat on the UN Security Council , the UN General Assembly and other United Nations councils and agencies.

^ In the 1947 Constitution, Article 9 specified that "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes."
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back to a line just north of the 38th Parallel.^ Offensive action in Korea: U.N. forces pushed north across the 38th parallel once again.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon winning battles in Okgye and the Korea Straits, the ROK Navy secured the seas south of the 38th parallel.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ North Korea threatens use of Nuclear force if South Korea does not surrender within a week.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

That war also served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. .In 1962, the PLA also fought India in the Sino-Indian War which resulted in a swift victory.^ China's territorial disputes have led to localized wars in the last 50 years, including the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Sino-Soviet border conflict in 1969, and the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979.
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in post for long periods.^ What are the great books on the Cultural Revolution and the horrors of that period?
  • COVERstory: As Beijing prepares for The Bookworm Int’l Literary Festival, CW talks to four local literati about literature and translation in China and beyond Beijing Beijing Blogs CW Radar - City Weekend Guide 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cityweekend.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ New military MROV's under development use new battery technlogy, have high range and depth, speed and can lie undetected for long periods of time.
  • Dominican capital observes U.S. Navy warship’s maneuvers - DominicanToday.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.dominicantoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are very much interested in remaining your main military hardware supplier :cheers: Hello there, Russia will be the main or sole supplier of Vietnam's military hardware for a very long foreseeable future.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as something of a threat to party (or, at least, civilian) control of the gun.^ The State governmental apparatus is under the direct control of the Communist Party Secretary, Jiang Zemin, who in his role as President serves as the official head of the State as well.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The slogan "the Party controls the gun" is often repeated in speeches by both CCP and PLA officials, serving as a constant reminder of CCP supremacy over the military.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brigade is divided into four areas of responsibility: command, political for party control, logistics for support and supply, and equipment.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The longest serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region (1954-74), Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region (1958-74), Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region (1959-73), and Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region (1960-74).^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping.^ In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split , Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ China has been working on improving its military and modernizing its weapons, but more than that, it has been constantly reaching out to other countries and nurturing diplomatic ties.
  • Afternoon Headlines – 06 May 2009 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC maxkeiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ URL: http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/joint_communique_1972.html Realise the Four Modernisations and Never Seek Hegemony: Deng Xiaoping's speech in May 1978 which set the tone for China's economic modernisation.
  • People�s Republic of China:Country Resources [East Asia: China], Indian Pugwash Society,People�s Republic of China by ,Civilian Nuclear Programme, Economic Reforms, People's Republic of China, International Peace and Security, Uighyur Muslim Insurgency, China's Domestic Political Transition, Global Warming, Nuclear Industry, China's Domestic Reactors, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Power in China, Nuclear Device, Chinese Leader Mao Tse-tung, Nuclear Doctrine, Natural Resources Defense Council, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT, NPT, Chemical Weapons, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemical Warfare Training, Biological Weapons, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, BTWC, Biological Weapons Programme, Nuclear Forces Modernisation, ICBMs, Ballistic Missile Modernisation Programme, People's Liberation Army Air Force, Multirole Fighters, Sukhoi-27, Chinese Navy, War Resistance Against Japan, Deng Xiaoping's Speech, China's Industry, China-Australia Nuclear Agreement, 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC pugwashindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions of men and women since 1978 and has introduced modern methods in such areas as recruitment and manpower, strategy, and education and training.^ The Great Sixth Reich 19-07-2006, 02:56 Earth V Military Declarations Thread Manpower 25.5 million men total.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In existence since 1919, the Kwangtung Army was more than 1 million men strong in early 1941.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although still poor by the world's standard, the PRC's rapid growth managed to pull hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since 1978.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.In 1979, the PLA fought Vietnam over a border skirmish in the Sino-Vietnamese War where it was reported that China lost more than 20,000 soldiers.^ They lost far more than that.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who believed the war was to be fought and won as a counterinsurgency rather than a conventional war, profess that the PRC-25 alone had far more utility than a B-52 and it's associated support, or any troposcatter or satellite terminal.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China in major battle against locusts; hopes to prevent migration to Beijing - 07/01/08 - BEIJING - More than 33,000 exterminators have been dispatched to battle a locust infestation in northern China.

Both sides claimed victory.
.In the 1980s, China shrunk its military considerably to free up resources for economic development, resulting in the relative decline in resources devoted to the PLA. Following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, ideological correctness was temporarily revived as the dominant theme in Chinese military affairs.^ Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .
  • CSR@Intel · Where Does Philanthropy Fit in the CSR Spectrum? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC blogs.intel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1989, the student protests at Tiananmen Square were violently put to an end by the Chinese military after 15 days of martial law.

^ Broadcast access to Tiananmen still issue - 7/14/08 - Broadcasters and the IOC are pushing China to keep its promises and open up Tiananmen Square to more hours of live coverage for the Beijing Olympics.

.Reform and modernization have today resumed their position as the PLA's priority objectives, although the armed forces' political loyalty to the CCP has remained a leading concern.^ The modernization of the PLA has placed priority on the development of: .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the PLA became a national armed force with the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was an unwieldy, 5-million-strong peasant army.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Today The modern Troupes de la Marine, were created in 1967 within the army as a fast reaction force for external operational theatres.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another area of concern to the political leadership was the PLA's involvement in civilian economic activities.^ Communist leadership despite complaints about its $23.6 billion cost, environmental concerns, and the forced relocation of 1.4 million residents from areas flooded by the dam’s reservoir.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ People's congresses of national autonomous areas have the power to enact autonomy regulations and specific regulations in the light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the nationality or nationalities in the areas concerned.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People%27s congresses of national autonomous areas have the power to enact autonomy regulations and specific regulations in the light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the nationality or nationalities in the areas concerned .

.These activities were thought to have impacted PLA readiness and has led the political leadership to attempt to divest the PLA from its non-military business interests.^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, I'm going to attempt to buy non-Chinese made (not the easiest thing to find these days) products whenever possible until they began to reform the more repressive elements of their political system.
  • David Flumenbaum: Huffington Post Blocked in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The non-military branch was called Political Consultative Committee.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beginning in the 1980s, the PLA tried to transform itself from a land-based power, centred on a vast ground force, to a smaller, mobile, high-tech one capable of mounting operations beyond its borders.^ Delivery Systems According to the US Department of Defense's Annual Report to Congress on Military Power of the People's Republic of China, 2006, long-term trends in China's strategic nuclear forces modernisation, land- and sea-based access denial capabilities, and emerging precision-strike weapons have the potential to pose credible threats to modern militaries operating in the region.
  • People�s Republic of China:Country Resources [East Asia: China], Indian Pugwash Society,People�s Republic of China by ,Civilian Nuclear Programme, Economic Reforms, People's Republic of China, International Peace and Security, Uighyur Muslim Insurgency, China's Domestic Political Transition, Global Warming, Nuclear Industry, China's Domestic Reactors, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Power in China, Nuclear Device, Chinese Leader Mao Tse-tung, Nuclear Doctrine, Natural Resources Defense Council, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT, NPT, Chemical Weapons, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemical Warfare Training, Biological Weapons, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, BTWC, Biological Weapons Programme, Nuclear Forces Modernisation, ICBMs, Ballistic Missile Modernisation Programme, People's Liberation Army Air Force, Multirole Fighters, Sukhoi-27, Chinese Navy, War Resistance Against Japan, Deng Xiaoping's Speech, China's Industry, China-Australia Nuclear Agreement, 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC pugwashindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM THE RESURGENCE OF PLA LIGHT INFANTRY By Martin Andrew Light infantry units in the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) have been resurging as the PLA transforms itself into an organization that is capable of operating beyond its borders.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The minority will have the high tech dream and the majority will have to live in Tellytubby land.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The motivation for this was that a massive land invasion by Russia was no longer seen as a major threat, and the new threats to China are seen to be a declaration of independence by Taiwan, possibly with assistance from the United States, or a confrontation over the Spratly Islands.^ Neither of them posed any threat to the United States.
  • freezing.point | The Economist 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ China New Era Group - Est 1980 - PRC state-owned corporation specialising in Military import and export between China and Global clients .

^ The new fiber-optic cable can support the equivalent of 62 million simultaneous phone calls, more than 60 times the overall capacity of the existing cable directly linking the United States and China.
  • Verizon Business Works With Asian Partners to Activate, Ahead of Schedule, U.S.-Mainland China Leg of Trans-Pacific Express 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www2.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]

.In 1985, under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the CMC, the PLA changed from being constantly prepared to "hit early, strike hard and to fight a nuclear war" to developing the military in an era of peace.^ China New Era Group - Est 1980 - PRC state-owned corporation specialising in Military import and export between China and Global clients .

^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the regime has set up a tourist spot aimed at creating a Cold War era, Stalinist-style, communist dictatorship reenactment amusement park.
  • Democratic People's Republic of Mindanao - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Democratic People's Republic of Mindanao - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC mirror.uncyc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The PLA reoriented itself to modernization, improving its fighting ability, and to become a world-class force.^ Before moving forward we should assess our social constructions and our ability to respond to a global crisis that could easily become a fight over basic resources.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ China is in the midst of a ballistic missile modernisation programme that is improving its force, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in all classes of missiles.
  • People�s Republic of China:Country Resources [East Asia: China], Indian Pugwash Society,People�s Republic of China by ,Civilian Nuclear Programme, Economic Reforms, People's Republic of China, International Peace and Security, Uighyur Muslim Insurgency, China's Domestic Political Transition, Global Warming, Nuclear Industry, China's Domestic Reactors, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Power in China, Nuclear Device, Chinese Leader Mao Tse-tung, Nuclear Doctrine, Natural Resources Defense Council, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT, NPT, Chemical Weapons, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemical Warfare Training, Biological Weapons, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, BTWC, Biological Weapons Programme, Nuclear Forces Modernisation, ICBMs, Ballistic Missile Modernisation Programme, People's Liberation Army Air Force, Multirole Fighters, Sukhoi-27, Chinese Navy, War Resistance Against Japan, Deng Xiaoping's Speech, China's Industry, China-Australia Nuclear Agreement, 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC pugwashindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With PLA being the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members (Wikipedia), China is the superior military power in the region.
  • Hong Kong - Economic analysis of government policies, investment climate and political risk. 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deng Xiaoping stressed that the PLA needed to focus more on quality rather than on quantity.^ The existence of new PLA amphibious divisions is puzzling, and their use rather than marines in these high-visibility exercises is even more puzzling.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any comments and requests for changes or additions would probably be best written there rather than clutter up Richard's blog any more.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, U.S and many west countries also donated many more miltary ships to these developing countries, and their quantities and sum are much more than China.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decision of the Chinese government in 1985 to reduce the size of the military by one million was completed by 1987. Staffing in military leadership was cut by about 50 percent.^ Increase the size of the military to 3 million.
  • freezing.point | The Economist 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The island is about the size of Britain, shaped like the Isle of Wight and ruled by city states (City states are governed individually by their own leader.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But you should better think about how china's government has formed your way of thinking since 50 years!
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the Ninth Five Year Plan (1996–2000) the PLA was reduced by a further 500,000. The PLA had also been expected to be reduced by another 200,000 by 2005. The PLA has focused on increasing mechanization and informatization so as to be able to fight a high-intensity war.^ How you fight the war in the field is what counts, the people in the ivory towers say one thing, the cadres on the ground do another.
  • Milliband says terrorism is justified in some cases. [Archive] - Broadband & ADSL Forums - Internet, Gaming, Hardware, Software 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC mybroadband.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ Private schools have also opened to foreigners, with tuition and boarding fees about 50,000 yuan (US$6,500) a year, slightly lower than international schools.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ Strategic bombing during World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_bombing_on_Germany#The_British_attack) The Luftwaffe had 2,500,000 serving during the war.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.Jiang Zemin in 1990 called on the military to "meet political standards, be militarily competent, have a good working style, adhere strictly to discipline, and provide vigorous logistic support" (Chinese: 部队要做到政治合格、军事过硬、作风优良、纪律严明、保障有力pinyin: bùduì yào zuò dào zhèngzhì hégé, jūnshì guòyìng, zuòfēng yōuliáng, jìlǜ yánmíng, bǎozhàng yǒulì).^ The round can use chemical payloads and is required to work in standard issue military M252 mortars.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see, if any other sector of the economy worked like the military, it would, rightly, be called socialism.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ The programme, when complete will provide France with Europe's finest intervention army, complete with its own air transport and logistical support.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.The 1991 Gulf War provided the Chinese leadership with a stark realization that the PLA was an oversized, obsolescent force.^ Liu Zhongde: The Chinese Communists are the only leadership force in China.
  • Why Teresa Teng Could Not Visit Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.zonaeuropa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Central News Agency provides real time Chinese/English/Spanish News, 24 hours a day.

^ The New York-based Leadership for Environment and Development Program provides background reports on the Chinese economy.

.The possibility of a militarized Japan has also been a continuous concern to the Chinese leadership since the late 1990s.^ As far as researchers have been able to conclude, chemical spraying by our governments have been in full operation since mid-to-late 1990s (possibly earlier).
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JNLWD has been funding the development of chemical weapons delivery devices since the late 1990s.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During their meeting, the Chinese side expressed concerns over Japan's robust development of its missile defense system.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, China's military leadership has been reacting to and learning from the successes and failures of the American military during the Kosovo War, the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the ongoing Iraqi insurgency.^ Conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; for example, the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the U.S.-China spy plane incident in April 2001.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ The current Conflict in the War on Terror in Iraq and Afghanistan very, very likely could flare-up into all-out regional war not only between American Soldiers and Al-Qaida and the Taliban, but as well between ethnicities and races.

^ Lets also not forget that during the Western Cold war alliance with Islamic terrorism against Russia, that China were also aiding the mujahideen (against the Soviets).
  • Afternoon Headlines – 06 May 2009 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC maxkeiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All these lessons inspired China to transform PLA from a military based on quantity to one based on quality.^ As one China-based blogger explained to HuffPost, "It seems to be an IP (Internet protocol) block rather than a site-specific block.
  • David Flumenbaum: Huffington Post Blocked in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ First of all, the Quality Control is the responsibility of the USA Corporation IMPORTING THE PRODUCTS. I taught this very lesson to some 4th graders the figured it out on there own as soon as i explained how USA companies get products from China.
  • David Flumenbaum: Huffington Post Blocked in Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ I've seen too many of this topic across all the military discussion forums and no one agrees with each other's opinions at the end of the day.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Marines of the People's Liberation Army (Navy).
.Chairman Jiang Zemin officially made a "Revolution in Military Affairs" (RMA) part of the official national military strategy in 1993 in order to modernize the Chinese armed forces.^ ISBN 1-58487-126-1 Harold Brown (Vorsitzender) et al.: Chinese Military Power (= Task Force Report No.
  • Volksbefreiungsarmee − Power-oldie Lexikon 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC lexikon.power-oldie.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the PLA became a national armed force with the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was an unwieldy, 5-million-strong peasant army.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ The most obvious example of the Communist Party's practical control of both the State and the PLA is Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin's simultaneous service as State President and CCP Central Military Commission Chairman.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A goal of the RMA is to transform the PLA into a force capable of winning what it calls "local wars under high-tech conditions" rather than a massive, numbers-dominated ground-type war.^ PLA leaders began to call for military preparedness to fight "limited war under high-tech conditions."
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having thus assured air superiority within the first hours of the war, Israel then poured a massive armored force into the Sinai Peninsula, supported by the bulk of the now-dominant Israeli air force.
  • SYRIA - AICbackground 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC games.soe.umich.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I would rather find out what the truth is than win some argument.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese military planners call for short decisive campaigns, limited in both their geographic scope and their political goals.^ When a politician says the word 'consultation' I take this to mean a decision has already been made and you want to 'manage' community opinion or limit political fallout.
  • Minister Tanner's welcome | Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy Archive Site 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.archive.dbcde.gov.au [Source type: General]

^ The non-military branch was called Political Consultative Committee.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese concept of a "spin-on" is in marked contrast to the "spin-off" approach of the U.S. at the end of the Cold War, where the goal was to convert military technology to commercial uses.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In contrast to the past, more attention is given to reconnaissance, mobility, and deep reach. .This new vision has shifted resources towards the navy and air force.^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not counting naval air wing, the real air force, coastal defense, 2nd artillery, and surface ships like the new 054a.
  • freezing.point | The Economist 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throw in the Navy and Air Force, and I'll bet we had more than 2.5 million.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

