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The periodic table of the chemical elements (also Mendeleev's table, periodic table of the elements or just periodic table) is a tabular display of the chemical elements. Although precursors to this table exist, its invention is generally credited to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, who intended the table to illustrate recurring ("periodic") trends in the properties of the elements. .The layout of the table has been refined and extended over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed to explain chemical behavior.^ News in PHYSICS - New Element discovered .

^ Finally, the new findings will not only help astrophysicists refine theoretical models for brown dwarfs, but they also provide a rare empirical glimpse into the nature and origin of how some stars fail.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We are developing new chemical ligands to intercept these communication pathways and modulate both pathogenesis and symbiosis," she says.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The periodic table is now ubiquitous within the academic discipline of chemistry, providing an extremely useful framework to classify, systematize, and compare all of the many different forms of chemical behavior.^ Although she'd been all over America and met so many different kinds of people, she never ever thought of herself as anything but a road smart but still someone else's dumb babe.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ Tolerance is, I believe, all about not allowing strange or different behavior to poison your perceptions about people.

^ But don't forget there are like 100 different electrolytes which can be combined to form like 1000 or 10,000 (I forget which) different electrolytic compounds and the concept I describe can be tried with all of them.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The table has found wide application in chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering, especially chemical engineering.^ The native chemical and physical properties of sodium bicarbonate account for its wide range of applications, including cleaning, deodorizing, buffering, and fire extinguishing.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Science teachers will learn how to use these technologies topics to demonstrate the interdependency of the sciences of biology, chemistry and physics with technology in their science classrooms.
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^ The foundation bestows the awards on young researchers in the fields of chemistry, computer science, economics, mathematics, molecular biology, neuroscience and physics.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The current standard table contains 118 elements as of March 2010 (elements 1118).

Contents

Structure

Group # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
57
La*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
89
Ac**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Uuq
115
Uup
116
Uuh
117
Uus
118
Uuo

* Lanthanoids 58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinoids 90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
This common arrangement of the periodic table separates the lanthanoids and actinoids from other elements. The wide periodic table incorporates the f-block. The extended periodic table adds the 8th and 9th periods, incorporating the f-block and adding the theoretical g-block.
Atomic number colors show state at standard temperature and pressure (0 °C and 1 atm)
Solids Liquids Gases Unknown
Borders show natural occurrence
Primordial From decay Synthetic (Undiscovered)
Some versions of the table show a dark stair-step line along the metalloids. Metals are to the left of the line and non-metals to the right.[2]
The layout of the periodic table demonstrates recurring ("periodic") chemical properties. Elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number (i.e., the number of protons in the atomic nucleus). .Rows are arranged so that elements with similar properties fall into the same columns (groups or families).^ The group used the same approach to resolve the family tree of fungi, organisms that originated about the same time as animals.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the only payload that it carries was random data swaping capability, always between same column/field of diferent rows/records.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ The similarities to the sporting events will point to the same terrorist group.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.According to quantum mechanical theories of electron configuration within atoms, each row (period) in the table corresponded to the filling of a quantum shell of electrons.^ This empty space is filled with explosives and the phones are configured to detonate at a specific time period.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also puts the electron into the second shell and from there is can form a sort of covalent bond with the carbon atom as the carbon atoms has four “holes” in it's own second shell into which electrons can fit.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are progressively longer periods further down the table, grouping the elements into s-, p-, d- and f-blocks to reflect their electron configuration.^ It also puts the electron into the second shell and from there is can form a sort of covalent bond with the carbon atom as the carbon atoms has four “holes” in it's own second shell into which electrons can fit.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m heading down there with a youth group and they’re singing carols so I’ll probably be playing with them.
  • Kina Grannis » teeny tiny tour…*updated* 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.kinagrannis.com [Source type: General]

.In printed tables, each element is usually listed with its element symbol and atomic number; many versions of the table also list the element's atomic mass and other information, such as its abbreviated electron configuration, electronegativity and most common valence numbers.^ Humans can get water through many other sources such as fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Greenversations Question of the Week: Why do you drink bottled water or tap water? 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC blog.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most dinosaurs stood upright on straight legs, a posture common to warm-blooded creatures, but not to other, cold-blooded reptiles.

