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In the periodic table of the elements, elements are arranged in a series of rows so that those with similar properties appear in vertical columns. This arrangement reflects the periodic recurrence of similar properties as the atomic number increases. For example, the alkaline metals lie in one group (group 1) and share similar properties, such as high reactivity and the tendency to lose one electron to arrive at the noble gas electronic configuration. There are also periods on the periodic table. Periods are horizontal rows on the periodic table; there are 8 of them. Each one begins with an alkali earth metal and ends with a noble gases.

Modern quantum mechanics explains these periodic trends in properties in terms of electron shells. As atomic number increases, shells fill with electrons in approximately the order shown below. The filling of each shell corresponds to a row in the table.

In the s-block and p-block of the periodic table, elements within the same period generally do not exhibit trends and similarities in properties (vertical trends down groups are more significant). However in the d-block, trends across periods become significant, and in the f-block elements show a high degree of similarity across periods (particularly the lanthanides).

The periodic table of elements is organized by periods and families or groups this means that the periods stand for the valence electrons or negatively charged atoms known as electrons in the electrons shells in the electron cloud.


Simple English

A period in the Periodic Table is any horizontal row of elements. The elements in a certain period all increase one by one in atomic numbers. The elements in the same period are very metallic on the left, and nonmetallic on the right. As you go across a period towards the right, the size of the atom gets smaller, because protons and electrons are increasing. Each Period in the Periodic table of Elements is fully of different types of atoms.


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