PLA is also actively preparing for space warfare and cyber-warfare.
.For the past 10 to 20 years, the PLA has acquired some advanced weapons systems from Russia, including Sovremenny class destroyers, Sukhoi Su-27 and Sukhoi Su-30 aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines.^ Nations there in recent years have begun to acquire stealthy diesel-electric submarines.
  • Dominican capital observes U.S. Navy warship’s maneuvers - DominicanToday.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.dominicantoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has purchased state-of-the-art fighter jets from Russia, such as the Sukhoi Su-30s , and has also produced its own modern fighters, specifically the Chinese J-10s and the J-11s .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ These include state-of-the art Sukhoi-27 and Sukhoi-30 MK aircrafts purchased from Russia.
  • People�s Republic of China:Country Resources [East Asia: China], Indian Pugwash Society,People�s Republic of China by ,Civilian Nuclear Programme, Economic Reforms, People's Republic of China, International Peace and Security, Uighyur Muslim Insurgency, China's Domestic Political Transition, Global Warming, Nuclear Industry, China's Domestic Reactors, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Power in China, Nuclear Device, Chinese Leader Mao Tse-tung, Nuclear Doctrine, Natural Resources Defense Council, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT, NPT, Chemical Weapons, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemical Warfare Training, Biological Weapons, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, BTWC, Biological Weapons Programme, Nuclear Forces Modernisation, ICBMs, Ballistic Missile Modernisation Programme, People's Liberation Army Air Force, Multirole Fighters, Sukhoi-27, Chinese Navy, War Resistance Against Japan, Deng Xiaoping's Speech, China's Industry, China-Australia Nuclear Agreement, 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC pugwashindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has also completed several new destroyers and frigates including 2 AAW Type 052C class guided missile destroyers.^ It consists of a full range of vessels, from patrol boats to guided missile frigates, one nuclear aircraft carrier and four strategic missile submarines (SNLEs).
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Typically, this group also includes several anti-air and anti-submarine frigates, an attack nuclear submarine (Rubis class submarines and in the future Barracuda class submarines), and possibly additional support ships.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The squadron, consisting of the destroyer "Tai Zhou" and the guided missile frigate "Ma Anshan," arrived at the port Tuesday and was welcomed by senior officials of the Pacific fleet of the Russian Navy.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, the PLAAF has built an indigenous J-10 fighter aircraft.^ China still has outstanding boundary disputes with India, and the J-10 is in a technological class with India's fleet of French-built Mirage 2000 fighters.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first it was said that China needs 50 carrier-based fighters for future aircraft carriers to be built for the Chinese Navy.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The PLA launched the new Jin class nuclear submarines on 3 December 2004 capable of launching nuclear warheads that could strike targets across the Pacific Ocean.^ Nuclear test in the Pacific Ocean.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 52 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The torpedo entered the PLAN service in 2005, carried by the Type 039 (Song class) and Type 039A (Yuan class) conventional submarines, and possibly the newly launched Type 093 (Shang class) and Type 094 (Jin class) nuclear-powered submarines too.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main points include: It is believed that India will further develop its missile-carrying nuclear submarines and SLBMs while stressing the on-going development of its land-based nuclear attack capability.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Major wars and events

Organization

National Military Command

.The state military system upholds the principle of the CCP's absolute leadership over the armed forces.^ The "16-Character Policy" is the CCP's overall direction that underlies the blurring of the lines between State and commercial entities, and military and commercial interests.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military branch was called the Unified Command of Pact Armed forces.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manchuria represented the breadbasket and military warehouse for the Japanese armed forces.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.The party and the State jointly established the CMC that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces.^ ISBN 1-58487-126-1 Harold Brown (Vorsitzender) et al.: Chinese Military Power (= Task Force Report No.
  • Volksbefreiungsarmee − Power-oldie Lexikon 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC lexikon.power-oldie.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Court and the local people's courts at different levels, military courts and other special people's courts.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The 1954 Constitution stated that the State President directs the armed forces and made the State President the chair of the Defense Commission (the Defense Commission is an advisory body, it does not lead the armed forces).^ The ministries and commissions issue orders, directives and regulations within the jurisdiction of their respective departments and in accordance with the statutes and the administrative rules and regulations, decisions and orders issued by the State Council.
  • Gender and Law in China 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.genderandlaw.org.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet they know that with an inefficient judiciary, a cowed police force and a human rights body that does not seem to quite know what constitutes human rights (they rarely defend those that the Mungiki kill) they know they are here to stay.
  • Santuri Mwanga: The gang terrorising Kenya | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The new constitution is designed to replace that introduced by General Kolingba, which established the rule of law and a constitutional state after several years of direct military rule, but made no provision for multiparty democracy.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 28 September 1954, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party re-established the CMC as the leader of the PLA and the armed forces.^ When the PLA became a national armed force with the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was an unwieldy, 5-million-strong peasant army.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Although nominally cooperating with the KMT, the Chinese Communist Party used the Red Army to expand its influence while leading the anti-Japanese resistance in north China.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ T he Communist Party's eight-member Central Military Commission (CMC) heads the People's Liberation Army, which includes the PRC's army, navy, and air force, as well as espionage operations conducted through the Second Department of the PLA. The CMC has a powerful bureaucratic status roughly comparable to that of the Politburo Standing Committee and the State Council.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From that time onwards, the system of joint system of party and state military leadership was established.^ For the first time, we are trying to quantify the safe limits outside of which the Earth system cannot continue to function in a stable, Holocene-like state."
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ "Today, mainland China is administered by the People's Republic of China—a one-party state under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China .
  • China developing x86-compatible processor to rival Intel -- Engadget 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have the Germans evolved a better school of thought, and therefore better leadership, then other military establishments?
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Central Committee of the Communist Party leads in all military affairs.^ Although nominally cooperating with the KMT, the Chinese Communist Party used the Red Army to expand its influence while leading the anti-Japanese resistance in north China.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ The most obvious example of the Communist Party's practical control of both the State and the PLA is Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin's simultaneous service as State President and CCP Central Military Commission Chairman.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subordinate to the CCP Secretary in state affairs is the State Council, presided over by Premier Zhu Rongji, also a high-ranking member of the Communist Party.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The State President directs the state military forces and the development of the military forces managed by the State Council.^ The Premier directs the work of the State Council.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any attempt to bring force against a country is entirely dependent on the permanent security council: Undemocratic and ran entirely on state interests.
  • Santuri Mwanga: The gang terrorising Kenya | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ I don't remember much of it, mostly just the detailed descriptions of the lone special forces guy with a .50 - and the Presidents daughter being in the military .
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

.In order to ensure the absolute leadership of the Communist Party over the armed forces, every level of party committee in the military forces implements the principles of democratic centralism, the divisions and higher levels establish political commissars and political organizations, and ensures that the branch organizations are in line.^ Party's absolute leadership and change its nature.6 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1987, Colonel Rowe was assigned as the chief of the Army division of the Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG), providing counter-insurgency training for the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These systems melded the party organization with the military organization in order to achieve the party's leadership and administrative leadership.^ The chief source for these systems is Russia, but the PRC has acquired military technology from other countries as well.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These programs could lead to the development of military communications systems; command, control, communications, and intelligence systems; and advances in military software development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the rise of Western economic and military power beginning in the mid-19th century, non-Chinese systems of social and political organization gained adherents in China.

.This is the key guarantee to the absolute leadership of the party over the military.^ Party's absolute leadership and change its nature.6 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Military Leadership

.The leadership by the CCP is a fundamental principle of the Chinese military command system.^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These programs could lead to the development of military communications systems; command, control, communications, and intelligence systems; and advances in military software development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the rise of Western economic and military power beginning in the mid-19th century, non-Chinese systems of social and political organization gained adherents in China.

.The PLA reports not to the State Council but rather to two Central Military Commissions, one belonging to the state and one belonging to the party.^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The State Central Military Commission, an organization within the State bureaucracy, is theoretically a separate decision-making body, but in reality it has no unique powers because its membership generally mirrors that of the Party's CMC. The PRC's Ministry of Defense, the principal State bureaucracy for dealing with military affairs, is likewise composed of Communist Party CMC members, and its role is primarily a ceremonial one.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he Communist Party's eight-member Central Military Commission (CMC) heads the People's Liberation Army, which includes the PRC's army, navy, and air force, as well as espionage operations conducted through the Second Department of the PLA. The CMC has a powerful bureaucratic status roughly comparable to that of the Politburo Standing Committee and the State Council.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, the two Central Military Commissions do not conflict each other because their membership is usually identical.^ What Charlotte Gore, and DK, suggest is that once states (read: Socialists) have created even a modest welfare state they have set the scene for conflicts because they have been seen to pick sides and the creation of an “other” becomes central to politics.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People%27s Congress.

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Often, the only difference in membership between the two occurs for a few months every five years, during the period between a Party Congress, when Party CMC membership changes, and the next ensuing National People's Congress, when the State CMC changes.^ No difference between the two at that time.
  • Milliband says terrorism is justified in some cases. [Archive] - Broadband & ADSL Forums - Internet, Gaming, Hardware, Software 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC mybroadband.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ The National People%27s Congress is elected for a term of five years .

^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CMC carries out its responsibilities according to the authority given to it by the Constitution and National Defense Law.^ Probably the most controversial language begins in Section 201, which permits the president to "direct the national response to the cyber threat" if necessary for "the national defense and security."
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, they exercise the right of autonomy within the limits of their authority as prescribed by the Constitution, the law of regional national autonomy and other laws, and implement the laws and policies of the state in the light of the existing local situation.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constantinalia 10-12-2006, 22:54 Well, I'd like to point out my nation is not really able to build anything, so this was according to buying surplus.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[9]
.On 11 November 1949, the Air Force leadership structure was established and the Navy leadership the following April.^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding to their surface and underwater forces, the ROK Navy equipped itself with an Air Force that included Anti-submarine Patrol Aircraft and Anti-submarine Helicopters.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Switek 12-31-2006, 02:57 PM Polish Navy: Polish Air Force In Land Forces every unit has his own banner .
  • War Flags [Archive] - Military Photos 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armored troops, air defense troops, public security forces, and worker–soldier militias were also established.^ Not counting naval air wing, the real air force, coastal defense, 2nd artillery, and surface ships like the new 054a.
  • freezing.point | The Economist 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Air Force Operations Command was established in 1961 to secure efficient command and control facilities.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Base defenses were upgraded in the late 1980s with new surface-to-air missiles, modern antiaircraft artillery and new fixed and mobile aircraft shelters.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Later established were the leadership organizations of other forces such as the chemical warfare defense forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, and the second artillery.^ It also includes links to other related sites such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organization.

^ Have the Germans evolved a better school of thought, and therefore better leadership, then other military establishments?
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those battalions are infantry, the marine troops who number about 750; special operations, which are similar to U.S. Navy frogmen; air defense missile; engineer/chemical-biological; and communications/electronic warfare.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leadership of each type of military force is under the leadership and management of the corresponding part of the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee.^ Liu Zhongde: The Chinese Communists are the only leadership force in China.
  • Why Teresa Teng Could Not Visit Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.zonaeuropa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sino-Japanese War of 1937–1945 (part of World War II ) forced an uneasy alliance between the Nationalists and the Communists as well as causing around 10 million Chinese civilian deaths.

.Forces under each military branch or force such as the subordinate forces, academies and schools, scientific research and engineering institutions, logistical support organizations, are also under the leadership of the CMC. This arrangement has been especially useful as China over the past several decades has moved increasingly towards military organizations composed of forces from more than one military branch.^ Dubai has several schools with an American curriculum such as Dubai American Academy , American School of Dubai and the Universal American School of Dubai .
  • Information about Dubai 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC wiki.trytop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The northern zone (containing Beijing) has summer daytime temperatures of more than 30 degrees Celsius and winters of Arctic severity.

.In September 1982, in order to meet the needs of modernization and to improve coordination in the command of forces including multiple service branches and to strengthen unified command of the military, the CMC ordered that the leadership organization of the various military branches be abolished.^ The military branch was called the Unified Command of Pact Armed forces.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, that's not negligible, as 5 million englishmen were in the various branches of the british military forces.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ The figure of 7.6 million that I obtained from a different source included local and regional Militia and Para-Military forces...
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.The PLA now has Air Force, Navy and Second Artillery leadership organs.^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not counting naval air wing, the real air force, coastal defense, 2nd artillery, and surface ships like the new 054a.
  • freezing.point | The Economist 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1986, the People's Armed Forces Department, except in some border regions, was put under the joint leadership of the PLA and the local authorities.^ When the PLA became a national armed force with the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was an unwieldy, 5-million-strong peasant army.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ As long as we could count on the military to provide us with some heavy support (air cover, artillery, tanks, etc) we have enough people here with small arms and ammo to prevent an invasion by any force that I could imagine.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

^ Local people's governments at and above the county level direct the work of their subordinate departments and of people's governments at lower levels, and have the power to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of their subordinate departments and people's governments at lower levels.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Although the local party organizations paid close attention to the People's Armed Forces Department, as a result of some practical problems, the CMC decided that after 1 April 1996, the People's Armed Forces Department will be once again be under the PLA.

Central Military Commission

.In December 1982, the fifth National People's Congress revised the State Constitution to provide that the State Central Military Commission leads all the armed forces of the state.^ The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People%27s Congress.

^ The Central Military Commission of the People%27s Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country .

^ In the 1947 Constitution, Article 9 specified that "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes."
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The chair of the State CMC is chosen and removed by the full NPC while the other members are chosen by the NPC Standing Committee.^ The current ranking member of the Secretariat is Vice-President and Standing Committee member Hu Jintao.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National People%27s Congress and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state .

^ No one on the standing committee of a local people's congress at and above the county level shall hold any post in state administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the CMC of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party remained the party organization that directly leads the military and all the other armed forces.^ The State Central Military Commission, an organization within the State bureaucracy, is theoretically a separate decision-making body, but in reality it has no unique powers because its membership generally mirrors that of the Party's CMC. The PRC's Ministry of Defense, the principal State bureaucracy for dealing with military affairs, is likewise composed of Communist Party CMC members, and its role is primarily a ceremonial one.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although nominally cooperating with the KMT, the Chinese Communist Party used the Red Army to expand its influence while leading the anti-Japanese resistance in north China.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Chinese people have chosen not only to support but to LOVE a corrupt “gangster” government (see pre-olympic MAINLANDERS protesting all over the world to support the communist party when there were a few anti-chinese-government protests by non-chinese people).
  • Medical Care: Netizen Compares Hong Kong To Mainland | chinaSMACK 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In actual practice, the party CMC, after consultation with the democratic parties, proposes the names of the State CMC members of the NPC so that these people after going through the legal processes can be elected by the NPC to the State Central Military Commission.^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The State Central Military Commission, an organization within the State bureaucracy, is theoretically a separate decision-making body, but in reality it has no unique powers because its membership generally mirrors that of the Party's CMC. The PRC's Ministry of Defense, the principal State bureaucracy for dealing with military affairs, is likewise composed of Communist Party CMC members, and its role is primarily a ceremonial one.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ROC has not made formal moves to change the name, flag, or national anthem of the state to reflect a Taiwan identity due to pressure from the United States and the fear of invasion or military action from the People's Republic of China against the island.

.That is to say, that the CMC of the Central Committee and the CMC of the State are one group and one organization.^ Post 9/11 This group was designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the United States in August 2002 and by the European Union in November 2005.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one on the standing committee of a local people%27s congress at and above the county level shall hold any post in state administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs.

^ Cao, also vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) and state councilor, said China spoke positively of Central African Republic for its adherence to the one-China policy and support for China's national unity.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, looking at it organizationally, these two CMCs are subordinate to two different systems – the party system and the State system.^ These two factors have changed Chinese economy, from a command economy to a more socialist state, with the Chinese economy increasingly in the hands of privately-owned businesses, not state- or military-run enterprises.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas of ethnic majority the government at the state and municipal levels here have for years been systematically reducing services in these communities creating a two tiered system.
  • Al Jazeera English - Americas - China decries US 'moral authority' 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC english.aljazeera.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Notice the quesion isn't usually IF the PS3 will catch up with the xbox360--but WHEN. Look at it this way--the PS3 at $500 and $600 is more than the xbox360 and will hurt somewhat by the price difference--however--what happens when the xbox360 premium and PS3 low system are priced the same?
  • IBM shipping Wii CPUs - News at GameSpot 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore the armed forces are under the absolute leadership of the Communist Party and are also the armed forces of the state.^ Party's absolute leadership and change its nature.6 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Communist Party Secretariat officially serves as staff support to the Politburo and oversees the implementation of Politburo decisions by State bureaucracies.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Communist Party has long believed that forcing technology from foreign firms is not only critical to the PRC, but also is a cost that foreign firms will bear in order to obtain PRC market entry.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is unique joint leadership system reflects the origin of the PLA as the military branch of the Communist Party.^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most obvious example of the Communist Party's practical control of both the State and the PLA is Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin's simultaneous service as State President and CCP Central Military Commission Chairman.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The slogan "the Party controls the gun" is often repeated in speeches by both CCP and PLA officials, serving as a constant reminder of CCP supremacy over the military.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It only became the national military when the People's Republic was established in 1949.
.By convention, the chairman and vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission are civilian members of the Communist Party of China, but they are not necessarily the heads of the civilian government.^ The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission.
  • Gender and Law in China 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.genderandlaw.org.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The address at the Communist Party’s Central Party School in Beijing was attended by the members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, top central government and provincial leaders and senior military and security officials, marking it as one of Hu’s most important speeches since he became China’s top leader in 2002.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ Cao, also vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) and state councilor, said China spoke positively of Central African Republic for its adherence to the one-China policy and support for China's national unity.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Jiang Zemin and Deng Xiaoping retained the office of chairman even after relinquishing their other positions.^ I mean even Deng Xiaoping's son was thrown out of window and became paralyzed because of the Red Guards.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most obvious example of the Communist Party's practical control of both the State and the PLA is Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin's simultaneous service as State President and CCP Central Military Commission Chairman.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Jiang Zemin and Premier Zhu Rongji , both former mayors of Shanghai , led post-Tiananmen PRC in the 1990s.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.All of the other members of the CMC are uniformed active military officials.^ I've seen too many of this topic across all the military discussion forums and no one agrees with each other's opinions at the end of the day.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US is stationed in South Korea, so I would probably declare war on North Korea, starting with air strikes on all their nuclear facilities, and other military installations.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

As with other nations, the Ministry of National Defense is not the head of the military, but is usually a vice chairman of the CMC.

