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Perilla
Green Shiso
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Perilla
L.

Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. In mild climates the plant reseeds itself. There are both green-leafed and purple-leafed varieties which are generally recognized as separate species by botanists. The leaves resemble stinging nettle leaves, being slightly rounder in shape. It is also widely known as the Beefsteak plant. Its essential oils provide for a strong taste whose intensity might be compared to that of mint or fennel. It is considered rich in minerals and vitamins, has anti-inflammatory properties and is thought to help preserve and sterilize other foods. In Nepal and parts of India, it is called silam (सिलाम). Its seeds are ground with chili and tomatoes to make a savoury dip/side dish.

It is sometimes known as purple mint, Japanese basil, or wild coleus (like basil and coleus, it is a member of the mint family).

Contents

Ecology and Naturalization

Perilla frutescens has been widely naturalized in the United States and part of Canada, from Texas and Florida north to Connecticut and into Ontario, and west to Nebraska. It can be weedy or invasive in some of this region.[1]

China

Perilla (simplified Chinese: 紫苏traditional Chinese: 紫蘇pinyin: zǐ sū) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine and has been shown to stimulate interferon activity[citation needed] and thus, the body's immune system.

Japan

Akajiso (Red shiso - Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. purpurea)

The Japanese name for perilla is shiso (紫蘇?). The Japanese call the green type aojiso (青紫蘇?), aoba ("green leaf"), ōba (corruption of aoba) or aoshiso and often eat it with sashimi (sliced raw fish) or cut into thin strips in salads, spaghetti, and meat and fish dishes. It is also used as a flavorful herb in a variety of dishes, even as a pizza topping (initially it was used in place of basil). In the summer of 2009, Pepsi Japan released a new seasonal flavored beverage, Pepsi Shiso. [1]

The purple type is called akajiso (赤紫蘇?, "red shiso") and is used to dye umeboshi (pickled ume) red or combined with ume paste in sushi to make umeshiso maki.

An inflorescence of shiso is called hojiso (ear shiso). Its young leaves and flower buds are used for pickling in Japan and Taiwan.

Shiso plant with forming leaves, stem and leaf detail

Vietnam

Vietnamese cuisine uses a variety similar to the Japanese hojiso but with greenish bronze on the top face and purple on the opposite face. The leaves are smaller and have a much stronger fragrance than hojiso. In Vietnamese, it is called tía tô, derived from the characters (紫蘇) whose standard pronunciation in Vietnamese is tử tô. It is usually eaten as a garnish in rice vermicelli dishes called bún and a number of stews and simmered dishes.

Korea

Korean perilla leaves used as a side dish

The plant's Korean name is deulkkae or tŭlkkae (들깨 which means 'wild sesame'.). The same word is also used when referring to its seed, which has many uses in Korean cuisine, just as the leaves (kkaennip, 깻잎) do. The literal translations of deulkkae ("wild sesame") and kkaennip ("sesame leaf") are in spite of perilla's not being closely related to sesame, and Korean cookbooks translated to English sometimes use these translations. Cans of pickled kkaennip can be found in Korean shops all over the world, with some ground red pepper between every two leaves in the can. The leaves' essential oils provide for their strong taste. Fresh leaves have an aroma reminiscent of apples and mint and are eaten in salad dishes. The flavor is distinct from Japanese perilla, and the leaf appearance is different as well – larger, rounder, flatter, with a less serrate edge and often, a violet coloring on the reverse side. Perilla oil (deulgireum, 들기름) is extracted from the seeds; the cake can be used as animal food. Perilla oil has a rich taste and scent slightly resembling dark sesame oil (chamgireum, 참기름). Perilla seed can be cooked with meals, roasted, crushed to intensify its taste and/or mixed with sesame and salt.

Chemistry

The essential oil extracted from the leaves of perilla by steam distillation consists of a variety of chemical compounds, which may vary depending on species. The most abundant, comprising about 50–60% of the oil, is perillaldehyde which is most responsible for the aroma and taste of perilla. Other terpenes such as limonene, caryophyllene, and farnesene are common as well.

Of the known chemotypes of perilla, PA (main component: perillaldehyd) is the only one used for culinary purposes. Other chemotypes are PK (perilla ketone), EK (elsholzia ketone), PL (perillene), PP (phenylpropanoids: myristicin, dillapiole, elemicin), C (citral) and a type rich in rosefuran.

Perilla ketone is toxic to some animals. When cattle and horses consume purple mint (of the PK chemotype) while grazing in fields in which it grows, the perilla ketone causes pulmonary edema leading to a condition sometimes called perilla mint toxicosis.

Perilla oil is obtained by pressing the seeds of perilla, which contain 35 to 45 percent oil. In parts of Asia, perilla oil is used as an edible oil that is valued more for its medicinal benefit than its flavor. Perilla oil is a very rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. As a drying oil similar to tung oil or linseed oil, perilla oil has been used for paints, varnishes, linoleum, printing ink, lacquers, and for protective waterproof coatings on cloth. Perilla oil can also be used for fuel.

The oxime of perillaldehyde (perillartin) is used as an artificial sweetener in Japan as it is about 2000 times sweeter than sucrose.

See also

References


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Perilla
See also perilla, and perillä

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Perilla

  1. (botany) A taxonomic genus, within tribe Elsholtzieae - the shiso herb.
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Wikispecies

See also

  • Perilla frutescens

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Elsholtzieae
Genus: Perilla
Species: Perilla frutescens

Name

Perilla L.

Vernacular names

Nederlands: Zwarte netel
中文: 紫蘇, 紫苏







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