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.A percussion instrument is any object which produces a sound by being hit with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration.^ Give List of Instruments and the part of instrument that vibrates to produce sound?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Sound is produced when the instrument is struck.
  • ArtsAlive.ca - Music : Instrument Lab 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.artsalive.ca [Source type: General]

^ Percussion instruments are instruments where the sound is produced by bashing or beating.
  • Medieval and Tudor percussion instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.trouvere.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term usually applies to an object used in a rhythmic context or with musical intent.^ The term usually applies to an object used in a rhythmic context and/or with musical intent.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Junior Standing At the end of the 8th credit hour of applied study, (usually the end of the fourth semester) there is a performance examination before the entire music faculty.
  • Percussion Syllabus 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www2.umaine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In AfroCuban music, they are often used to sound the rhythmic pattern known as the clave.
  • Easy to Make Latin Percussion Instruments: Simple, Effective Instruments in the Palm of Your Hand in Minutes 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC worldinstruments.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.The word "percussion" has evolved from Latin terms: "percussio" (which translates as "to beat, strike" in the musical sense, rather than the violent action), and "percussus" (which is a noun meaning "a beating").^ Percussion * Net Dot Music™ * Bid, Buy & Sell Percussion Instruments * Latin Percussion .
  • Percussion * Net Dot Music™ * Bid, Buy & Sell Percussion Instruments * Latin Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.netdotmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ You know that you have to do more than bang things together to create percussion music.

^ What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use?
  • WikiAnswers - What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.As a noun in contemporary English it is described in Wiktionary as "the collision of two bodies to produce a sound". The usage of the term is not unique to music but has application in medicine and weaponry, as in percussion cap, but all known and common uses of the word, "percussion", appear to share a similar lineage beginning with the original Latin: "percussus". In a musical context then, the term "percussion instruments" may have been coined originally to describe family of instruments including drums, rattles, metal plates, or wooden blocks which musicians would beat or strike (as in a collision) to produce sound.^ Recommended drums and percussion instruments .
  • Instrument Percussion Science 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC el88.msl-fn.com [Source type: General]

^ All categories / Musical Instruments / Drums/Percussion .
  • Musical Instruments - Drums/Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.goshopping.com [Source type: General]

^ What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use?
  • WikiAnswers - What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

Percussion beaters and sticks

Contents

History

.
Ancient Chinese musical bronze bells from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, c.
^ Bell, Crotal (Ancient) The crotal is an ancient bell, a percussion instrument that is tuned and made of a bronze or brass sphere....
  • Percussion Musical Instruments - Clipart ETC 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC etc.usf.edu [Source type: General]

^ Exquisite chinese bronze carved dragon bell .
  • Percussion * Net Dot Music™ * Bid, Buy & Sell Percussion Instruments * 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.netdotmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Asian Excellent Musical Instrument Bronze Dragon Bell US $17.00 .
  • Percussion, Musical Instruments , Antique Lane 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC antique-lane.com [Source type: General]

6th century BC.
.Anthropologists and historians often speculate that percussion instruments were the first musical devices ever created.^ Anthropologists and historians repeatedly speculate that percussion instruments were the first musical apparatus ever came into being.
  • Percussion Musical Instruments — All about percussion musical instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC nudayz.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn Music > Percussion instruments .

^ Anthropologists and historians often explain that percussion instruments were the first musical devices ever created.
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

.The human voice was probably the first musical instrument, but percussion instruments such as hands and feet, then sticks, rocks, and logs were almost certainly the next steps in the evolution of music.^ Shakers are among the oldest of musical instruments, almost certainly a found instrument in the beginning.
  • making percussion instruments - shakers 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.rhythmweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn Music > Percussion instruments .

^ The earliest percussion instruments were our hands and feet, then "found" objects such as sticks, logs, and rocks.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • Learn to play the Percussion | Stepnote.co.uk - your destination for music education 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.stepnote.co.uk [Source type: General]

.As humans developed tools for hunting and eventually agriculture, their skill and technology enabled them to craft more complex instruments.^ When humans developed tools for hunting and agriculture, their knowledge along side with skill, enabled them to produce more complex tools.
  • Percussion Musical Instruments — All about percussion musical instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC nudayz.com [Source type: General]