PLA General HQ

The PLA General Headquarters are composed of the following departments:
.The GPD maintains a system of political commissars which maintain a separate chain of command to ensure loyalty to the party and the civilian government.^ Unlike in China, the mayor of a city does not have to be of the same political party as the government therefore he sometimes does as he pleases, which is what happened.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The PRC Constitution asserts the supremacy of the Communist Party over all other government, military, and civilian entities.3 But the CCP also relies on other, more pragmatic methods to ensure its primacy.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Censorship of political speech and information is openly and routinely used to silence criticism of government and the ruling Chinese Communist Party.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.The CMC exercises leadership over the military regions, the Navy and the Air Force and the Second Artillery through the four general departments.^ Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have also been struck with air raids and land military forces.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through these "four generations," continued, the development by leaps and bounds, I will air combat equipment into multi-generation co-exist, high, middle and end of file with the situation so that I air forces in the country and world hegemony strong dialogue , To "excellent system to gifted."
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within a military region, the three service branches are coordinated in the battle operations under the unified command of the military district.^ They operate under the Special Operations Command.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The military branch was called the Unified Command of Pact Armed forces.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strength The largest of the three services of the JSDF, the Ground Self-Defense Force operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichikawa, east of Tokyo.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Second Artillery is however under the direct leadership of the CMC. The army units in a military region are under the leadership of that military region.^ In addition to the 1980 Hainan brigade, a second marine brigade of 6,000 men was established in the Guangzhou military region in 1990.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PLA military intelligence officers do, however, operate directly in the United States, posing as military attaches at the PRC Embassy in Washington, D.C., and at the United Nations in New York.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all lillihood, Cameroon probably still has these stockpiles, along with first-rate (Albeit old) military hardware from the old Army Unit in the area.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The navy and air force troops in a military region are under the joint leadership of the military region and their service branch.^ Throw in the Navy and Air Force, and I'll bet we had more than 2.5 million.
  • United Kingdom Manpower Question - Page 2 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have also been struck with air raids and land military forces.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Military leadership

.According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the CMC is composed of the following: the Chairman; the Vice-Chairmen; and Members.^ People's Republic of China proclaimed.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ People's Republic of China and Republic of China (1949–present) .

^ People’s Republic of China 1949–90 .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission.^ The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission.
  • Gender and Law in China 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.genderandlaw.org.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most obvious example of the Communist Party's practical control of both the State and the PLA is Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin's simultaneous service as State President and CCP Central Military Commission Chairman.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People%27s Congress.

As of Mar.2008:[10][11]
Chairman:
Vice Chairmen:
  • Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission – General Guo Boxiong
  • Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission – General Xu Caihou
Members:

Military region

PLA military regions (1996)
Under the General Staff Headquarters are the seven military regions:
The PLA garrisons in Hong Kong and Macau are both under the administration of the Guangzhou MR.
.The organization into Military Area Commands (MAC) has been much criticized as being obsolete and irrelevant in the 21st century, and there has been wide speculation that the system might be drastically altered in the next several years.^ I don't remember much of it, mostly just the detailed descriptions of the lone special forces guy with a .50 - and the Presidents daughter being in the military .
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There is unmistakable evidence that Saddam Hussein is working aggressively to develop nuclear weapons and will likely have nuclear weapons within the next five years ...
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coordination with civilian national security groups such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is achieved primarily by the leading groups of the Communist Party of China.^ China "is a socialist republic (specifically a people's democratic dictatorship according to its constitution) ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system," .
  • Columbia Suspends Environmental Journalism Program : CJR 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.cjr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although nominally cooperating with the KMT, the Chinese Communist Party used the Red Army to expand its influence while leading the anti-Japanese resistance in north China.
  • Consolidated China Improvement Pack - Page 12 - Paradox Interactive Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ China was allied with the U.S. and Britain against Japan, and at war's end joined the United Nations as a permanent member of the 5-nation Security Council, with a veto.
  • China - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Particularly important are the leading groups on foreign affairs and Taiwan.

Service branches

.The PLA encompasses five main service branches: Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Second Artillery (strategic missile force), and the People's Armed Police.^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as we could count on the military to provide us with some heavy support (air cover, artillery, tanks, etc) we have enough people here with small arms and ammo to prevent an invasion by any force that I could imagine.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

.Following the 200,000 troop reduction from 2003 to 2005, the total end-strength of the PLA has been reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million.^ "The PAP has a total strength of 660,000 troops.
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Clinton, journalists arrive in U.S. - POLITICO.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then by the end 50x, Khrushev publiced 20 millions total losses including civilians - and again, that was also close to true figure for deaths directly caused by german actions.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Approaching the end of 1944, this former vanguard of Japanese military prowess found its strength reduced half again from its number in December 1942.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are 660,000 personnel serving in the People's Armed Police (PAP), and 1.2-1.5 million in the reserve forces and militia.^ Xinhua, citing a provincial civil affairs spokesman, said 120,000 people had been forced to leave their homes.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ By 1990 there were more than 3.5 million civil defense personnel in reserve.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There's roughly 90 million people here in America who are armed with various sorts of pistols, shotguns and rifles and the ammunition to feed each and every one of them.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

.The PLA has paid close attention to the performance of the US armed forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.^ US forces in iraq, afghanistan and every other place they go?they kill innocent civilians during war time.
  • Elite Swedish soldiers blow up wrong house - The Local 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: News]

^ Can you show us ONE deal that an agent closed and got paid on??!!
  • Mainland China Trading 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.scam.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States accuses Iran of seeking to develop a nuclear arsenal and of arming militant groups throughout the Middle East attempting to destabilize Iraq and Afghanistan...
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As well as learning from the success of the US military in network-centric warfare, joint operations, C4ISR, and hi-tech weaponry, the PLA is also studying the unconventional tactics that could be used to exploit the vulnerabilities of a more technologically-advanced enemy.^ Although the Navy has the world’s most technologically advanced fleet – including state-of-the-art nuclear attack submarines – officials acknowledge that these comparatively low-tech diesel-electric boats could give an enemy an asymmetric advantage.
  • Dominican capital observes U.S. Navy warship’s maneuvers - DominicanToday.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.dominicantoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-Altitude and Mountain Warfare For high-altitude operations, the PLA, along with the militaries of the other members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), have been moving toward the Russian concept of Reconnaissance Combat Operations (RBD).
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more recent method used by the PRC to obtain advanced technology from the United States is through the purchase of an interest in U.S. high-technology companies or U.S. export facilities.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has been reflected in the two parallel guidelines for the PLA ground forces development.^ At times this has been reflected in tension between modernizing the PLA and developing the economy.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While speeding up the process of introducing new technology into the force and retiring the older equipment, the PLA has also placed an emphasis on asymmetric warfare, including finding methods of using existing equipment to defeat a technologically superior enemy.^ There are many means of subverting the Golden Shield including using a proxy server outside of China or setting up a VPN connection to a server outside of the country.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find pics, guides, news and lots of useful information about Stockholm.
  • Elite Swedish soldiers blow up wrong house - The Local 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: News]

^ A more recent method used by the PRC to obtain advanced technology from the United States is through the purchase of an interest in U.S. high-technology companies or U.S. export facilities.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

PLA Ground Force

.The PLA deploys the world's largest ground force, currently totaling some 1.6 million personnel, or about 70 percent of the PLA's total manpower (2.3 million).^ Additionally, there are also 800,000 men in the reserve forces and about ten million militia" .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Clinton, journalists arrive in U.S. - POLITICO.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total USSR army losses are yet widely acknowledged at about 8.6 millions - this figure in from General Krivosheev group study and generally accepted as most accurated between all world historicans.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even Viet Kieu!:lol: ^^ ^^ That's the reason why Viet Nam have the largest military troop in the world, 12 million lifes!
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ground forces are divided among the seven military regions as named above.^ JGSDF, is the name of the military ground forces (army) of Japan.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ T he PRC has benefitted from advanced U.S. and Western military technology in several areas, including ground force weapons, communications, remote sensing, and tactical and strategic systems.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The regular forces of the ground forces consist of 18 Group Armies, which are corps-size combined arms units each with approximately 30,000-65,000 personnel.^ In 1987, Colonel Rowe was assigned as the chief of the Army division of the Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG), providing counter-insurgency training for the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is like calling 'Dad's Army' a special forces unit.
  • Elite Swedish soldiers blow up wrong house - The Local 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: News]

^ Atlantique ATL3 and 12 Rafales 12,778 Active and 10,000 Reserve Personnel Belgische Luchtmacht (Belgian Air Force) 1.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The group armies contain, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies's 2006 Military Balance, among them 9 armored divisions, 3 mechanized infantry divisions, 24 motorized infantry divisions, 15 infantry divisions, two amphibious assault divisions, one mechanized infantry brigade, 22 motorized infantry brigades, 12 armored brigades, 7 artillery divisions, 14 artillery brigades, 19 anti-aircraft artillery missile brigades, and 10 army aviation (helicopter) regiments (two training).^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Platonovka, Primorsky Kray) # 1040th Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment (SA-15.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Marquis 12-22-2006, 10:22 AM (Non ceremonial) Flag of the British Army!
  • War Flags [Archive] - Military Photos 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: Original source]

.In times of crisis, the PLA Ground Force will be reinforced by numerous reserve and paramilitary units.^ Instead, the ratio of officers to enlisted personnel is high, requiring augmentation by reserves or volunteers in times of crisis.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Homeland Reserve Forces The Republic of Korea Homeland Reserve Forces (ROKHRF, Korean: 대한민국 향토예비군) are a paramilitary organization responsible for community and regional defence of South Korea.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The PLA reserve component has about 1.2-1.5 million personnel divided into 30 infantry, and 12 anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) divisions.^ Additionally, there are also 800,000 men in the reserve forces and about ten million militia" .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Clinton, journalists arrive in U.S. - POLITICO.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joo Gonalves Zarco Infantry Battalion (Based in Madeira, Portugal) 122,909 Combat Personnel + 30,133 Service Personnel for a total of 153,042 Personnel in Portugal.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By 1990 there were more than 3.5 million civil defense personnel in reserve.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.In addition, approximately 1.1 million armored personnel carriers (APC).^ The only antennas seen are 10-foot whip antennas on their Type 63A amphibious tanks and Type 63/89 armored personnel carriers.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A VHF frequency hopping PRC-2188 backpack and 50-watt model PRC-189 tank and armored-personnel-carrier-mounted transceiver also are used.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two amphibious mechanized divisions were also created in Nanjing and Guangzhou MR. At least 40 percent of PLA divisions and brigades are now mechanized or armored, almost double the percentage before the reduction.^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PLA has a new light mechanized division—number 127—that specializes in amphibious landings, and it was a notable unit in Sino-Soviet joint landings that took place in 2005.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recent highly publicized 2005 Russia-China joint amphibious landings used the number 1 and number 124 amphibious mechanized divisions from the 1st and 42nd Army groups.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While much of the PLA Ground Force was being reduced over the past few years, technology-intensive elements such as special operations forces (SOF), army aviation (helicopters), surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), and electronic warfare units have all been rapidly expanded.^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ Chinese marines traditionally have not received new arms upgrades before the PLA. In 2005, marine missile air defense battalions and a few high-technology elite units received the newest shoulder-launched QW-1 surface-to-air missile (SAM), replacing the HY-5A SAMs used for several decades.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't remember much of it, mostly just the detailed descriptions of the lone special forces guy with a .50 - and the Presidents daughter being in the military .
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

.The latest operational doctrine of the PLA ground forces highlights the importance of information technology, electronic and information warfare, and long-range precision strikes in future warfare.^ Receive the latest technology news and information.

^ It is expected that the new boats will be capable of carrying long-range cruise missiles as well as short-range tactical land-strike missiles.
  • Dominican capital observes U.S. Navy warship’s maneuvers - DominicanToday.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.dominicantoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Police on Friday officially launched Strike Force Raptor, aimed at eliminating bikie warfare and related criminal activity.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The older generation telephone/radio-based command, control, and communications (C3) systems are being replaced by an integrated battlefield information networks featuring local/wide-area networks (LAN/WAN), satellite communications, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based surveillance and reconnaissance systems, and mobile command and control centers.^ In many vehicle installations the Vehicle Inter Communication ( VIC-1 ) system is used to give crew members access to the radio and intercom.  This is most common in tracked vehicles, but is also used in some wheeled vehicles.
  • PRC-77 Back Pack Squad Radio 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.prc68.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas of ethnic majority the government at the state and municipal levels here have for years been systematically reducing services in these communities creating a two tiered system.
  • Al Jazeera English - Americas - China decries US 'moral authority' 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC english.aljazeera.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on this, I assumed that new radios were coming into the system.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.The Chinese marines have extensive training in CQC (close quarters combat) and hand-to-hand combat.^ Established in 1996, ACC has successfully trained close to 1,000 students who are linguistically and culturally proficient in Mandarin Chinese and can function freely in Chinese speaking communities.
  • Foreign Language Schools - Chinese Language Schools in China: Mainland China 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.multilingualbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

PLA Navy

Sailors shown in 2009 during 60th anniversary celebrations of the PLAN.
.Until the early 1990s, the navy performed a subordinate role to the PLA Land Forces.^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although it was claimed that PLAN marines were landing from amphibious ships, these forces actually were PLA 31st Army Infantry Division troops.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All PLAN “marines” had worn navy jumpers, kapok life jackets and flat hats or PLA quilted uniforms and caps in all landings or other duties from 1950 up to the mid-1990s.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since then it has undergone rapid modernization. .The 250,000-man People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is organized into three major fleets: the North Sea Fleet headquartered at Qingdao, the East Sea Fleet headquartered at Ningbo, and the South Sea Fleet headquartered in Zhanjiang.^ Zeppelin L-4 crashes into North Sea.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 52 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glorious Flag of the Mindanao People's Army Democratic Mindanao, which is one the most militarized countries in the world, hosts one of the largest armies of South-East Asia, with an estimated strength of 1-3 million subjects.
  • Democratic People's Republic of Mindanao - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Democratic People's Republic of Mindanao - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC mirror.uncyc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By your logic you should be getting off the Internet and joining the People's Liberation Army where you can look forward to a great life and invading Taiwan, I'm sure.
  • Chinadaily BBS - China Watch - Taiwan needs the Mainland 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC bbs.chinadaily.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

.Each fleet consists of a number of surface ship, submarine, naval air force, coastal defense, and marine units.^ The naval air force was also greatly enhanced.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ No numbers for air force yet.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chinese marines traditionally have not received new arms upgrades before the PLA. In 2005, marine missile air defense battalions and a few high-technology elite units received the newest shoulder-launched QW-1 surface-to-air missile (SAM), replacing the HY-5A SAMs used for several decades.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The navy includes 35,000 Coastal Defense Force and 56,000 Naval infantry/Marines (two multi-arm marine brigades), plus a 56,000 PLAN Aviation naval air arm operating several hundred land-based aircraft and ship-based helicopters.^ Equipment The French Air Force operates more than 1,000 aircraft.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The naval air force was also greatly enhanced.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Commander of the Mozambican Navy, Patravio Jotamo, said that the three ships would operate from the naval sub-bases of Tete (center), Metangula (north) and Nampula (north), according to a report on macauhub.com "This important donation will contribute to fighting the pillage of our resources, which is occurring in Mozambique's waters," Jotamo said.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As part of its overall program of naval modernization, the PLAN has been developing a blue water navy.^ In recent years, much attention has been focused on building a navy with blue-water capability.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ The ROKN aims to become a substantial blue-water navy by 2020.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PM AL RRC (PLAN) saat ini RRC sedang mengenmabnkan Al-nya yg semula hanya berfokus pada pertahanan pantai ke arah green dan blue water navy.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Navy also utilises the CJ-10 naval cruise missile system, which made its first public appearance during late 2009.