^ Natural products such as B-17 and many others are not "habit forming drugs."
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of 2010, the table contains 118 chemical elements whose discoveries have been confirmed. .Ninety-four are found naturally on Earth, and the rest are synthetic elements that have been produced artificially in particle accelerators.^ Another way to produce a more or less permanent voltage from naturally occurring conditions on the Earth, still using the ocean as a critical component, would be to use the ocean itself.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A four-foot-high cell stack produces three kilowatts, but operates on natural gas so far.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a process whereby Synthetic Natural Gas can be produced from such sources as biomass, oil shale and coal.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elements 43 (technetium), 61 (promethium) and all elements greater than 83 (bismuth), beginning with 84 (polonium) have no stable isotopes.^ After all, the adult stomach was created to consume no more than one liter of anything at a time.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This technique, which measures isotopes of the element beryllium, allows scientists to determine with much greater accuracy how ice sheets may have moved in the distant past.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cuddly Menace threatens us all, and it's staring at us from something no more sinister than a simple children's book.
  • Steve Jackson Games Illuminated Site of the Week Archive 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.sjgames.com [Source type: General]

.The atomic mass of each of these element's isotope having the longest half-life is typically reported on periodic tables with parentheses.^ The tables and text in the last half of the report revealed what it was really about.

[3] .Isotopes of elements 43, 61, 93 (neptunium) and 94 (plutonium), first discovered synthetically, have since been discovered in trace amounts on Earth as products of natural radioactive decay processes.^ The used fuel rods are composed of uranium, plutonium, heavy radioactive metals called "transuranics" and lighter radioactive elements known as "fission products."
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a process whereby Synthetic Natural Gas can be produced from such sources as biomass, oil shale and coal.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those who don't want to convert their vehicles two other processes exist whereby synthetic natural gas can be turned into diesel or gasoline.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The primary determinant of an element's chemical properties is its electron configuration, particularly the valence shell electrons.^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sulfur atom has 6 electrons in it's 3rd shell (valence shell) and it is this shell to which other atoms bond.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxygen has 6 electrons in it's 2nd shell (valence) and hydrogen has one electron in it's first (only) shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, any atoms with four valence electrons occupying p orbitals will exhibit some similarity.^ It also puts the electron into the second shell and from there is can form a sort of covalent bond with the carbon atom as the carbon atoms has four “holes” in it's own second shell into which electrons can fit.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stressing the bonds between the atoms of some crystals causes electrons to build up on one side, creating a charge difference over the body of the crystal.

^ The Sulfur atom has 6 electrons in it's 3rd shell (valence shell) and it is this shell to which other atoms bond.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The type of orbital in which the atom's outermost electrons reside determines the "block" to which it belongs. .The number of valence shell electrons determines the family, or group, to which the element belongs.^ What this number expresses is the force with which the element holds onto an electron in oxidation/reduction reactions.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sulfur atom has 6 electrons in it's 3rd shell (valence shell) and it is this shell to which other atoms bond.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxygen has 6 electrons in it's 2nd shell (valence) and hydrogen has one electron in it's first (only) shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Subshell S G F D P
Period
1 1s
2 2s 2p
3 3s 3p
4 4s 3d 4p
5 5s 4d 5p
6 6s 4f 5d 6p
7 7s 5f 6d 7p
8 8s 5g 6f 7d 8p
.The total number of electron shells an atom has determines the period to which it belongs.^ When we add heat energy the hydrogen atom reacts by becoming excited and the result is that it's lone electron moves into a higher energy shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sulfur atom has 6 electrons in it's 3rd shell (valence shell) and it is this shell to which other atoms bond.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each shell is divided into different subshells, which as atomic number increases are filled in roughly this order (the Aufbau principle) (see table).^ Yet after years of seeing people filling their shopping carts with countless numbers of bottled water of 500 ml, I am so disgusted with this waste that I no longer buy bottled water.
  • Greenversations Question of the Week: Why do you drink bottled water or tap water? 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC blog.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With an increasing number of Western multinationals managing factories in China, different HR policies, practices, and people management methods will no doubt be introduced.