^ As human communities developed tools for hunting and eventually agriculture, their skill and technology enabled them to craft more complex instruments.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • Learn to play the Percussion | Stepnote.co.uk - your destination for music education 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.stepnote.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The imagination of humans has led to the development and invention of a wide variety of percussion instruments form the drum to the piano, and from the guitar to the xylophone.
  • SameDayMusic.com: Encyclopedia Of Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.samedaymusic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a simple log may have been carved to produce louder tones (a log drum) and instruments may have been combined to produce multiple tones (as in a 'set' of log drums).^ For instance, a simple log may have been shaped to generate louder tones (log drum) and may have been pooled to create numerous tones (set of log drums).
  • Percussion Musical Instruments — All about percussion musical instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC nudayz.com [Source type: General]

^ Percussion instruments may produce tones of definite or indefinite pitch.
  • percussion instrument (musical instrument) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, a simple log may have been carved to produce louder tones (a log drum) and instruments may have been combined to produce multiple tones (as in a set of log drums).
  • Learn to play the Percussion | Stepnote.co.uk - your destination for music education 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.stepnote.co.uk [Source type: General]

Classifications

.Percussion instruments are classified by various criteria sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin, function within musical theory and orchestration, or their relative prevalence in common knowledge.^ Percussion instruments can be classified as tuned or untuned.
  • Percussion Instruments Buying Guide at MusiciansFriend.com | Musician's Friend 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.musiciansfriend.com [Source type: General]

^ Percussion instruments are classified as tuned or untuned.
  • DSO Kids | Meet the Percussion Family of Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.dsokids.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn Music > Percussion instruments .

Percussion instruments are sometimes classified as being "pitched" or "unpitched." While valid, this classification is widely seen as inadequate. Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards to one or more of the following four paradigms:

By methods of sound production

.Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physical characteristics of instruments and the methods by which they produce sound.^ Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Dr. Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physical characteristics of instruments and the methods by which they produce sound.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Percussion instruments are instruments where the sound is produced by bashing or beating.
  • Medieval and Tudor percussion instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.trouvere.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latin Percussion was produced in association with e-instruments .
  • Ableton - Latin Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.ableton.com [Source type: General]

.This is perhaps the most scientifically pleasing assignment of nomenclature whereas the other paradigms are more dependent on historical or social circumstances.^ This is perhaps the most scientifically pleasing assignment of nomenclature whereas the other paradigms are more dependent on historical or social circumstances.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ We can supply most percussion instruments including tambourines; shakers, bongos, Cajun triangles and much more…please select from the links to the left.
  • Percussion and bodhran instruments at Eagle Music Shop 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.eaglemusicshop.com [Source type: General]

^ For more information about other Summer Workshops, please contact the Summer Programs Office: .
  • Teaching Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.music.umich.edu [Source type: General]

Based on observation and experimentation, one can determine how an instrument produces sound and then assign the instrument to one of the following five categories:

Idiophone

."Idiophones produce sounds through the vibration of their entire body."^ Idiophones produce their sound by the vibration of the entire body of the instrument.
  • Idiophones Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.cmeabaysection.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What sounds do weak vibrations produce?
  • WikiAnswers - What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Idiophones produce sound when their bodes are caused to vibrate.
  • Simsbury Community Band - Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC simsburyband.org [Source type: General]

[1] Examples of idiophones:

Membranophone

.Most objects commonly known as "drums" are membranophones.^ Most objects commonly known as " drums " are membranophones.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Most objects commonly known as " drum s" are membranophones.Examples of membranophone: * Tom-tom * Snare drum * Timpani .
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Most objects commonly known as "drums" are membranophones.
  • Simsbury Community Band - Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC simsburyband.org [Source type: General]

."Membranophones produce sound when the membrane or head is struck."^ This produces a buzzing vibration when the head is struck.
  • Middle Eastern Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.maryellendonald.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notes are produced when the head is struck by the performer.
  • Percussion - Timpani 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.mathcs.duq.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Membranophones produce sound when the membrane or head is put into motion.
  • Simsbury Community Band - Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC simsburyband.org [Source type: General]

[1]
Examples of membranophones:
.
  • The lion's roar and the cuíca, which are not struck like other drums, produce sound by drawing a string or stick through an opening in the membrane.^ This drum produces a high, intense sound.
    • Circle Percussion - The Instrument Collection 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.circlepercussion.nl [Source type: General]

    ^ Instrumentation: three snare drums, bass drum and optional toms (2).
    • Percussion Ensembles, 4 Players 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.honeyrock.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Drum sets , cymbals , electronic drums , bass drums , snare drums , tom-toms .
    • Amazon.com: Featured Drums & Percussion Categories: Musical Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC amzn.com [Source type: General]