PLA Air Force

.The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF), with some 250,000 personnel and 2300 Fighters and Attackers, is organized into seven Military Region Air Forces (MRAF) and 24 Air Divisions.^ People's Liberation Army, 43rd anniversary .
  • China stamps. China PRC mint stamps, used China stamps, souvenir sheets, booklets, China New Year Greeting stamps, China First Day Covers for sale. Buying China stamps. 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.siyer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People's Liberation Army, 60th anniversary .
  • China stamps. China PRC mint stamps, used China stamps, souvenir sheets, booklets, China New Year Greeting stamps, China First Day Covers for sale. Buying China stamps. 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.siyer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1987, Colonel Rowe was assigned as the chief of the Army division of the Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG), providing counter-insurgency training for the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the largest air force in Asia-Pacific region and the third largest in the world (after the USAF and the Russian Air Force).^ Asiaguide.com can help you locate businesses or organizations in the Asia Pacific Region.

^ Business and Economic Information Sources for Singapore and the Asia-Pacific Region: The World Chinese Business Network has an extensive searchable database containing information about Chinese businesses on every continent.

^ If you are searching for links for online resources about the Asia-Pacific region in general, you can go to CNN's Asia-Pacific sites ...

.The largest operational units within the Aviation Corps is the air division, which has 2 to 3 aviation regiments, each with 20 to 36 aircraft.^ Aviation operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These weaknesses seriously compromise the ability of the MSDF to fulfill its mission and to operate independently of the United States Air Force and the United States Seventh Fleet.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, the ROK Navy enhanced its landing operations and specialized warfare units by improving weapons for the Marine Corps and Special Action squadrons.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The surface-to-air missile (SAM) Corps is organized into SAM divisions and brigades.^ Can be fitted with: 12.7 mm machine , a Rafael Spike anti-tank missile, a 40 mm automatic launcher, or Surface-to Air Missles.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All four regional headquarters control surface-to-air missile units of both the ASDF and the GSDF located in their respective areas.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ HAWK - The HAWK system is an aircraft interception surface-to-air missile (SAM) system to short-medium ranges.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

There are also three airborne divisions manned by the PLAAF.

Second Artillery Corps

.The Second Artillery Corps (SAC) is the strategic missile forces of the PLA. It controls China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles.^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ PLASAC are a major division of the Asian Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force that controls Asian China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Troops (a mix from PLASAC, PLAN, PLAAF and PLAGF) 29 SU-30MKK, 5 H-6D Tankers and 3 An-124 Theater Missile Systems The Second Artillery Corps (PLASAC) are the strategic missile forces of Asian China.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.China's total nuclear arsenal size is estimated to be between 100 and 400 nuclear weapons.^ On May 22nd, 1947 the act was signed into law allocating a total of 400 million in aide (300 million to Greece and 100 million to Turkey).
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size.

^ Estimates of the dates when China’s marine corps originated as a part of the PLA navy (PLAN) differ as greatly as the estimates of its size.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The SAC has approximately 90,000-120,000 personnel and six ballistic missile divisions (missile corps bases).^ The ASDF had an authorized strength of 47,000 and maintained some 46,000 personnel and approximately 330 combat aircraft in 1992.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Organization The ROKMC is the second largest marine corps in the world, with personnel numbering over 27,000.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dhaka Special Forces Battalion (Based in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh) 377,174 Combat Personnel + 121,346 Service Personnel for a total of 498,520 Personnel in Bangladesh.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The six divisions are independently deployed in different military regions and have a total of 15 to 20 missile brigades.^ The brigade-level combat system is composed of one command vehicle, six control vehicles, six track-radar vehicles, six search-radar vehicles, 48 missile-launch vehicles and 192 rounds of missiles.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military Command 09-04-2008, 20:22 Irish Army 1st Armored Brigade-5000 men -1st.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition to the 1980 Hainan brigade, a second marine brigade of 6,000 men was established in the Guangzhou military region in 1990.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

People's Armed Police

A People's Armed Police Squad in the Forbidden City
.The PAP is the paramilitary force primarily responsible for law enforcement and internal security and is under a unique dual-leadership system of the Central Military Commission and local public security bureaus (local police departments).^ The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Probable use was by Military Police & other security forces.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, U.S. agencies responsible for different aspects of national security, law enforcement, and Sino-U.S. relations often do not share even basic data concerning PRC espionage in the United States.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The PAP was formed in 1983 when the PLA transferred its internal security and border defense responsibilities to the Ministry of Public Security.^ Responsible for the export is SIBAT - the Foreign Defense Assistance and Defense Export Organization, which is run by the Ministry of Defense.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably the most controversial language begins in Section 201, which permits the president to "direct the national response to the cyber threat" if necessary for "the national defense and security."
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In wartime, the PAP, as part of China's armed forces, would be used as light infantry, performing border defense and other support functions to assist the regular ground forces.^ I did include the provision for China to be supporting the move, but the US will also be able to draw on the Seventh Fleet and other resources to delay until reinforcements from other theaters can arrive.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said that any export contracts for this type of engine to China would also have to go through the European Union's code of conduct for arms exports regulations.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be used by the digital literati for the most part.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, the PLA regular forces' main purpose is national defense and has rarely been used for internal security or police functions.^ Probable use was by Military Police & other security forces.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The PRC's blurring of "commercial" and "intelligence" operations presents challenges to U.S. efforts to monitor technology transfers for national security purposes.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most such issues in the country however are handled by the paramilitary People's Armed Police.^ Most of the countries involved in the war were provoked at some point to cause them to join; but the war was about freeing people instead of just responding to agression.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Police arrested and charged two people and issued eight move-on notices after carrying out searches and patrolling 11 bars in Kings Cross and Parramatta.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The instances in which the PLA has been used for non-military internal security duties have included several incidents during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Tibet in 1989, and with the Tiananmen Protests of 1989.^ In 1989, the student protests at Tiananmen Square were violently put to an end by the Chinese military after 15 days of martial law.

^ The United States The PRC has stolen military technology from the United States, but until recently the United States has lawfully transferred little to the PLA. This has been due, in part, to the sanctions imposed by the United States in response to both the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre and to the PRC's 1993 transfer of missile technology to Pakistan.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many times, the PLA has been involved in flood relief operations, particularly in the Yellow River region.

Conscription and terms of service

PLA recruits training.
.Technically, military service with the PLA is obligatory for all Chinese citizens.^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the honourable duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and join the militia in accordance with the law.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost all Chinese military production lines are co-located with civil/commercial production lines.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in practice it is entirely voluntary; because of China's large population and therefore the large number of individuals who volunteer to join the regular armed forces, a draft has never been enforced.^ The armed forces of the People%27s Republic of China belong to the people .

^ The Troupes de Marine have a very high percentage of volunteer regulars, the Légion is entirely volunteer; the regiments are therefore freed from the legislative constraints that exist for traditional metropolitan conscript regiments, although not all the new Divisions will be so unihibited.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Da zaozong hezhao zhangxinglui hangbudui [Building a Fighting and Reconnaissance Armed Force],” Xiandai junshizao [Conmilit], February 2004 Number 325, p.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All 18-year-olds have to register themselves with the government authorities, in a way similar to the Selective Service System of the United States.^ God love ‘em for their commitment, but it’s like watching a bunch of seven year olds thrash out a political system based upon the repeal of baths and bedtime and the institution of free Haribo for all.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all lillihood, Cameroon probably still has these stockpiles, along with first-rate (Albeit old) military hardware from the old Army Unit in the area.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most PRC covert collection of restricted technology in the United States is accomplished by individuals attached to PRC Government and commercial organizations which are unaffiliated with official PRC intelligence services.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main exception to this system applies to potential university students (male and female), who are required to undergo military training (usually for the duration of one to four weeks) before or one year after their courses have commenced.^ Graduates of four-year universities, the four-year National Defense Academy, and particularly outstanding enlisted personnel undergo a one-year officer course at the Officer Candidate School at Etajima (site of the former Imperial Naval Academy).
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ February 4th, 2007, 01:59 AM all uni students are obliged to attend a1 month military training program in a separate army camp.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of the aircraft after 20 years, performance and F-16C / D is one of my Air Force in 2020 before the main battle fighter.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conscription is enshrined in Article 55 of the Constitution, which states: "It is a sacred duty of every citizen of the People's Republic of China to defend his or her motherland and resist invasion.^ People's Republic of China proclaimed.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ People’s Republic of China 1949–90 .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ People's Republic of China portal .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

It is an honoured obligation of the citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and to join the militia forces." The present legal basis of conscription is the 1984 Military Service Law, which describes military service as a duty for "all citizens without distinction of race... and religious creed." .This law has not been amended since it came into effect.^ So far, 131 countries have ratified this treaty, which came into effect at the end of 2005.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conscription has, therefore, only existed officially since the establishment of the Republic in 1949, and, theoretically, all Chinese citizens have had the duty of performing military service.^ It is the honourable duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and join the militia in accordance with the law.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Court and the local people's courts at different levels, military courts and other special people's courts.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Technically, those 18–22 years of age enter selective compulsory military service, with a 24-month service obligation.^ Since the Imperial Reforms, Imperial Guardsmen are taken from their homes (Often Forcably) at the age of 5 and trained until the age of 17, whereopon they enter the service.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Arabicia currently has a two year mandatory service upon when someone turns the age of 18.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I've been a DJ/Remixer/Producer for over 24 years and I buy my music on CD or I get it free or through subscription from legal record pools, legal remix services and legal DJ services.
  • Will piracy crackdown bring iPod border checks? - The Red Tape Chronicles - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC redtape.msnbc.com [Source type: General]

.This includes 18–19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs.^ Arabicia currently has a two year mandatory service upon when someone turns the age of 18.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Relying on "princelings" who exploit their military, commercial, and political connections with high-ranking CCP and PLA leaders to buy military technology from abroad .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flight students, all upper-secondary school graduates, enter a two-year course.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Military service is normally performed in the regular armed forces, but the 1984 law does allow for conscription into the reserve forces.^ Maxim demonstrates great physical prowess during the attack, and is quickly conscripted into the military when he arrives at their camp.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and undertakings must abide by the Constitution and the law.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was also known to have been forced into service for strike control of fighter aircraft in extreme forward areas do to a lack of a suitable radio.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

.Hong Kong and Macau SAR residents however, as of 1997 and 1999 are exempted from joining the military.^ Hong Kong and Macau are excluded.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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^ As a matter of fact for a Chinese national to visit Hong Kong or Macau, they must secure a passport and visa.

^ Main articles: History of China , History of the People's Republic of China , History of Hong Kong , and History of Macau Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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Military intelligence

General Staff Department

.The General Staff Department carries out staff and operational functions for the PLA and had major responsibility for implementing military modernization plans.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of them have operated "in the red" for years, bolstered only by extremely generous and forgiving loan arrangements from the PRC's central banks.21 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It operates as a distinct arm of the military of South Korea, unlike most other "Marine" military organisations, which generally function as part of their respective national navies.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Headed by the chief of general staff, the department served as the headquarters for the ground forces and contained directorates for the three other armed services: Air Force, Navy, and Strategic Missile Force.^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 3 combat tours he was transferred to Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, DC., for duty as the Administrative Assistant and Aide-de-Camp to the Deputy Chief of Staff.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The General Staff Department included functionally organized subdepartments for artillery, armored units, engineering, operations, training, intelligence, mobilization, surveying, communications, quartermaster services, and politics.^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included in that number are the backup generators, step-down transformers, power distribution units, and uninterruptable power supplies.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exercise, with combat actions of armored and mechanized units under informationization condition as the focus, will be organized and conducted in a complex electromagnetic environment.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Navy Headquarters controlled the North Sea Fleet, East Sea Fleet, and South Sea Fleet.^ As ground troops withdrew from the north, due to the intervention of Chinese Communist troops, the Navy evacuated not only armed forces and military supplies but also refugees longing for freedom in the East and West seas.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Upon winning battles in Okgye and the Korea Straits, the ROK Navy secured the seas south of the 38th parallel.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ East · Northeast · North · Western ( Northwest · Southwest ) · South Central .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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.Air Force Headquarters generally exercised control through the commanders of the seven military regions.^ ROKAF also moved the headquarters and Air Force Education & Training Command.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have also been struck with air raids and land military forces.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nuclear forces were directly subordinate to the General Staff Department.^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last visit was made in June 2000 by General Yuji Fujinawa, who was then chairman of the Joint Staff Council of the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conventional main, regional, and militia units were controlled administratively by the military region commanders, but the General Staff Department in Beijing could assume direct operational control of any main-force unit at will.^ In day time hours it was generally operational for Iraqi command & control operations.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It operates as a distinct arm of the military of South Korea, unlike most other "Marine" military organisations, which generally function as part of their respective national navies.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, broadly speaking, the General Staff Department exercises operational control of the main forces, and the military region commanders controlled the regional forces and, indirectly, the militia.^ In day time hours it was generally operational for Iraqi command & control operations.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to sources, the troops participated in the exercise are a mechanized infantry brigade of the Jinan Military Area Command and an armored regiment of the Beijing Military Area Command.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The post of principal intelligence official in the top leadership of the Chinese military has been taken up by a number of people of several generations, from Li Kenong in the 1950s to Xiong Guangkai in the late 1990s; and their public capacity has always been assistant to the deputy chief of staff or assistant to the chief of staff.^ The Chinese people have stood up .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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^ After 3 combat tours he was transferred to Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, DC., for duty as the Administrative Assistant and Aide-de-Camp to the Deputy Chief of Staff.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sum, you can't just use the numbers of the official Budget because they are cooking the books and annual GDP is a terrible measure for evaluating military expenditure.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

.Ever since the CPC officially established the system of "major military regions" for its army in the 1950s, the intelligence agencies inside the Army have, after going through several major evolutions, developed into the present three major military intelligence setups.^ An interesting process of violent reseparation of this heavy system into three or four fragments of comparable size was observed.
  • Physical Review C 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC prc.aps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But its role soon broadened to include the integration of civilian research, development, and production efforts into the military.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These programs could lead to the development of military communications systems; command, control, communications, and intelligence systems; and advances in military software development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • The central level is composed of the Second and Third Departments under the PLA General Staff Headquarters and the Liaison Department under the PLA General Political Department.
  • At the major military regions intelligence activities consist of the Second Bureau established at the same level as the Operation Department under the Headquarters, and the Liaison Department established under the Political Department.
  • The third system includes a number of communications stations directly established in the garrison areas of all the major military regions by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters.
.The Second Bureau under the Headquarters and the Liaison Department under the Political Department of major military regions are only subjected to the "professional leadership" of their "counterpart" units under the Central Military Commission and are still considered the direct subordinate units of the major military region organizationally.^ It is considered a major military regional power and an emerging military superpower .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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^ His multiple victories over the mighty Mongol Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan are considered among the greatest military feats in world history.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of them have operated "in the red" for years, bolstered only by extremely generous and forgiving loan arrangements from the PRC's central banks.21 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those entities whose names include the word "institute," all research institutes under the charge of the Second and the Third Departments of the PLA General Staff Headquarters, including other research organs inside the Army, are at least of the establishment size of the full regimental level.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new entity, the General Armament Department (GAD), was simultaneously created under the CMC to assume responsibility for weapons system management and research and development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the deputy commanders or deputy chiefs of staff of a major military region in China, there is always one who is assigned to take charge of intelligence work, and the intelligence agencies under his charge are directly affiliated to the headquarters and the political department of the military region.^ China's military rise doesn't need to be a threat to the U.S., particularly if a peaceful and transparent Chinese military works as a U.S. partner to guarantee stability in Asia.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 3 combat tours he was transferred to Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, DC., for duty as the Administrative Assistant and Aide-de-Camp to the Deputy Chief of Staff.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Wildlife of China One of seventeen megadiverse countries , [ 87 ] China lies in two of the world's major ecozones , the Palearctic and the Indomalaya .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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.The Conference on Strengthening Intelligence Work held from 3 September 1996 – 18 September, 1996 at the Xishan Command Center of the Ministry of State Security and the General Staff Department.^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Letter to Chairman Christopher Cox from Susan Ochs, SEC, September 18, 1998; Briefing by SEC to Select Committee Staff, October 16, 1998.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ministries and commissions issue orders, directives and regulations within the jurisdiction of their respective departments and in accordance with the statutes and the administrative rules and regulations, decisions and orders issued by the State Council.

.Chi Haotian delivered a report entitled "Strengthen Intelligence Work in a New International Environment To Serve the Cause of Socialist Construction."^ Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people%27s peaceful labour, participate in national reconstruction, and work hard to serve the people.

