The Full Wiki

Perceived organizational support: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Perceived Organizational Support (POS) is the degree to which employees’ believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Huntington, & Sowa, 1986).[1] POS is generally thought to be the organization’s contribution to a positive reciprocity dynamic with employees, as employees tend to perform better to pay back POS (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002).[2]

Contents

Differentiation from Perceived psychological contract violation

Both POS and Perceived psychological contract violation (PPCV) are based on the Norm of reciprocity. Both POS and PPCV are types of social exchange and therefore involve implicit obligations, rather than economic exchange, which involve explicit obligations (Blau, 1964; Emerson, 1972).[3][4] POS is focused on favorable treatment and the degree to which employees engage in positive reciprocity with the organization, whereas PPCV is focused on unfavorable treatment and the degree to which employees engage in negative reciprocity with the organization.

Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and Perceived Psychological Contract Violation (PPCV) are the two most common measures of the reciprocity norm in organizational research. POS is the degree to which employees’ believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Huntington, & Sowa, 1986).[1] POS is generally thought to be the organization’s contribution to a positive reciprocity dynamic with employees, as employees tend to perform better to pay back POS (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002).[2] PPCV is a construct that regards employees’ feelings of disappointment (ranging from minor frustration to betrayal) arising from their belief that their organization has broken its work-related promises (Morrison & Robinson, 1997), is generally thought to be the organization’s contribution to a negative reciprocity dynamic, as employees tend to perform more poorly to pay back PPCV (Robinson, 1996; Robinson, Kraatz, & Rousseau, 1994; Turnley & Feldman, 1999).[5][6]

Recent research

David R. Hekman and colleagues (2009) found that professional employees (e.g. doctors, nurses, lawyers) were more likely to reciprocate POS when they strongly identified with the organization.[7] Indeed, such workers' organizational identification and professional identification combined to influence performance behaviors. The results suggested that POS had the most positive influence on professional employees' work performance when employees strongly identified with the organization and weakly identified with the profession.[8]

Measurement Items

POS is typically measured with the eight-item perceived organizational support scale used by Hekman et al. (2009).[7][9] Respondents are asked to indicate the extent the extent to which they agree with the following statements on a seven-point scale.

1. My organization cares about my opinions.
2. My organization really cares about my well-being.
3. My organization strongly considers my goals and values.
4. Help is available from my organization when I have a problem.
5. My organization would forgive an honest mistake on my part.
6. If given the opportunity, my organization would take advantage of me. (item is reverse-coded)
7. My organization shows very little concern for me. (item is reverse-coded)
8. My organization is willing to help me, if I need a special favor.

References

  1. ^ a b Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Huntington, S., & Sowa, D. 1986. Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 500 –507.
  2. ^ a b Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. 2002. Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 698–714.
  3. ^ Blau, P. M. 1964. Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
  4. ^ Emerson, R. M. 1972. Exchange theory, part I: A psychological basis for social exchange. In J. Berger, M. Zelditch, & B. Anderson (Eds.), Sociological theories in progress, vol. 2: 38 –57. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  5. ^ Robinson, S. L. 1996. Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41: 574 –599.
  6. ^ Robinson, S. L., Kraatz, M., & Rousseau, D. M. 1994. Changing obligations and the psychological contract: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 37: 137–152.
  7. ^ a b Hekman, D.R., Steensma, H.K., Bigley, G.A., Hereford, J.F., (2009) “Combined Effects of Organizational and Professional Identification on the Reciprocity Dynamic for Professional Employees.” Academy of Management Journal. Volume 52, Number 3. http://journals.aomonline.org/inpress/main.asp?action=preview&art_id=473&p_id=1&p_short=AMJ
  8. ^ Hekman, D.R., Steensma, H.K., Bigley, G.A., Hereford, J.F., (2009) “Effects of Organizational and Professional Identification on the Relationship Between Administrators’ Social Influence and Professional Employees' Adoption of New Work Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology.
  9. ^ Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. 1996. Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 219 –227.

External links

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message