    .The lion's roar is sometimes classified as a chordophone, but this is inaccurate because the membrane produces the sound, not the string.
  • Wind machines: A wind machine in this context is not a wind tunnel and therefore not an aerophone.^ The lion's roar is sometimes classified as a chordophone ; however this is inacurate because the membrane makes the sound - not the string.
    • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Wind machines: A wind machine in this context is not a wind tunnel and therefore not an aerophone .
    • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
    • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Most instruments known as "aerophones" are defined as wind instrument s such as a saxophone whereby sound is produced by a person or thing blowing air through the object.
    • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

    Instead, it is an apparatus (often used in theatre as a sound effect) in which a sheet of canvas (a membrane) is rubbed against a screen or resonator; this action produces a sound which resembles the blowing of wind.

Chordophone

.Most instruments known as "chordophones" are defined as string instruments, but some such as these examples are percussion instruments also.^ Most of these instruments were idiophones such as the bone or wooden clappers.
  • About The Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.classicol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where are percussion instruments most used?
  • WikiAnswers - What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the most ancient of all percussion instruments.
  • India - Percussion Musical Instruments - India Info @ New Kerala .Com 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newkerala.com [Source type: News]

Aerophone

.Most instruments known as "aerophones" are defined as wind instruments such as a saxophone whereby sound is produced by a person or thing blowing air through the object.^ Most instruments known as "aerophones" are defined as wind instrument s such as a saxophone whereby sound is produced by a person or thing blowing air through the object.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Most instruments known as "aerophones" are defined as wind instruments such as a saxophone whereby sound is produced by a person or thing blowing air through the object.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ However, most aerophones are wind instruments .
  • Percussion, Musical Instruments - nuLime.com 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.nulime.com [Source type: General]

Examples of aerophones played by percussionists:

Electrophone

.Electrophones are also percussion instruments.^ Electrophones are also percussion instruments.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

.In the strictest sense, all electrophones require a loudspeaker (an idiophone or some other means to push air and create sound waves).^ In the strictest sense, all electrophones require a loudspeaker (an idiophone or some other means to push air and create sound waves).
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ These qualify as percussion because they utilitize a speaker to push air, creating soundwaves.
  • Percussion, Musical Instruments - nuLime.com 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.nulime.com [Source type: General]

^ Beginning in the early 20th century, perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard Varse which used air-raid sirens (among other things), composers began to require percussionists to invent or "find" objects to produce the desired sounds and textures.
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

.This, if for no other argument, is sufficient to assign electrophones to the percussion family.^ This, if for no other argument, is sufficient to assign electrophones to the percussion family.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ OTHER PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS      There are many instruments included in the percussion family commonly known as "toys".

.Moreover, many composers have used the following example instruments and they are most often performed by percussionists in an ensemble.^ They were often used for dancing and festivals.

^ However, the following example instruments, if played at all in a musical context, are played by the percussionists in an ensemble.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Where are percussion instruments most used?
  • WikiAnswers - What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

Examples of electrophones:

By musical function or orchestration

.When classifying instruments by function it is useful to note if a percussion instrument makes a definite pitch or indefinite pitch.^ Percussion instruments can be classified as tuned or untuned.
  • Percussion Instruments Buying Guide at MusiciansFriend.com | Musician's Friend 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.musiciansfriend.com [Source type: General]

^ A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects .
  • A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percussion Instruments Many types of instruments are classified as percussion instruments.
  • Percussion Instruments from World Musical Instruments Many types of instruments are classified as percussion instruments. This section includes bells, cymbals, gong, handheld percussion items such as castanets, maracas, and rain stick as well as belly dance accessories. 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.worldmusicalinstruments.com [Source type: General]

.For example, some percussion instruments (such as the marimba and timpani) produce an obvious fundamental pitch and can therefore play melody and serve harmonic functions in music.^ How do you play a percussion instrument?
  • percussion instrument Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about percussion instrument 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, some percussion instruments (such as the marimba and timpani ) produce an obvious fundamental pitch and can therefore play melody and serve harmonic functions in music.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Percussion instruments play not just the rhythm but also the melody and harmony.