^ Microsoft is well known to have special hooks into Windows which can be used for 'forensics', this has probably caused more privacy violations than anything but it is not reported by 'Privacy International'.
  • Microsoft Watch - Advertising & Search - Microsoft U.S. Search Queries Rise in March 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

^ Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labour, participate in national reconstruction, and work hard to serve the people.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

The report emphasized the need to strengthen the following four aspects of intelligence work:
.
  • Efforts must be made to strengthen understanding of the special nature and role of intelligence work, as well as understanding of the close relationship between strengthening intelligence work on the one hand, and of the Four Modernizations of the motherland, the reunification of the motherland, and opposition to hegemony and power politics on the other.
  • The United States and the West have all along been engaged in infiltration, intervention, sabotage, and intelligence gathering against China on the political, economic, military, and ideological fronts.^ In other fields, a combined diplomatic/military effort can be made.
    • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This invisible front line is not a military but a cultural/political one.
    • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ My argument, all along, has been that the military is the best example of socialism in the United States.
    • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

    The response must strengthen the struggle against their infiltration, intervention, sabotage, and intelligence gathering.
  • Consolidating intelligence departments and training a new generation of intelligence personnel who are politically reliable, honest and upright in their ways, and capable of mastering professional skills, the art of struggle, and advanced technologies.
  • Strengthening the work of organizing intelligence in two international industrial, commercial, and financial ports—Hong Kong and Macau.
.Although the four aspects emphasized by Chi Haotian appeared to be defensive measures, they were in fact both defensive and offensive in nature.^ Furious demands made by the United States to both India and Nigeria for the release of their planes led to Indian Defense officials allowing the AN-124 they had captured to be released.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One must acknowledge a difference between wish and reality to grasp the distinction between the two types, (1) and (2), although they are both identical in their "wishes" or their subjective make-up.
  • Dominican capital observes U.S. Navy warship’s maneuvers - DominicanToday.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.dominicantoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The media here makes out that China does not know what is going on in Tibet but they are wrong in fact China know both sides to the story unlike the west .
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

Second Department

.The Second Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters is responsible for collecting military intelligence.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new entity, the General Armament Department (GAD), was simultaneously created under the CMC to assume responsibility for weapons system management and research and development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Activities include military attachés at Chinese embassies abroad, clandestine special agents sent to foreign countries to collect military information, and the analysis of information publicly published in foreign countries.^ The NPA operates mostly in the rural areas and their targets often include politicians, military, police, criminals, landlords, business owners and occasionally U.S. agents in the Philippines.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; for example, the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the U.S.-China spy plane incident in April 2001.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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^ T he Securities and Exchange Commission collects little information helpful in monitoring PRC commercial activities in the United States.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Second Department oversees military human intelligence (HUMINT) collection, widely exploits open source (OSINT) materials, fuses HUMINT, signals intelligence (SIGINT), and imagery intelligence data, and disseminates finished intelligence products to the CMC and other consumers.^ Other PRC companies, such as China Great Wall Industry Corporation, collect technology for their own use and may be used as cover by PRC intelligence personnel.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Preliminary fusion is carried out by the Second Department's Analysis Bureau which mans the National Watch Center, the focal point for national-level indications and warning.^ Constantinalia 10-12-2006, 22:54 Well, I'd like to point out my nation is not really able to build anything, so this was according to buying surplus.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The three students were later confirmed to have been poisoned by thallium, according to tests carried out by the China Disease Control and Prevention Center on June 10.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ The Marine Corps carried out Suppression Oprations against communist elements in Jinju and Jeju-do, which won them a national repuation.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.In-depth analysis is carried out by regional bureaus.^ Railways are the vital carrier in China; they are monopolized by the state, divided into various railway bureaus in different regions.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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.Although traditionally the Second Department of the General Staff Department was responsible for military intelligence, it is beginning to increasingly focus on scientific and technological intelligence in the military field, following the example of Russian agencies in stepping up the work of collecting scientific and technological information.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither the Department of Commerce, the Department of the Treasury, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, nor, apparently, the Department of Defense126 has in place a program, system, or effort specifically tasked with the ongoing collection of information concerning the following: · Efforts by the PRC, or by commercial entities owned or controlled by the PRC, to merge with, acquire a controlling interest in, or form a commercial partnership or joint venture with, commercial entities in the United States .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The research institute under the Second Department of the General Staff Headquarters is publicly known as the Institute for International Strategic Studies; its internal classified publication "Movements of Foreign Armies" (Wai Jun Dongtai) is published every 10 days and transmitted to units at the division level.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign children are welcomed to study in public schools in China,” says Zhao Lingshan, an official with the Department of International Cooperation and Exchanges under the ministry.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The PLA Institute of International Relations at Nanjing comes under the Second Department of the General Staff Department and is responsible for training military attaches, assistant military attaches and associate military attaches as well as secret agents to be posted abroad.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The preceding was a product of the"Military Collector Group Post", an international email magazine dedicated to the preservation of history and the equipment that made it.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also supplies officers to the military intelligence sections of various military regions and group armies.^ The same method was also practiced by various para-military groups being supplied equipment by the CIA.) .
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PLA military intelligence officers do, however, operate directly in the United States, posing as military attaches at the PRC Embassy in Washington, D.C., and at the United Nations in New York.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Institute was formed from the PLA "793" Foreign Language Institute, which moved from Zhangjiakou after the Cultural Revolution and split into two institutions at Luoyang and Nanjing.
.The Institute of International Relations was known in the 1950s as the School for Foreign Language Cadres of the Central Military Commission, with the current name being used since 1964. The training of intelligence personnel is one of several activities at the Institute.^ Covertly conducting espionage by personnel from government ministries, commissions, institutes, and military industries independently of the PRC intelligence services .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Lewis said that the creation of protected areas is often used by international financial institutions and national governments to justify opening up neighboring areas to unsustainable industrial activity.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state helps the national autonomous areas train large numbers of cadres at different levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers of different professions and trades from among the nationality or nationalities in those areas.
  • Gender and Law in China 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.genderandlaw.org.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.While all graduates of the Moscow Institute of International Relations were employed by the KGB, only some graduates of the Beijing Institute of International Relations are employed by the Ministry of State Security.^ In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split , Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
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^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It directs the activities of all State ministries, commissions, and offices.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The former Institute of International Relations, since been renamed the Foreign Affairs College, is under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is not involved in secret intelligence work.^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other posts by Guest · Filed under: Blog , Economy , Foreign affairs , Race relations 164 Comments in response || Add your own .
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Revised to: "The President of the People%27s Republic of China, on behalf of the People%27s Republic of China, engages in activities involving State affairs and receives foreign diplomatic representatives."

.The former Central Military Commission foreign language school had foreign faculty members who were either Communist Party sympathizers or were members of foreign communist parties.^ The State Central Military Commission, an organization within the State bureaucracy, is theoretically a separate decision-making body, but in reality it has no unique powers because its membership generally mirrors that of the Party's CMC. The PRC's Ministry of Defense, the principal State bureaucracy for dealing with military affairs, is likewise composed of Communist Party CMC members, and its role is primarily a ceremonial one.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he Communist Party's eight-member Central Military Commission (CMC) heads the People's Liberation Army, which includes the PRC's army, navy, and air force, as well as espionage operations conducted through the Second Department of the PLA. The CMC has a powerful bureaucratic status roughly comparable to that of the Politburo Standing Committee and the State Council.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Liu Huaqing, who recently retired as a member of the Communist Party Politburo, the CCP Standing Committee, and the Central Military Commission, was involved with dozens of companies in Hong Kong and in Western countries engaged in illegally acquiring advanced U.S. technology.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the present Institute of International Relations does not hire foreign teachers, to avoid the danger that its students might be recognized when sent abroad as clandestine agents.^ Escalation danger: JNLWD's chemical weapons program not only violates international law, it presents an escalation threat.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those engaged in professional work in military academies under the Second Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters usually have a chance to go abroad, either for advanced studies or as military officers working in the military attache's office of Chinese embassies in foreign countries.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China's military rise doesn't need to be a threat to the U.S., particularly if a peaceful and transparent Chinese military works as a U.S. partner to guarantee stability in Asia.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; for example, the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the U.S.-China spy plane incident in April 2001.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

People working in the military attache's office of embassies are usually engaged in collecting military information under the cover of "military diplomacy". As long as they refrain from directly subversive activities, they are considered as well-behaved "military diplomats."
.Some bureaus under the Second Department which are responsible for espionage in different regions, of which the First Bureau is responsible for collecting information in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.^ Hong Kong and Macau are excluded.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ As a matter of fact for a Chinese national to visit Hong Kong or Macau, they must secure a passport and visa.

^ Main articles: History of China , History of the People's Republic of China , History of Hong Kong , and History of Macau Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.Agents are dispatched by the Second Department to companies and other local corporations to gain cover.^ Other PRC companies, such as China Great Wall Industry Corporation, collect technology for their own use and may be used as cover by PRC intelligence personnel.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with many others, for example, my refuse collection has been outsourced by the Local Authority to a private company.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Corporations set up outside the PRC by a PRC intelligence service, corporation, or institute solely to give cover to professional or non-professional agents who enter the United States to gather technology or for other purposes .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group assigned to Hong Kong and Macau in the mid-1980s mostly operated in the mass media, political, industrial, commercial, and religious circles, as well as in universities and colleges.^ Hong Kong and Macau are excluded.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ The PRC also uses its state-controlled "news" media organizations to gain political influence and gather political intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a matter of fact for a Chinese national to visit Hong Kong or Macau, they must secure a passport and visa.

The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group was mainly responsible for the following three tasks:
  • Finding out and keeping abreast of the political leanings of officials of the Hong Kong and Macau governments, as well as their views on major issues, through social contact with them and through information provided by them.
  • Keeping abreast of the developments of foreign governments' political organs in Hong Kong, as well as of foreign financial, industrial, and commercial organizations.
  • Finding out and having a good grasp of the local media's sources of information on political, military, economic, and other developments on the mainland, and deliberately releasing false political or military information to the media to test the outside response.
.The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group was awarded a Citation for Merit, Second Class, in December 1994. It was further awarded another Citation for Merit, Second Class, in 1997. Its current status is not publicly known.^ At the end of the 6-month-long hunter training, with his score ranking 1st in the officers team, he was awarded the second-class merit citation and became an excellent hunter.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 2008 Chinese New Year celebration CCTV held for Chinese diplomatic establishments, the head of the Second Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters was revealed for the first time to the public: the current head was Major General Yang Hui (杨晖), the former deputy head of the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters (he was a senior colonel when he held that position).^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The first chips are in our possession," said Genyo Takeda, the senior managing director and general manager of Nintendo's integrated research and development division.
  • IBM shipping Wii CPUs - News at GameSpot 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

^ After 3 combat tours he was transferred to Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, DC., for duty as the Administrative Assistant and Aide-de-Camp to the Deputy Chief of Staff.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Third Department

.The Third Department of the General Staff Headquarters is responsible for monitoring the telecommunications of foreign armies and producing finished intelligence based on the military information collected.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he Securities and Exchange Commission collects little information helpful in monitoring PRC commercial activities in the United States.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice, however, the PRC faces numerous challenges in integrating foreign technology into both its civilian and military industrial bases.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The communications stations established by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters are not subject to the jurisdiction of the provincial military district and the major military region of where they are based.^ Each district is home to a major JMSDF base and its supporting troops and staff.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CEMAA is assisted by the staff of the Air Force (EMAA), directed by the general major general (GMG), and by the services of the police headquarters, responsible for the support: military staff management of the Air Force (DPMAA), service of the police station of the air, service of the material of the Air Force, service of the infrastructure of the air, and the integrated structure of maintenance in operational condition of the aeronautical materials of Defense (SIMMAD) .
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The communications stations are entirely the agencies of the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters which have no affiliations to the provincial military district and the military region of where they are based.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CEMAA is assisted by the staff of the Air Force (EMAA), directed by the general major general (GMG), and by the services of the police headquarters, responsible for the support: military staff management of the Air Force (DPMAA), service of the police station of the air, service of the material of the Air Force, service of the infrastructure of the air, and the integrated structure of maintenance in operational condition of the aeronautical materials of Defense (SIMMAD) .
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ So, you would call US Military housed on foreign soil in bases LEASED from foreign countries as a capitalist military while domestically, they are a socialist military.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

.The personnel composition, budgets, and establishment of these communications stations are entirely under the jurisdiction of the Third Department of the General PLA General Staff Headquarters, and are not related at all with local troops.^ Establishing reliable communication channels for security related information exchange is an essential component of the process.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These relations are established for positively charged and neutral particles, us...
  • Physical Review C 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC prc.aps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.China maintains the most extensive SIGINT network of all the countries in the Asia-Pacific region.^ China, is a country in East Asia.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equipment The ASDF maintains an integrated network of radar installations and air defense direction centers throughout the country known as the Basic Air Defense Ground Environment.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I agree that no country is perfect, least of all China.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

.As of the late 1990s, SIGINT systems included several dozen ground stations, half a dozen ships, truck-mounted systems, and airborne systems.^ Under the terms of a deal concluded in the late 1970s, Rolls Royce has provided several dozen Spey engines to China, with the intention that the Xian Aero-engine Co.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 1980s, the system was modernized and augmented with E-2C airborne earlywarning aircraft.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ T he PRC has benefitted from advanced U.S. and Western military technology in several areas, including ground force weapons, communications, remote sensing, and tactical and strategic systems.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Third Department headquarters is located in the vicinity of the GSD First Department (Operations Department), AMS, and NDU complex in the hills northwest of the Summer Palace. .As of the late 1990s, the Third Department was allegedly manned by approximately 20,000 personnel, with most of their linguists trained at the Luoyang Institute of Foreign Languages.^ The ASDF had an authorized strength of 47,000 and maintained some 46,000 personnel and approximately 330 combat aircraft in 1992.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1992, however, GSDF reserve personnel, numbering 46,000, had received little professional training.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States Department of Defense has assisted with this contribution by the training of personnel in Sierra Leone as well as scheduling training for Maritime safety and security in the United States.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ever since the 1950s, the Second and Third Departments of the PLA General Staff Headquarters have established a number of institutions of secondary and higher learning for bringing up "special talents." The PLA Foreign Language Institute at Luoyang comes under the Third Department of the General Staff Department and is responsible for training foreign language officers for the monitoring of foreign military intelligence. The Institute was formed from the PLA "793" Foreign Language Institute, which moved from Zhangjiakou after the Cultural Revolution and split into two institutions at Luoyang and Nanjing.
.Though the distribution order they received upon graduation indicated the "PLA General Staff Headquarters," many of the graduates of these schools found themselves being sent to all parts of the country, including remote and uninhabited backward mountain areas.^ Even though the ultimate origins and historical changes in these cultures are not known, they are very similar to the kinds of society found in central Cameroon.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many means of subverting the Golden Shield including using a proxy server outside of China or setting up a VPN connection to a server outside of the country.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reason is that the monitoring and control stations under the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters are scattered in every corner of the country.^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new entity, the General Armament Department (GAD), was simultaneously created under the CMC to assume responsibility for weapons system management and research and development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yahoo, google and every other major internet player has allowed THE REDS to monitor and control its people thru online spying.
  • Apple nears wireless license for iPhone in China [Archive] - AppleInsider 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: Original source]

.The communications stations located in the Shenzhen base of the PLA Hong Kong Garrison started their work long ago.^ Lightweight self-contained radio set for personal communication within a half mile of a central base station.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The FBI confirmed the deposit into Chung's account from Hong Kong and that the PLA officials likely served as the conduit for the money.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. trade officials report that no inspections by the Hong Kong regional government nor by any other government, including the United States, are permitted when PLA vehicles cross the Hong Kong border.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In normal times, these two communications stations report directly to the Central Military Commission and the PLA General Staff Headquarters.^ The most obvious example of the Communist Party's practical control of both the State and the PLA is Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin's simultaneous service as State President and CCP Central Military Commission Chairman.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People%27s Congress.