.Other instruments (such as crash cymbals and snare drums) produce sounds with such complex overtones and a wide range of prominent frequencies that no pitch is discernible.^ For example, some instruments such as the marimba and timpani produce an obvious fundamental pitch and can therefore play melody and serve harmonic functions in music while other instruments such as crash cymbal s and snare drum s produce sounds with such complex overtones and a wide range of prominent frequencies that no pitch is discernable.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ They hit each other to produce sound .
  • Percussion Instruments | Drum | Tambourine | Bell | Maracas | Music | Musical 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.kidzworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Instrumentation (6 players): xylophone, timpani, snare drum, bongos, bass drum, crash cymbals .
  • FJHmusic.com | Percussion Music 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC fjhmusic.com [Source type: General]

Definite pitch

Percussion instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as "pitched" or "tuned".
Examples of percussion instruments with definite pitch:

Indefinite pitch

.Instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as "non-pitched", "unpitched", or "untuned". This phenomenon occurs when the resultant sound of the instrument contains complex frequencies through which no discernible pitch can be heard.^ Instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as "pitched" or "tuned".
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ This phenomenon occurs when the resultant sound of the instrument contains complex frequencies through which no discernable pitch can be heard.
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Percussion instruments can be either pitched or unpitched.
  • Percussion in MusicXML 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.recordare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples of percussion instruments with indefinite pitch:

By prevalence in common knowledge

.Although it is difficult to define what is "common knowledge", there are instruments in use by percussionists and composers in contemporary music which are certainly not considered by most to be musical instruments of any kind.^ Musical instrument in the phil and how to use?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Although it is difficult to define what is "common knowledge", there are instruments in use by percussionists and composers in contemporary music which are certainly not considered by most to be musical instruments of any kind.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Where are percussion instruments most used?
  • WikiAnswers - What percussion instrument do Latin musical groups use 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore, it is worthwhile to try to make distinction between instruments based on their acceptance or consideration by a general audience.^ Therefore, it is worthwhile to try to make distinction between instruments based on their acceptance or consideration by a general audience.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Sticking Considerations General suggestions making sticking choices on all the keyboard instruments.
  • Vic Firth Presents PERCUSSION 101 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.vicfirth.com [Source type: General]

^ Students will make predictions and explore how pitch changes based on the materials used in instrument construction.

.For example, it is safe to argue that most people would not consider an anvil, a brake drum (the circular hub on modern vehicles which houses the brakes), or a fifty-five gallon oil barrel to be musical instruments, yet these objects are used regularly by composers and percussionists of modern music.^ For example, it is safe to argue that most people would not consider an anvil , a brake drum (the circular hub on modern vehicles which houses the brakes), or a fifty-five gallon oil barrel to be musical instruments, yet these objects are used regularly by composers and percussionists of modern music.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Musical instrument in the phil and how to use?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects .
  • A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One might assign various percussion instruments to one of the following categories:

Conventional or popular

Unconventional

(Sometimes referred to as "found" instruments)
  • Brooms
  • Clay pots
  • Five gallon buckets
  • Garbage cans
  • Metal pipes
  • Plastic bag
  • Shopping carts
  • Spokes on a bicycle wheel
  • Rocks in a bucket
  • Beer kegs
.John Cage, Harry Partch, Edgard Varèse, and Peter Schickele, all noted composers, created entire pieces of music using unconventional instruments.^ Musical instrument in the phil and how to use?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ John Cage , Harry Partch , Edgard Varèse , all of whom are notable composers, created entire pieces of music using unconventional instruments.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ What percussion instruments are used in Latin music?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Beginning in the early 20th century, perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard Varèse which used air-raid sirens (among other things), composers began to require percussionists to invent or "find" objects to produce the desired sounds and textures.^ Beginning in the early 20th century, perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard Varse which used air-raid sirens (among other things), composers began to require percussionists to invent or "find" objects to produce the desired sounds and textures.
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Beginning in the early 20th century, perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard Varèse which used air-raid sirens (among other things), composers began to require percussionists to invent or "find" objects to produce the desired sounds and textures.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Beginning in the early 20th century, perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard Varèse which used air-raid sirens (among other things), composers began to require percussionists to invent or "find" objects to produce the desired sounds and textures.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

Another example includes the use of a hammer and saw in Penderecki's De Natura Sonoris No. 2. .By late 20th century, such instruments had become common in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions, such as the off-Broadway show, Stomp.^ Percussion such as drums as a rule are not musical instruments.
  • HearandPlayZone.com :: View topic - MELODIC PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC zone.hearandplay.com [Source type: General]

^ Pitched percussion instruments can be called musical instruments...
  • HearandPlayZone.com :: View topic - MELODIC PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC zone.hearandplay.com [Source type: General]