.Units responsible for coordination are the communications stations established in the garrison provinces of the military regions by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CEMAA is assisted by the staff of the Air Force (EMAA), directed by the general major general (GMG), and by the services of the police headquarters, responsible for the support: military staff management of the Air Force (DPMAA), service of the police station of the air, service of the material of the Air Force, service of the infrastructure of the air, and the integrated structure of maintenance in operational condition of the aeronautical materials of Defense (SIMMAD) .
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States The PRC has stolen military technology from the United States, but until recently the United States has lawfully transferred little to the PLA. This has been due, in part, to the sanctions imposed by the United States in response to both the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre and to the PRC's 1993 transfer of missile technology to Pakistan.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By taking direct command of military communications stations based in all parts of the country, the CPC Central Military Commission and the PLA General Staff Headquarters can not only ensure a successful interception of enemy radio communications, but can also make sure that none of the wire or wireless communications and contacts among major military regions can escape the detection of these communications stations, thus effectively attaining the goal of imposing a direct supervision and control over all major military regions, all provincial military districts, and all group armies.^ These investigations are not part of a PRC-specific monitoring process, but are carried out based on specific facts indicating a violation of U.S. laws.129 In addition, any commercial entity, whether from the PRC or any other country, that wants to acquire control of a savings-and-loan or a national bank must file an application with Treasury's Office of Thrift Supervision or the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.130 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most obvious practical example of direct Communist Party control of the PLA is Jiang Zemin's position as Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and the entire CMC's direct control of the PLA. Jiang is also the first Communist Party Secretary to enforce CCP control over the military completely by appointing no military officers to the powerful CCP Politburo Standing Committee, although two officers remain on the Politburo.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CEMAA is assisted by the staff of the Air Force (EMAA), directed by the general major general (GMG), and by the services of the police headquarters, responsible for the support: military staff management of the Air Force (DPMAA), service of the police station of the air, service of the material of the Air Force, service of the infrastructure of the air, and the integrated structure of maintenance in operational condition of the aeronautical materials of Defense (SIMMAD) .
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Monitoring stations

.China's main SIGINT effort is in the Third Department of the General Staff Department of the Central Military Commission, with additional capabilities, primarily domestic, in the Ministry of State Security (MSS).^ The State Central Military Commission, an organization within the State bureaucracy, is theoretically a separate decision-making body, but in reality it has no unique powers because its membership generally mirrors that of the Party's CMC. The PRC's Ministry of Defense, the principal State bureaucracy for dealing with military affairs, is likewise composed of Communist Party CMC members, and its role is primarily a ceremonial one.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the CCP Politburo's control of the PRC government and military, there are hundreds of similar connections between lower-level Communist Party officials and the State, military, and commercial bureaucracies in the PRC. For example, 25 of the 29 Ministers in charge of Ministries and Commissions under the State Council are members of the CCP Central Committee.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

SIGINT stations, therefore, are scattered through the country, for domestic as well as international interception. Prof. Desmond Ball, of the Australian National University, described the largest stations as the main Technical Department SIGINT net control station on the northwest outskirts of Beijing, and the large complex near Lake Kinghathu in the extreme northeast corner of China
.As opposed to other major powers, China focuses its SIGINT activities on its region rather than the world.^ China have 3 times more military personnels than VN, we're number 7 in the world.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, China has other Taiwan strategies that for its goals are better than launching an opposed amphibious landing.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Wildlife of China One of seventeen megadiverse countries , [ 87 ] China lies in two of the world's major ecozones , the Palearctic and the Indomalaya .
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.Ball wrote, in the eighties, that China had several dozen SIGINT stations aimed at Russia, Japan, Taiwan, Southeast Asia and India, as well as internally.^ In contrast, mainland China's eastern seaboard is low-lying and has a 14,500-kilometre long coastline bounded on the southeast by the South China Sea and on the east by the East China Sea beyond which lies Taiwan , Korea , and Japan .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ Under the terms of a deal concluded in the late 1970s, Rolls Royce has provided several dozen Spey engines to China, with the intention that the Xian Aero-engine Co.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The KMT-led Republic of China government retreated to Taipei , its jurisdiction now limited to Taiwan and several outlying islands.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

Of the stations apparently targeting Russia, there are sites at Jilemutu and Jixi in the northeast, and at Erlian and Hami near the Mongolian border. .Two Russian-facing sites in Xinjiang, at Qitai and Korla may be operated jointly with resources from the US CIA's Office of SIGINT Opeations, probably focused on missile and space activity.^ The Office of the US Trade Representative site has no email address under "Contact Us" -- why do I think that is on purpose????
  • Will piracy crackdown bring iPod border checks? - The Red Tape Chronicles - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC redtape.msnbc.com [Source type: General]

^ This array of weapons help the infantry battalion to operate independently in the field and face the many tactical situations which may arise during operations.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ US/UK Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) / Urban Operations War Game Two Assessment, JNLWD, June 2000.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other stations aimed at South and Southeast Asia are on a net controlled by Chengdu, Sichuan.^ The US is stationed in South Korea, so I would probably declare war on North Korea, starting with air strikes on all their nuclear facilities, and other military installations.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

There is a large facility at Dayi, and, according to Ball, "numerous" small posts along the Indian border.
.Other significant facilities are located near Shenyang, near Jinan and in Nanjing and Shanghai.^ PM Emblem Passus RRC : 1: Shenyang dan Beijing 2:Chengdu dan 15 th ABC 3:Lanzhou dan Jinan 4:nanjing dan Guangzhou .
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additional stations are in the Fujian and Guangdong military districts opposite Taiwan.
.On Hainan Island, near Vietnam, there is a naval SIGINT facility that monitors the South China sea, and a ground station targeting US and Russian satellites.^ Countries bordering the South China Sea .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ The following countries declare war on North Korea (DPRK) -South Korea -Japan -- Cuba and Venezuala have been rumored to possibly threaten the US with Russian nuclear assistance.
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1988, China fought Vietnamese troops and warships in sea battles to seize the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.China also has ship and aircraft platforms in this area, under the South Sea Fleet headquarters at Zhanjiang immediately north of the island.^ Countries bordering the South China Sea .
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ Under this framework, the PRC's avowed military strategy is one of "active defense," a capability for power projection to defend the PRC's territorial ambitions, which extend to not only Taiwan, but also the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea, and the Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USAAF B-24s (5th Air Force), on an antishipping sweep over the South China Sea, sink Japanese landing ship T.114 off southern coast of Formosa, 2304'N, 12030'E. *Japanese army cargo vessel Yamashio Maru is sunk by aircraft, Yokohama harbor.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 52 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Targeting here seems to have an ELINT as well as COMINT flavor.
.There are also truck-mounted mobile ground systems, as well as ship, aircraft, and limited satellite capability.^ Tadiran Electronic Industries Defense production, notably communications, electronic warfare, and command and control systems, as well as pilotless reconnaissance aircrafts.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are to be codes of conduct for public servants, proper systems for public procurement and management of public finances, as well as open public reporting.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sep 29, 2008, 06:06 PM China has the capability to destroy satellites from the ground, FILLERFILLEROSIF79ESGHFUSFJHSEFUE FILLER What?
  • Let's Play WW3 Scenario: You are the United States of America [Archive] - Guild Wars Forums - GW Guru 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.guildwarsguru.com [Source type: Original source]

There are at least 10 intelligence-gathering auxiliary vessels.
.As of the late nineties, the Chinese did not appear to be trying to monitor the US Pacific Command to the same extent as does Russia.^ In the US we call the fried dumplings “Pot-Stickers” and in China they are basically the same but don’t ask me the Chinese pronunciation.

In future, this had depended, in part, on the status of Taiwan.

Fourth Department

.The Fourth Department (ECM and Radar) of the General Staff Headquarters Department has the electronic intelligence (ELINT) portfolio within the PLA's SIGINT apparatus.^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary professional PRC intelligence services involved in technology acquisition are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and the PLA General Staff's Military Intelligence Department (MID).
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This department is responsible for electronic countermeasures, requiring them to collect and maintain data bases on electronic signals.^ TC24-24, 1988, Signal Data References: Communications-Electronics Equipment.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.25 ELINT receivers are the responsibility of the Southwest Institute of Electronic Equipment (SWIEE).^ Among the equipment captured included 1400 hand written copies of intercepted Allied messages, 2ea PRC-25's, 1ea PRC-77, and 1ea Chinese R-139 receiver.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The NSA and the U.S.Army Electronics Command then designed a new radio from "a modified PRC-25" that could connect to the new speech security equipment.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among the wide range of SWIEE ELINT products is a new KZ900 airborne ELINT pod. .The GSD 54th Research Institute supports the ECM Department in development of digital ELINT signal processors to analyze parameters of radar pulses.^ Nuclear Weapons Qinghua University Nuclear Research Institute has claimed success in the development of high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors, projects that could aid in the development of nuclear weapons.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new entity, the General Armament Department (GAD), was simultaneously created under the CMC to assume responsibility for weapons system management and research and development.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Liaison Department

The PLA General Political Department (GPD) maintains the CPC structure that exists at every level of the PLA. It is responsible for overseeing the political education, indoctrination and discipline that is a prerequisite for advancement within the PLA. The GPD controls the internal prison system of the PLA.
.The International Liaison Department of the General Political Department is publicly known as the "China Association for International Friendly Contacts". The department prepares political and economic information for the reference of the Political Bureau.^ This landmark political event will select the next generation of Chinese leaders and define the policy vision that will guide China in the years to come.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ The PLA's Military Intelligence Department (MID), also known as the Second Department of the PLA General Staff, is responsible for military intelligence.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For over 4,000 years, China's political system was based on herary monarchies (also known as dynasties ).
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

.The department conducts ideological and political work on foreign armies, explaining China's policies, and disintegrate enemy armies by dampening their morale.^ The People%27s Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it for political reasons.

^ Much of the current foreign policy is based on the concept of China's peaceful rise .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ This landmark political event will select the next generation of Chinese leaders and define the policy vision that will guide China in the years to come.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

It is also tasked with instigating rebellions and disloyalty within the Taiwan military and other foreign militaries.
.The Liaison Office has dispatched agents to infiltrate Chinese-funded companies and private institutions in Hong Kong.^ Sunbase is incorporated in the United States, but is owned by an investment group comprised of some of the PRC's largest state-owned conglomerates as well as a Hong Kong company.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was nice and we learned a little about Hong Kong (Chinese) History in the process.

^ From that base, they solicited technology from a number of U.S. companies, purchasing the equipment in the names of the front companies and forwarding it to the MSS through intermediaries in Hong Kong.79 .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their mission is counter-espionage, monitoring their own agents, and preventing and detecting foreign intelligence services buying off Chinese personnel.^ Professional intelligence agents from the MSS and MID account for a relatively small share of the PRC's foreign science and technology collection.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PRC intelligence services use front companies for espionage.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Covertly conducting espionage by personnel from government ministries, commissions, institutes, and military industries independently of the PRC intelligence services .
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Special Forces

.China's counterterrorist unit is drawn from the police force rather than the military.^ China have 3 times more military personnels than VN, we're number 7 in the world.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a decree read on state radio, he set up a special unit to combat corruption, which would, he promised, have a separate budget and its own police force.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The name changes frequently, but as of this writing, it is known as the Immediate Action Unit (IAU). .The Chinese Army fields large number of special operations groups and would appear to have a vast pool of manpower to choose from.^ The state helps the national autonomous areas train large numbers of cadres at different levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers of different professions and trades from among the nationality or nationalities in those areas.
  • Gender and Law in China 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.genderandlaw.org.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - Wikisource 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The vast majority of participants in the review represented large corporations such as Google and News Corp., or corporate interest groups like the International Intellectual Property Alliance.
  • Will piracy crackdown bring iPod border checks? - The Red Tape Chronicles - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC redtape.msnbc.com [Source type: General]

^ There is already a wide range of information available on sensitive issues on the Chinese internet, which is demonstrated by the large number of queries on google for sensitive keywords.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

However, it is believed that any significant terrorist activity within Chinese borders would draw the attention of the IAU.
.China has reportedly developed a force capable of carrying out long-range air-borne operations, long-range reconnaissance, and amphibious operations.^ In Context US Navy jets intercepted a chartered Egypt Air 737 carrying the gunmen and forced it to land in Italy.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To execute amphibious operations, it possesses a range of amphibious equipment, including amphibious vehicles, as well as its own means of fire support.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Pretty impressive considering China did have a air force before the war.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

.Formed in China's Guangzhou military region and known by the nickname "Sword of Southern China", the force supposedly receives army, air force and naval training, including flight training, and is equipped with "hundreds of high-tech devices", including global-positioning satellite systems.^ The naval air force was also greatly enhanced.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ USAAF B-24s (5th Air Force), on an antishipping sweep over the South China Sea, sink Japanese landing ship T.114 off southern coast of Formosa, 2304'N, 12030'E. *Japanese army cargo vessel Yamashio Maru is sunk by aircraft, Yokohama harbor.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 52 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding to their surface and underwater forces, the ROK Navy equipped itself with an Air Force that included Anti-submarine Patrol Aircraft and Anti-submarine Helicopters.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.All of the force's officers have completed military staff colleges, and 60 percent are said to have university degrees.^ The MSDF operates its own staff college in Tokyo for senior officers.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ China’s military forces will not serve as a tool for strategic expansion,” he said.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ How about you be this specific with your agents...they all are completely confused and uneducated in the business YOU said YOU would help and educate them in.
  • Mainland China Trading 9 February 2010 15:10 UTC www.scam.com [Source type: General]

Soldiers are reported to be cross-trained in various specialties, and training is supposed to encompass a range of operational environments. It is far from clear whether this unit is considered operational by the Chinese. .It is also not clear how such a force would be employed.^ But it is not clear how effective it would be in this vast country where many local officials tend to ignore or skirt directives from the central government.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

.Among the missions mentioned were "responding to contingencies in various regions" and "cooperating with other services in attacks on islands". According to the limited reporting, the organization appears to be in a phase of testing and development and may constitute an experimental unit.^ Among the species found in the Indomalaya region are the Leopard Cat , bamboo rat , treeshrew , and various other species of monkeys and apes.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ If the declaration is imposed, it would be the first time that the United States has placed the armed forces of any sovereign government on its list of terrorist organizations, the newspaper reported.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two other variants of the PRC-74 have been reported to exist.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

While no size for the force has been revealed, there have been Chinese media claims that "over 4000 soldiers of the fore are all-weather and versatile fighters and parachutists who can fly airplanes and drive auto vehicles and motor boats".[citation needed]

Other branches

  • The Third Department and the Navy cooperate on shipborne intelligence collection platforms.
  • PLAAF Sixth Research Institute: Air Force SIGINT collection is managed by the PLAAF Sixth Research Institute in Beijing.

Weapons and equipment

Range of medium and intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Cyber-warfare

.It is believed the PLA have already begun engaging countries using cyber-warfare.^ In most cases, the trials did not use biological weapons but alternatives which scientists believed would mimic germ warfare and which the MoD claimed were harmless.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14]

C4ISTAR

China has been developing C4ISTAR and purchasing precision-guided munitions.[15]

Firearms

.Since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949, the Chinese received massive amounts of weaponry and equipment as well as the capability to build their own weapons from the Soviet Union before the Sino-Soviet split in the late 1950s and early 1960s.^ People’s Republic of China 1949–90 .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ The Dabancheng project is Asia 's largest wind farm After the Sino-Soviet split , China started to develop its own nuclear weapons and delivery systems, successfully detonating its first surface nuclear test in 1964 at Lop Nur .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split , Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