^ What percussion instruments are used in Latin music?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

By cultural significance or tradition

.It is not uncommon to discuss percussion instruments in relation to their cultural origin.^ Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to discuss percussion instruments in relation to their cultural origin.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ General discussion of KAT percussion instruments .
  • General discussion of KAT percussion instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC alternatemode.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percussion instruments are classified dependant on their construction, ethnic origin, their orchestration, or use within musical theory.
  • Percussion, Musical Instruments - nuLime.com 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.nulime.com [Source type: General]

.This has led to a division between instruments which are considered "common" or "modern," and folk instruments which have a significant history or purpose within a geographic region or cultural group.^ This has led to a dualism between instruments which are considered "common" or "modern," and "folk music"/"world music"/"ethnic music" instruments which have a significant history and/or purpose within a geographic region or cultural/ethnic group.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to discuss percussion instruments in relation to their cultural origin which has led to a dualism between instruments which are considered "common" or "modern" and those which have a significant history and/or significant purpose within a geographic region or among a specific demographic of the world's population.
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ By late-20th century, such instruments had become common in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions such as the off-broadway show, STOMP .
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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Folk percussion instruments

Some percussion instruments

"Common" drums

This category includes instruments which are widely available and popular throughout the world:

Function

.Percussion instruments play not only rhythm, but also melody and harmony.^ Percussion instruments play not just the rhythm but also the melody and harmony.

^ Percussion instruments play not only rhythm , but also melody and harmony .
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion- clef ; More often a treble clef (or sometimes a bass clef) is substituted for rhythm clef.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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.Percussion is commonly referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble, often working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present.^ Percussion is often referred to as the backbone of a musical ensemble.

^ Percussion is commonly referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble, often working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ By late-20th century, such instruments had become common in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions such as the off-broadway show, STOMP .
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

.In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the bassist and the drummer are often referred to as the rhythm section.^ The ensemble also performs music from other cultures.
  • UCF: CAH: Music: Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC music.cah.ucf.edu [Source type: General]

^ In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the bassist and the drummer are oftened referred to as the rhythm section .
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Percussion is often referred to as the backbone of a musical ensemble.

.Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings, woodwinds, and brass.^ Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings , woodwinds , and brass .
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ Woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments of the orchestra, a bibliographic guide.

^ IV 3r d place winner in the 2000 PAS Composition Contest, Marimba Quartet is a virtuosic, 17 minute piece written in the four-movement structure of a classical string quartet.
  • Percussion Ensembles, 4 Players 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.honeyrock.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, often at least one pair of timpani is included, though they rarely play continuously.^ However, often at least one pair of timpani is included, though they rarely play continuously.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ They can be played with a metal mallet or by striking one against another like cymbals if hand-held.
  • Idiophones Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.cmeabaysection.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DANFORTH HICKORY BONES The bones are played by holding two in one hand, separated by the middle finger so they have room to clack together.
  • Percussion Instruments - Elderly Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC elderly.com [Source type: General]

.Rather, they serve to provide additional accents when needed.^ Rather, they serve to provide additional accents when needed.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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.In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, other percussion instruments (like the triangle or cymbals) have been used, again relatively sparingly in general.^ A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects .
  • A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, other percussion instruments (like the triangle or cymbals ) have been used, again relatively sparingly in general.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ What percussion instruments are used in Latin music?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.The use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the twentieth century classical music.^ Musical instrument in the phil and how to use?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The tabla is the percussion instrument of the Khyal Indian classical music' style.
  • Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.tunji.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ghatam is also a percussion music used in Carnatic music.

.In almost every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role.^ In almost every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ The human voice was probably the first musical instrument, but percussion instruments such as hands and feet, then sticks, rocks, and logs were almost certainly the next steps in the evolution of music.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ In other styles of Brazilian music the repenique is played with a pair of flexible plastic 'whippy' sticks.
  • What Instruments Are Found in a Samba Band? Brazilian Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: General]

.In military marching bands and pipes and drums, it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, and it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment.^ In military marching bands and pipes and drums , it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, and it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ Most of the history of the snare drum comes from military bands, and therefore the marching tradition.
  • Percussion Clinic Adelaide - Instrument Encyclopedia - Solo Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.percussionclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Snare drum as a marching instrument .
  • Percussion Clinic Adelaide - Instrument Encyclopedia - Solo Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.percussionclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word "swing" is spoken.^ In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word "swing" is spoken.
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Hi-hat Cymbals .
  • The Brass Crest: Instruments: Percussion 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.brasscrest.com [Source type: General]