.Most of the firearms that the PLA used in both the past and the present have their origins in many Soviet or Russian small arms like the Mosin-Nagant series rifles and carbines (the Chinese made the Russian Mosin-Nagant M-1944 carbine under licence as the Type 53 Carbine), the SKS carbine, the AK-47 assault rifle, the RPD light-machine gun, the Tokarev TT33 pistol, the DShK heavy machine gun.^ Chinese made AK-176G Canoon.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assorted submachine gun and pistol types uses by SOF units.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Like the Russians in Chechnya, the PLA has found that at high altitudes, their older Type 59, 69 and 85 series main battle tanks (MBTs) with their manual transmissions and lower stressed engines are superior to the Type 96 and ZTZ-99 MBTs with their turbocharged diesel engines [8].
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The PLA's main infantry rifle is the recently issued QBZ-95. .It is a replacement for the Type 81, which bears similarities to the AK-47. The PLA also utilise locally-manufactured versions of the Russian AK-47 series rifles and SKS series carbines with the Chinese Type 56 Assault Rifle (a locally-produced version of the AK-47) and the Chinese Type 56 Carbine (a locally produced version of the SKS).^ Though it bears no similarity with other versions of the PRC-6, it is intended to fulfil the same role.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Early versions are reported to use a "rubber duckie" type antenna similar to those used on the PRC-63.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ PM Assault Rifle Type 95n buatn RRC kalibernya 5,8x42mm diekspor ke Srilanka dan Kamboja tapi make kaliber 7,62x39.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite being similar to the original Russian-made AK-47s and SKSs, both the Chinese Type 56 Assault Rifle and the Chinese Type 56 Carbine have a number of differences which separate them from their original Russian counterparts.^ Chinese made AK-176G Canoon.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are very similar in design & appearance to other radios of this type, also of Italian origin (PRC-439, NA250).
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ M964 FAP, a license-built FN FAL SAW. M964 Rifle, a license-built FN FAL. M964A1 Rifle, a license-built FN PARAFAL. MD97 assault rifle, externally similar to FN FAL but in 5.56 × 45 mm NATO. M4 carbine used by some SOF units.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.One example of the difference is that the Chinese Type 56 Assault Rifle has a permanently-attached, stiletto-style bayonet under the barrel of the rifle, a feature that is native to many Chinese-made AK-47s.^ Chinese made AK-176G Canoon.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carries the following: A Beretta AR 70/90 assault rifle (Along with knife-type bayonets, lightweight and foldable detachable bipods), an Agram 2000 as their side-arm, and 4 grenades.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PM Assault Rifle Type 95n buatn RRC kalibernya 5,8x42mm diekspor ke Srilanka dan Kamboja tapi make kaliber 7,62x39.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chinese Type 56 Carbine is also different from the original Russian-made SKS carbines with the Chinese SKSs also utilising a stilletto-style bayonet like the Chinese Type 56 Assault Rifle while the original Russian-made SKS carbines utilised a sword-style bayonet.^ M964 FAP, a license-built FN FAL SAW. M964 Rifle, a license-built FN FAL. M964A1 Rifle, a license-built FN PARAFAL. MD97 assault rifle, externally similar to FN FAL but in 5.56 × 45 mm NATO. M4 carbine used by some SOF units.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chinese made AK630M Anti missile systems Great copies!They even have no shame to copy the original name 'AK-XXX' .
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carries both an APS underwater assault rifle and a Automat Kalashnikova Modernized - AKM assault rifle, with the multipurpose bayonet-knife.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Chinese Type 56 was mass produced from the 1960s to the 1980s and was exported to many countries around the world.^ Like many other national governments in the developing world, it is inexperienced and incompetent due largely to the country's relative primitiveness of its social development.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PS: Boycotting is a foolish way as China is a major exporting country and it serve no beneficial propose to the World when the "musical chair" starts.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tito took advantage of his neutrality to enable Yugoslavia to have good diplomatic relations with countries with many different types of governments.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the introduction of newer rifles like the Type 81 and the QBZ-95, the Chinese Type 56/AK-47 rifles are still used by some PLA second-line and training units.^ PLAN marines also are likely to use newer PLA communication equipment.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I still use the Russian name, because I don't know their Chinese one.
  • Photos and News of Small Navy of the World! [Archive] - Military Photos 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M964 FAP, a license-built FN FAL SAW. M964 Rifle, a license-built FN FAL. M964A1 Rifle, a license-built FN PARAFAL. MD97 assault rifle, externally similar to FN FAL but in 5.56 × 45 mm NATO. M4 carbine used by some SOF units.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, the Chinese Type 56/SKS carbines have been retained for ceremonial duties by the PLA in the same manner as the SKS has been retained for ceremonial duties in the Russian armed forces.^ China has a long coastline and the sacred duty of China’s armed forces is to safeguard the country’s marine safety and sovereignty over coastal areas and territorial seas,” he said.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The PLA and police forces are widely equipped with the Type 54, 7.62 mm pistol, although newer and better versions exist.^ The existing fleet air squadron was expanded into the Naval Air Wing Flotilla to better manage the strengthened naval air force in 1977.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although it was claimed that PLAN marines were landing from amphibious ships, these forces actually were PLA 31st Army Infantry Division troops.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PLA has not left the light infantry bereft of armor, supplying them regiments equipped with the Type 62 light tank equipped with an 85mm gun.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The newest pistol in service is the QSZ-92 pistol.

Land-based weapons

.The PLA's tank inventory was numbered around 10,000 during its peak time in the 1980s and 1990s, but this is estimated to have been reduced to 7,000, operating in 11 armored brigades.^ Human rights experts have estimated that China executes 10,000 to 15,000 inmates a year.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ The PLA has not left the light infantry bereft of armor, supplying them regiments equipped with the Type 62 light tank equipped with an 85mm gun.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They estimate 18,000 sites are blocked at least for some of the time.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[16] .The Chinese-produced versions of the Soviet T-54A (Type 59 and Type 69) account for over two-thirds of the total PLA tank inventory.^ Like the Russians in Chechnya, the PLA has found that at high altitudes, their older Type 59, 69 and 85 series main battle tanks (MBTs) with their manual transmissions and lower stressed engines are superior to the Type 96 and ZTZ-99 MBTs with their turbocharged diesel engines [8].
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM Type 96 adalah tank modern milik PLA diperikirakan semua type 85 dan 88 akan diganti dengan tank ini secara perlahan .
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PLA has not left the light infantry bereft of armor, supplying them regiments equipped with the Type 62 light tank equipped with an 85mm gun.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While retiring some of the older Type 59/69 series and replacing them with the second generation Type 88 and Type 96, the PLA is also upgrading the remaining Type 59/69 series tanks with new technologies including improved communication and fire-control systems, night vision equipment, explosive reactive armor, improved powerplant, and gun-fired anti-tank missiles so that they can remain in service as mobile fire-support platforms.^ WW-II type equipment to the new generation.
  • prc25legend 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.fernblatt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Defense systems ARROW Anti-missile defense system.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The second issue is that single year GDP numbers penalize emerging countries because they don't already have the aircraft, airfields, gun boats and so forth that the U.S. only has to maintain and replace rather than buy new.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

The newest tank is the Type 99, which entered PLA service in 2001.
.The PLA also operates about 2,000 light tanks including the Type 62 light tank and the Type 63 amphibious tank, both of which entered production in the 1960s.^ AM Type 96 adalah tank modern milik PLA diperikirakan semua type 85 dan 88 akan diganti dengan tank ini secara perlahan .
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PLA has not left the light infantry bereft of armor, supplying them regiments equipped with the Type 62 light tank equipped with an 85mm gun.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Type 62 is currently being replaced in the PLA by the ZTZ-63A amphibious tank and WZ551 six-wheeled light armored fighting vehicle with a 105mm gun.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Type 63 has now been upgraded with the addition of the improved Type 63A featuring computerized fire-control, gun-fired anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), night vision equipment, satellite navigation, and improved powerplant.^ The has been an incident where American ships fired at an Iranian ship using SAM. In general Russian weaponry is better in anti-ship missiles, SAMs, ballistic missiles, and (some people say) submarines.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can be fitted with: 12.7 mm machine , a Rafael Spike anti-tank missile, a 40 mm automatic launcher, or Surface-to Air Missles.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The PLA has not left the light infantry bereft of armor, supplying them regiments equipped with the Type 62 light tank equipped with an 85mm gun.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nuclear weapons

.In 1955, China decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program.^ Where are the restraints that are in place on China for their nuclear weapons program?
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

^ France [needs] uranium both for her nuclear power program and the creation and maintenance of her own nuclear weapons program.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France needed uranium both for her nuclear power program and the creation and maintenance of her own nuclear weapons program.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decision was made after the United States threatened the use of nuclear weapons against China should it take action against Quemoy and Matsu, coupled with the lack of interest of the Soviet Union for using its nuclear weapons in defense of China.^ China is not the old Soviet Union.
  • Apple nears wireless license for iPhone in China [Archive] - AppleInsider 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC forums.appleinsider.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dabancheng project is Asia 's largest wind farm After the Sino-Soviet split , China started to develop its own nuclear weapons and delivery systems, successfully detonating its first surface nuclear test in 1964 at Lop Nur .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split , Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

.After their first nuclear test (China claims minimal Soviet assistance before 1960) on 16 October 1964, China was the first state to pledge no-first-use of nuclear weapons.^ The Dabancheng project is Asia 's largest wind farm After the Sino-Soviet split , China started to develop its own nuclear weapons and delivery systems, successfully detonating its first surface nuclear test in 1964 at Lop Nur .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ China Military Commander Advocates Offensive Strength (June 13, 2007, Reuters) A senior Chinese defense strategist has said his nation needs to build offensive strength and an “effective nuclear force” but has no intention of renouncing its no-first-use nuclear doctrine.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ Who had requested a number of nuclear weapons without even knowing we didn't have that many, indeed by then the Soviets had more then we did.
  • Communist tactics in Korean War [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: Original source]

On 1 July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps (as named by Premier Zhou Enlai) was formed. In 1967, China tested a fully-functional hydrogen bomb, only 32 months after China had made its first fission device. China thus produced the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history.
.China became a major international arms exporter during the 1980s.^ During a recent international arms exhibit, for example, PRC nationals were observed collecting all possible forms of technical information.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduced in the early 1960s, these regiments spearheaded China’s offensive into Vietnam during the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War where the major problems of light infantry, a lack of sustainability and survivability became apparent.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Beijing joined the Middle East arms control talks, which began in July 1991 to establish global guidelines for conventional arms transfers, and later announced that it would no longer participate because of the U.S. decision to sell 150 F-16A/B aircraft to Taiwan on 2 September 1992.
.It joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1984 and pledged to abstain from further atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in 1986. China acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1992 and supported its indefinite and unconditional extension in 1995. In 1996, it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and agreed to seek an international ban on the production of fissile nuclear weapons material.^ Creek Indian treaty signed: Tribal chiefs agree to turn over all their land in Georgia to the US government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 52 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US, UK, USSR, others sign treaty banning deployment of nuclear weapons on the ocean floor.
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 52 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • This Day In Military History... - Page 104 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The FT reported the other day: "China will be at the forefront of combating climate change by 2020 if it meets government targets on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the International Energy Agency suggests.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

In 1996, China committed to provide assistance to unsafeguarded nuclear facilities. .China attended the May 1997 meeting of the NPT Exporters (Zangger) Committee as an observer and became a full member in October 1997. The Zangger Committee is a group which meets to list items that should be subject to IAEA inspections if exported by countries, which have, as China has, signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.^ Broz shortly thereafter joined a Bolshevik group, and in 1918 he joined the Russian Communist Party and became a member of the Red Guard.
  • Europe 1945 to present: September 2007 Archives 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC blog.lib.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PS: Boycotting is a foolish way as China is a major exporting country and it serve no beneficial propose to the World when the "musical chair" starts.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe Chinese people should get angry against this situation, and not about one country which has always been one of the closest western ally of China.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1997, China issued detailed nuclear export control regulations.^ He said that any export contracts for this type of engine to China would also have to go through the European Union's code of conduct for arms exports regulations.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bureau's controls include the regulation of the export of specified goods and technology to the PRC, including the transfer of controlled technology to PRC nationals in the United States.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PLASAC are a major division of the Asian Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force that controls Asian China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.China began implementing regulations establishing controls over nuclear-related dual-use items in 1998. China also has decided not to engage in new nuclear cooperation with Iran (even under safeguards), and will complete existing cooperation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period.^ Under its interpretation of the One-China policy , the PRC has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the Republic of China government.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ In Hong Kong and as much of South China that I have seen, they traffic system uses “Round Abouts” to slow and control movement.

^ After many months of legal bantering, it was decided that preventing some one from releasing new technology because it MIGHT be used illegally was foolish.
  • Will piracy crackdown bring iPod border checks? - The Red Tape Chronicles - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC redtape.msnbc.com [Source type: General]

.Based on significant, tangible progress with China on nuclear nonproliferation, President Clinton in 1998 took steps to bring into force the 1985 U.S.–China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation.^ China with the force of military might invaded and took over Tibet 1959.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is significant that the visit was proposed after French officials learnt that the president was planning trips to China and Israel.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China is upgrading its nuclear missiles, expanding its blue water Navy, and our most critical air base at Kadena is basically a sitting duck.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

.Beijing has deployed a modest ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).^ The 2007 Annual Report to Congress (per Wikipedia) states: "Beijing has deployed a modest ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ICBMs ).
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

^ China does not want to destroy Taiwan and its infrastructure with intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) in the Fujian area of the Taiwan Straits.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fleet Air Force is built up mainly with patrol aircraft such as the Lockheed P-3 Orion, rescue aircraft such as the US-1A and helicopters such as the SH-60J. In the JMSDF, helicopters deployed to each escort force are actually members of Fleet Air Force squadrons based on land.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is estimated that China has about 100-160 liquid fueled ICBMs capable of striking the United States with approximately 100–150 IRBMs able to strike Russia or Eastern Europe.^ It is estimated that China has about 100-160 liquid fueled ICBMs capable of striking the United States with approximately 100150 IRBMs able to strike Russia or Eastern Europe.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

^ Officials said about 85 percent of China’s 1.3 billion population share about 100 surnames.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ If China did an electronic/network attack on the United States combined with attack subs striking our SSBN's and tactical strikes on our missile silos and bombers we'd be toast.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

.China also possesses several hundred tactical SRBMs with ranges between 300 and 600 km.^ January 14th, 2008, 04:02 AM and now we are getting more of the supersonic Yakhont anti-ship missile ranged at 300 km.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even the Uran anti-ship missle of VN is already 130 km and now we are getting more of the supersonic Yakhont anti-ship missile ranged at 300 km.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the main reason China continues to import Russia's S-300 PMU2, which has a range of 200 kilometers.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.China's nuclear program follows a doctrine of minimal deterrence, which involves having the minimum force needed to deter an aggressor from launching a first strike.^ A natural outgrowth of this was a satellite launching program, which culminated in 1970 with the launching of Dong Fang Hong I , the first Chinese satellite.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ But in an interview with the news agency, Yang said China needed offensive capabilities to deter potential foes.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

^ PLASAC are a major division of the Asian Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force that controls Asian China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The current efforts of China appear to be aimed at maintaining a survivable nuclear force by, for example, using solid-fueled ICBMs in silos rather than liquid-fueled missiles.^ PLASAC are a major division of the Asian Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force that controls Asian China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It can be argued, from the middle of a puddle rather than its periphery, that China now reaps the benfit of population policy put in place previously.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The existence of new PLA amphibious divisions is puzzling, and their use rather than marines in these high-visibility exercises is even more puzzling.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.China's 2006 published deterrence policy claims that they will "uphold the principles of counterattack in self-defense and limited development of nuclear weapons", but "has never entered, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any country". It goes on to describe that China will never undertake a first strike, or use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear state or zone.^ Finally, China is a DEVELOPING COUNTRY with developing country's problems.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dabancheng project is Asia 's largest wind farm After the Sino-Soviet split , China started to develop its own nuclear weapons and delivery systems, successfully detonating its first surface nuclear test in 1964 at Lop Nur .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ It would be a first strike, and I suspect the Chins know they'd be in some trouble now that the ABL is on the verge of being able to handle the challenge, along with THAADS, Patriot, and other defensive stuff.
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

[17] .US strategists, however, suggest that the Chinese position may be ambiguous, and nuclear weapons may be used both to deter conventional strikes/invasions on the Chinese mainland, or as an international political tool - limiting the extent to which other nations can coerce China politically, an inherent, often inadvertent phenomenon in international relations as regards any state with nuclear capabilities.^ But were accessible using a VPN. The others that were pro-China government position were accessible.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ And any other suggestions you or I may think of.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Voltaire may be proud of both of us .."
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

[18]

Chemical weapons

.China is not a member of the Australia Group, an informal and voluntary arrangement made in 1985 to monitor developments in the proliferation of dual-use chemicals and to coordinate export controls on key dual-use chemicals and equipment with weapons applications.^ The Road to a Chemical Arms Race: In addition, JNLWD's program might easily be used to disguise lethal chemical weapons development.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executives wishing to do business in the PRC share a mutual commercial interest with the PRC in minimizing export controls on dual-use and military-related commodities.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This rapid escalation danger is one of the key reasons why the Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the use of even tear gas or pepper spray as a method of warfare.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In April 1997, however, China ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and, in September 1997, promulgated a new chemical weapons export control directive.^ JNLWD is conducting a research and development program on toxic chemical agents for use as weapons in violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The JNLWD program runs afoul of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the global ban on the development and use of all chemical weapons.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuing a chemical weapons program while fully cognizant that it violates the Chemical Weapons Convention and US Department of Defense regulations; 4.
  • Warning!!! Wake up!!!!!! [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ASAT

.The PLA has started the development of an anti-ballistic and anti-satellite system in the 1960s, code named Project 640, including ground based lasers, and anti-satellite missiles.^ Defense systems ARROW Anti-missile defense system.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The 2007 Annual Report to Congress (per Wikipedia) states: "Beijing has deployed a modest ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ICBMs ).
  • Invasion of the US mainland by China - AR15.COM 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.ar15.com [Source type: General]

^ The Dabancheng project is Asia 's largest wind farm After the Sino-Soviet split , China started to develop its own nuclear weapons and delivery systems, successfully detonating its first surface nuclear test in 1964 at Lop Nur .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

On 11 January 2007 China conducted a successful test of an anti-satellite missile, with an SC-19 class KKV.[19]

Space-based system

The PLA has deployed a number of space-based systems for military purposes, including the imagery intelligence satellite systems like the ZiYan series,[20] and the militarily designated JianBing series, synthetic aperture satellites (SAR) such as JianBing-5, BeiDou satellite navigation network, and secured communication satellites with FENGHUO-1.[21]

Manned spaceflight

The PLA is responsible for the Chinese space program. .To date, all the participants have been selected from members of the PLA Air Force.^ As of 2007, the F-15 in all air forces has an air-to-air combined kill record of 103 kills to 0 losses in air combat.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For now, all air force equipment has been transferred to the army, however some may be moved into the navy and possibly the marine corps.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The PLA consists of an army , navy , air force , and strategic nuclear force.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

China became the third country in the world to have sent a man into space by its own means with the flight of Yang Liwei aboard the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft on 15 October 2003 and the flight of Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng aboard Shenzhou 6 on 12 October 2005 and Zhai Zhigang, Liu Boming, and Jing Haipeng aboard Shenzhou 7 on 25 September 2008.