^ In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hat s or the ride cymbal when the word "swing" is spoken.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

.In more recent popular music culture, it is almost impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, rap, funk or even soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time.^ In more recent popular music culture, it is almost impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, rap, funk or even soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ The human voice was probably the first musical instrument, but percussion instruments such as hands and feet, then sticks, rocks, and logs were almost certainly the next steps in the evolution of music.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]

^ By late-20th century, such instruments had become common in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions such as the off-broadway show, STOMP .
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

.Because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed entirely of percussion.^ Find Percussion Instruments on eBay .
  • eBay Guides - Percussion Instruments Buying Guide 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC pages.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ Pitched percussion instruments can be called musical instruments...
  • HearandPlayZone.com :: View topic - MELODIC PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC zone.hearandplay.com [Source type: General]

^ What percussion instruments are used in Latin music?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Rhythm, melody, and harmony are all represented in these ensembles.^ Percussion instruments play not just the rhythm but also the melody and harmony.

^ The principal part in music is undertaken by three instrumental groups of sustained resonance, representing the three primary elements, melody, harmony and rhythm.
  • Lesson 2 - GENERAL REVIEW - Brass, Percussion & Other Instruments - northernsounds.com 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.northernsounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In almost all parts of the British colonies and islands no drumming was allowed; consequently these areas have lagged behind the more advanced regions in rhythm.
  • Afro-American Percussion Instruments 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC larkinthemorning.com [Source type: General]

Percussion notation

.Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments.^ Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion- clef ; More often a treble clef (or sometimes a bass clef) is substituted for rhythm clef.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
  • New School of Music, Music Lessons, Instruments, Rentals, Repairs in Atlanta, Gwinnett, Cobb, DeKalb, Lilburn, Dunwoody, Buford 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.newschoolofmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Musical instrument in the phil and how to use?
  • WikiAnswers - Percussion Instruments Questions including "Where was the xylophone invented" 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects .
  • A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT -- using found objects 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion-clef; More often a treble clef (or sometimes a bass clef) is substituted for rhythm clef.^ Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion- clef ; More often a treble clef (or sometimes a bass clef) is substituted for rhythm clef.
  • Percussion instrument at AllExperts 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ Examples of percussion instruments with definite pitch: .
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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^ Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments.
  • Percussion instrument - AudioLexic 2 February 2010 9:20 UTC en.audiolexic.org [Source type: General]
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Names for percussionists

The general term for a musician who plays percussion instruments is "percussionist" but the terms listed below are often used to describe a person's specialties:

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Gary D. Cook, Teaching Percussion, p.2, 3rd edn, 2006, Thomson Schirmer, ISBN 0 534 50990 8

Further reading

  • James Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History, (1970).
  • Shen, Sinyan, Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells, Scientific American, 256, 94 (1987).

External links


Simple English

Percussion instruments are instruments which are played by shaking or hitting. There are many different kinds of percussion instruments. A person who plays a percussion instrument is a percussionist. Percussionists are usually able to play lots of different percussion instruments, because the basic skills required are similar.

Some percussion instruments can play tunes. These are called “tuned percussion”. Tuned percussion instruments include: xylophone, glockenspiel, vibraphone, tubular bells and timpani.

Untuned percussion instruments include: bass drum, side drum (snare drum), maracas, castanets, cymbals, tambourine, claves and many more.

In an orchestra there can be more different sorts of percussion instruments than in the other families: string, woodwind and brass instruments. However, older music does not often use lots of percussion. Most orchestral music by composers like Mozart and Beethoven only use timpani. In the 19th century more percussion is added: cymbals, tambourine, triangle etc. In the 20th century some composers may use a large number of percussion instruments.

Whenever any unusual instrument is used that does not fit into the category of string, woodwind, brass or keyboard, it is usually played by a percussionist. Occasionally composers have used things like typewriters, milk bottles or vacuum cleaners in their orchestral pieces.

Drum kits are the basis of most pop music. Drum kits can include bass drum, side drum, tom-toms, cowbells, cymbals (suspended and hi-hat) etc. Together with a string bass (double bass) they will form the “rhythm section” of a jazz group. A percussion player has to have a very good sense of rhythm. The other players rely on him or her to keep a steady beat and not to play so loudly that the tune cannot be heard.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Percussion instrument, which are similar to those in the above article.








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