Missile technology control regime

.While not formally joining the regime, in March 1992, China undertook to abide by the guidelines and parameters of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the multinational effort to restrict the proliferation of missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction.^ "Iraq's search for weapons of mass destruction has proven impossible to deter and we should assume that it will continue for as long as Saddam is in power."
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We want to seriously diminish the threat posed by Iraq's weapons of mass destruction program."
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Ten years after the Gulf War and Saddam is still there and still continues to stockpile weapons of mass destruction," Rubin said.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

China reaffirmed this commitment in 1994 and pledged not to transfer MTCR-class ground-to-ground missiles. .In November 2000, China committed to not assist in any way the development by other countries of MTCR-class missiles.^ Finally, China is a DEVELOPING COUNTRY with developing country's problems.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "One way or the other, we are determined to deny Iraq the capacity to develop weapons of mass destruction and the missiles to deliver them.
  • Where exactly are the "A terror group with links to al Qaeda in Iraq" [Archive] - SignOnSanDiego Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.signonsandiego.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many other national governments in the developing world, it is inexperienced and incompetent due largely to the country's relative primitiveness of its social development.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Letter of A Q Khan (Pakistani Scientist) has revealed of violations by sharing missile and nuclear technology with Pakistan's whose long range missile ghauri is similar to that of China's Missiles.^ It consists of a full range of vessels, from patrol boats to guided missile frigates, one nuclear aircraft carrier and four strategic missile submarines (SNLEs).
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ China does not want to destroy Taiwan and its infrastructure with intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) in the Fujian area of the Taiwan Straits.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mississippi Class CVGN: Similar to the above, but the missiles it carries are nuclear IRBMs.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[22]

Cruise missiles

The CJ-10, one of China's newer long-range land attack cruise missiles, made its first public appearance during the military parade on the 60th Anniversary of the People's Republic of China; the DH-10, CJ-10, and other missiles represents the next generation in missile technology in the PLA and the drive towards modernizing the capability of the PLA.

Lasers

.China has been reported to have engaged in laser weapons research, but there have been no reliable sources of information regarding the state, or nature of these weapons systems.^ I know which of these I see as a more credible and reliable source of information.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The chief source for these systems is Russia, but the PRC has acquired military technology from other countries as well.
  • ch1bod.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fleet is equipped with state of the art machinery, weapons, communications and navigation systems.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Speculation from some sources have suggested incredibly varied programs of development, such as anti-missile, anti-personnel, and anti-satellite applications.^ The has been an incident where American ships fired at an Iranian ship using SAM. In general Russian weaponry is better in anti-ship missiles, SAMs, ballistic missiles, and (some people say) submarines.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VN wants to pay for some overpriced item like the Martel anti-ship missile that has a range of only 60 km?
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two candidates for this program are Boeing Wedgetail, military variants of Boeing 737, and Gulfstream G500/G550, developed by General Dynamics.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[23] China may be able to blind and disable satellites with ground-based lasers.[24]

Land mines

.China's attitude towards limiting the use of land mines is still unclear.^ One is used to defend Beijing and the rich lands in central and southern China from invasion and pillage by Mongolians and other northern nomads.
  • Phil Qiu: The Great Fire Wall of China comes down - but for how long? | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Even today, China’s marines still lack the personnel and naval assets to overcome the challenges of an opposed landing against a prepared Taiwan defensive shoreline.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recent highly publicized 2005 Russia-China joint amphibious landings used the number 1 and number 124 amphibious mechanized divisions from the 1st and 42nd Army groups.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it has stopped production as of 2003, due to its China's peaceful rise policy.^ China's military rise doesn't need to be a threat to the U.S., particularly if a peaceful and transparent Chinese military works as a U.S. partner to guarantee stability in Asia.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of the current foreign policy is based on the concept of China's peaceful rise .
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ While China was 2 percent below the United States in 2005, voracious coal consumption and increased cement production caused the numbers to rise rapidly, the group said.
  • nextchina news » 2007 » 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC nextchina.net [Source type: News]

Developing Weapons

.According to the Pentagon, China is currently developing kinetic-energy weapons, high-powered lasers, high-powered microwave weapons, particle-beam weapons, and electromagnetic pulse weapons with its increase of military fundings.^ In order to protect its critical supply lines without a power projection capability, China has been establishing foreign military relationships that have been compared to a String of Pearls .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ China is also actively developing its software , semiconductor and energy industries, including renewable energies such as hydro, wind and solar power.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ PERIOD! Tibet is just an excuse for other current world powers to bash China.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

[25]

Military budget

.Military spending in China has grown about 10 percent annually over the last 15 years.^ As the Pentagon noted in its annual report on China's military this year, the country "continues to promulgate incomplete defense expenditure figures, and engage in actions that appear inconsistent with its declaratory policies."
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This indicates that China is about twenty years behind the U.S. schedule of environmental regulation.
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ What Obama didn't tell anyone is that our total military spending which is about four percent of GDP is dwarfed by our social security programs, not only as a percentage of GDP but also in terms of rate of growth.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

[26] .The Chinese government's published 2009 military budget was US$70.3 billion,[27] the second largest in the world.^ The official announced budget of the PLA for 2009 was $70 billion.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ I was in the US during the Tiananmen Sq massacre and you should have seen the outcry against the Chinese government when they crushed their Han brothers and sisters.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even Viet Kieu!:lol: ^^ ^^ That's the reason why Viet Nam have the largest military troop in the world, 12 million lifes!
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This figure would mean that for 2009, China's military expenditure as a percentage of GDP would be 1.7%, with per capita expenditure of US$53.

Commercial interests

.Until the mid-1990s the PLA had extensive commercial enterprise holdings in non-military areas, particularly real estate.^ Yes, this is real military-- not the one in the recruiting commercials.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

.Almost all of these holdings were supposedly spun-off in the mid-1990s.^ I shall of course print off all of these, the feature and the seven commentaries.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Typically expected to punch holes in an enemy line, or to hold one against all odds, these troops have been seen on every continent through the years.
  • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.In most cases, the management of the companies remained unchanged, with the PLA officers running the companies simply retiring from the PLA to run the newly formed private holding companies.^ The judges would remand in custody, juveniles who had committed the most minor infractions, and mostly this incarceration would be against the recommendations of the probation case officers.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It calls for preventive measures and the criminalisation of the most prevalent forms of corruption in both public and private sectors.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
The history of PLA involvement in commercial enterprises began in the 1950s and 1960s. .Because of the socialist state-owned system and from a desire for military self-sufficiency, the PLA created a network of enterprises such as farms, guest houses, and factories intended to financially support its own needs.^ It has purchased state-of-the-art fighter jets from Russia, such as the Sukhoi Su-30s , and has also produced its own modern fighters, specifically the Chinese J-10s and the J-11s .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured by introducing western-style management system and the unprofitable ones were closed, resulting in massive job losses.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ What Charlotte Gore, and DK, suggest is that once states (read: Socialists) have created even a modest welfare state they have set the scene for conflicts because they have been seen to pick sides and the creation of an “other” becomes central to politics.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.One unintended side effect of the Deng-era economic reforms was that many of these enterprises became very profitable.^ However, for every megaservice, there are many very small services some of which could profit from server resource sharing.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large memories : In the early ’90s it became trivially true that very large memories were the right answer for server-side workloads, especially database workloads.
  • Perspectives - Wednesday, 09 April 2008 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC perspectives.mvdirona.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet many of these same people want universal health care - a little two sided don't ya think?
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

.For example, a military guest house intended for soldier recreation could be easily converted into a profitable hotel for civilian use.^ Long range delivery devices may easily be converted to use biological agents or other chemicals, including lethal nerve gas.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These weapons are intended for use against "potentially hostile civilians", in anti-terrorism operations, counterinsurgency, and other military operations.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were two main factors which increased PLA commercial involvement in the 1990s. .One was that running profitable companies decreased the need for the state to fund the military from the government budget.^ There were five buying offices, including one operated by an Israeli government-owned company, Pituach, and another by Maurice Templesman, Jackie O's future boyfriend.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Really funding it need not have been the huge problem that it was in comparison to countries with much larger militaries.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company outsources more work to India now that there is less bureaucracy and state intervention and they’re not the only ones.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.The second was that in an environment where legal rules were unclear and political connections were important, PLA influence was very useful.^ Censorship of political speech and information is openly and routinely used to silence criticism of government and the ruling Chinese Communist Party.
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.By the early 1990s party officials and high military officials were becoming increasingly alarmed at the military's commercial involvement for a number of reasons.^ In sum, you can't just use the numbers of the official Budget because they are cooking the books and annual GDP is a terrible measure for evaluating military expenditure.
  • Obama Brings War Back Home 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

^ The designation of PRC-2250 is apparently a commercial model number and not an official AN/type.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The designation of PRC-1060 is a commercial model number and not a military AN type.
  • PRCLIST PRC MILITARY RADIO LISTING 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Reference]

The military's involvement in commerce was seen to adversely affect military readiness and spread corruption. .Further, there was great concern that having an independent source of funding would lead to decreased loyalty to the party.^ If you are researching independently, looking at all sides of the argument, writing and referencing your sources, you are having a good education.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The source said that one primary concern was the electrical grid, and what would happen if it were attacked from a broadband connection.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MikeSC Whatever system was in place there would be those concerns, that is an utterly stupid piece.
  • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.The result of this was an effort to spin off the PLA's commercial enterprises into private companies managed by former PLA officers, and to reform military procurement from a system in which the PLA directly controls its sources of supply to a contracting system more akin to those of Western countries.^ The future of China and other countries will fall into the current x and y generations; and with the recent incident, the x and y generations in China may instill the ideas that most western countries are against the Chinese in progressing.
  • Friends Started to Boycott French Products 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC home.wangjianshuo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are to be codes of conduct for public servants, proper systems for public procurement and management of public finances, as well as open public reporting.
  • Warning! this will scare sheeple and some truthers [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Dollars (source: www.sipri.org) budget for those worthy causes you point to and more.
  • BBC - Richard Black's Earth Watch: Hu's talking: Who's listening? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The separation of the PLA from its commercial interests was largely complete by the year 2000. It was met with very little resistance, as the spinoff was arranged in such a way that few lost out.^ It is predicted that its development will be completed in the year 2000 or so; 4.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next years will be very interesting, as Vinashins plan is to be the number 4 shipbuilder in the world, just after China, KR and Japan.
  • Vietnam's military ability [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forest temperatures during the day average around 77º F. (25º C.) throughout the year with very little season variation.
  • Documento sin título 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC webs.ono.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Peacekeeping Operations

.The PLA has sent PLA personnel to various hotspots as part of the People's Republic of China's role as a senior member of the United Nations.^ People's Republic of China proclaimed.
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ People’s Republic of China 1949–90 .
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

^ People's Republic of China portal .
  • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

Mostly engineers and logistical units, as well as Military Police and members of the paramilitary People's Armed Police have been sent to peacekeeping operations such as:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "China's Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 24)" (PDF). 25 July 2006. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060626_asia_balance_powers.pdf. 
  2. ^ The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database, SIPRI
  3. ^ Source
  4. ^ Dec 21, 2004 (2004-12-21). "US up in arms over Sino-Israel ties". Atimes.com. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/FL21Ak01.html. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  5. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/24/world/europe/24iht-arms.html
  6. ^ The PLA Navy's New Historic Missions: Expanding Capabilities
  7. ^ The Political System of the People's Republic of China. Chief Editor Pu Xingzu, Shanghai, 2005, Shanghai People's Publishing House. ISBN 7-208-05566-1, Chapter 11 The State Military System.
  8. ^ News of the Communist Party of China, Hyperlink . Retrieved 28 March 2007.
  9. ^ The Political System of the People's Republic of China. Chief Editor Pu Xingzu, Shanghai, 2005, Shanghai People's Publishing House. ISBN 7-208-05566-1 Chapter 11, the State Military System, pp. 369-392.
  10. ^ Wen Jiabao approved by parliament to be Chinese premier_English_Xinhua
  11. ^ List of chairman, vice chairmen, members of CPC Central Military Commission
  12. ^ "Chinese Ground Forces". SinoDefence.com. http://www.sinodefence.com/army/default.asp. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  13. ^ Electricity Grid in U.S. Penetrated By Spies
  14. ^ Fox News: Video
  15. ^ China Adds Precision Strike to Capabilities
  16. ^ 2007 Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China. p. 36.
  17. ^ a b 2007 Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China. p. 19.
  18. ^ 2007 Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China. p. 20.
  19. ^ China plays down fears after satellite shot down, AFP via Channelnewsasia, 20 January 2007
  20. ^ Squadron Leader KK Nair, "Space: The Frontiers of Modern Defence", Knowledge World Publishers, New Delhi, Chapter 6, p. 123–126.
  21. ^ Squadron Leadr KK Nair, Space:The Frontiers of Modern Defence, p. 123.
  22. ^ "China's Nuclear Exports and Assistance to Pakistan". Nti.org. http://www.nti.org/db/china/npakpos.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  23. ^ "China advancing laser weapons program". Worldnetdaily.com. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=15233. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  24. ^ John Pike. "Chinese Anti-Satellite Capabilities". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/world/china/asat.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-24. 
  25. ^ The Standard, 5 March 2008, Volume 1, No. 134, Major jump in military spending, Alarm raised over cyber, space advance, the Pentagon said in a report. ... "The PLA is also exploring satellite jammers, kinetic-energy weapons, high-powered lasers, high-powered microwave weapons, particle-beam weapons, and electromagnetic pulse weapons for counterspace application," it said, adding it was not clear if the cyber intrusions were backed by the military.
  26. ^ 2007 Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China. p. 25.
  27. ^ China plans to boost 2009 military spending by 14.9%

References and further reading

  • James C. Mulvenon, Andrew N. D. Yang. .The People's Liberation Army as Organization Reference Volume v1.0, RAND.
  • Chinese Military Power Council on Foreign Relations Press, May 2003.
  • Roy Kamphausen, Andrew Scobell.^ In order to protect its critical supply lines without a power projection capability, China has been establishing foreign military relationships that have been compared to a String of Pearls .
    • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
    • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

    ^ State Council ( Premier ) · Civil service · National People's Congress · Military (People's Liberation Army) · Political parties ( Communist Party ) · Elections · Education ( universities ) · National security · Foreign relations · Public health · Social welfare · Water supply and sanitation .
    • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
    • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

    ^ "China’s Rising Role in Africa", 21 July 2005 Council of Foreign Relations .
    • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]
    • Luxury Vacation Holiday Rental Apartments in Nice France - WIKI link=/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC www.stayintheheartofnice.com [Source type: News]

    .Right Sizing the People's Liberation Army Exploring the Contours of China's Military.^ After their factory flight tests, they have been evaluated by the People's Liberation Army Air Force 1st Fighter Division, based in Anshan in China's northeast Liaoning province.
    • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ PLASAC are a major division of the Asian Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force that controls Asian China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles.
    • Earth V Military Declarations Thread [Archive] - Jolt Forums 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forums.joltonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Power within the government of the People’s Republic of China is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
    • Liberal Conspiracy » Does socialism really cause racism? 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC liberalconspiracy.org [Source type: Original source]

    The Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College, September 2007.
  • Chinese Intelligence Agencies Intelligence Resource Program, Federation of American Scientists.

Annual Reports to U.S. Congress

.Mandated by the FY2000 National Defense Authorization Act, this annual report discusses China's military and security strategies, technological advancements in its capabilities, military doctrine, and security issues in the Taiwan Strait.^ As the Pentagon noted in its annual report on China's military this year, the country "continues to promulgate incomplete defense expenditure figures, and engage in actions that appear inconsistent with its declaratory policies."
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to protect its critical supply lines without a power projection capability, China has been establishing foreign military relationships that have been compared to a String of Pearls .
  • People's Republic of China Information & People's Republic of China Links at HealthHaven.com 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: News]

^ In addition, China has other Taiwan strategies that for its goals are better than launching an opposed amphibious landing.
  • PRC Armed Forces [Arsip] - Forum KG - Cozy Place To Talk 14 January 2010 17:017 UTC forum.kafegaul.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Plural
-
  1. (military, China) People's Liberation Army Ground Force, the army branch of the military arm of the People's Republic of China.
  2. (military, China) The military arm of the People's Republic of China

Synonyms

  • PLA (abbreviation)

Related terms

  • liberation army
  • People's Army

Derived terms

Translations


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on People's Liberation Army, which are similar to those in the above article.








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