^ The 30 terrorists break into smaller groups of 3-5 each in order to divide and conquer.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

Hence the structure of the table. Since the outermost electrons determine chemical properties, those with the same number of valence electrons are grouped together.
.Progressing through a group from lightest element to heaviest element, the outer-shell electrons (those most readily accessible for participation in chemical reactions) are all in the same type of orbital, with a similar shape, but with increasingly higher energy and average distance from the nucleus.^ The groups funded by the Older Americans Act of 1965 and most likely to also be on the list of those resources to be given seniors and their families to assist them with advanced planning.

^ What this number expresses is the force with which the element holds onto an electron in oxidation/reduction reactions.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The worried well account for one-third of all primary care visits and incur healthcare costs 14 times higher than average.

.For instance, the outer-shell (or "valence") electrons of the first group, headed by hydrogen, all have one electron in an s orbital.^ Oxygen has 6 electrons in it's 2nd shell (valence) and hydrogen has one electron in it's first (only) shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All dinosaurs are classified in one of two large groups, according to the design and shape of their hip bones.

^ First of all at least tap water (I live in NYC which has one of the best tap water in a country) is being checked by government and has to adhere to set standards.
  • Greenversations Question of the Week: Why do you drink bottled water or tap water? 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC blog.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In hydrogen, that s orbital is in the lowest possible energy state of any atom, the first-shell orbital (and represented by hydrogen's position in the first period of the table).^ The negatively charged oxygen ions combine with positively charged hydrogen ions to form water and release electrical energy.
  • KeelyNet 2007 - November Whats New Index 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.keelynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No major advance has ever resulted from state funded research in the energy sector but hey, there's always a first time!
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the last issue of this newsletter I made the assertion that is is possible to produce hydrogen fuel using less energy than the amount that can be produced by combining hydrogen with oxygen.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In francium, the heaviest element of the group, the outer-shell electron is in the seventh-shell orbital, significantly further out on average from the nucleus than those electrons filling all the shells below it in energy.^ These energy devises force the electrons in all water containing items to begin to move in a counter clock wise direction around the protons in that same water.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember that you get less energy out than was put in.

^ The current average mileage for all cars is less than the mileage of the 1908 Model T .

.As another example, both carbon and lead have four electrons in their outer shell orbitals.^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once completed, the bomb was "disguised" -- its outer shell was removed and it was buried within several lead-encased boxes.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ To move electrons from one shell to another releases energy as is seen when oxygen combines with hydrogen.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that as atomic number (i.e., charge on the atomic nucleus) increases, this leads to greater spin-orbit coupling between the nucleus and the electrons, reducing the validity of the quantum mechanical orbital approximation model, which considers each atomic orbital as a separate entity.^ Stressing the bonds between the atoms of some crystals causes electrons to build up on one side, creating a charge difference over the body of the crystal.

^ Also I found that by placing one of these electrodes close to the charged electrode and the other one farther away I could increase the potential difference between them.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So one could make a comparison between positively charged "holes" and the positive ions in an electrolytic solution and between electrons and the negatively charged ions in such a solution.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The elements ununtrium, ununquadium, ununpentium, etc. are elements that have been discovered, but so far have not received a trivial name yet. There is a system for naming them temporarily.

Classification

Groups

A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. .Groups are considered the most important method of classifying the elements.^ The most important element of Global Warming isthat it has is faith, because the people who believe in it can't prove it.
  • Al Gore's Global Warming Lies - The Religion of Environmentalism 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.bobbyshred.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kawaoka and his group are recognized worldwide as leaders in the study of influenza, one of the world's most important human and animal diseases.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some groups, the elements have very similar properties and exhibit a clear trend in properties down the group.^ In other words, because some part of a large distributed group of wind farms is always producing some power, it will never go completely down.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Electric Grid Archives 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The probabilities are extremely high that if we don't address these imbalances, then at some point, and it could be years down the road, we'll pay a very big price.''
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reality, small groups of bikes will poodle along quiet grassy track, across downs and peaks, maybe tacle some fords and mud.
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These groups tend to be given trivial (unsystematic) names, e.g., the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, pnictogens, chalcogens, and noble gases.^ Automakers are exploring the use of metal hydride systems that adsorb hydrogen under pressure, but these devices tend to be heavy (about 300 kilograms).

.Some other groups in the periodic table display fewer similarities and/or vertical trends (for example Group 14), and these have no trivial names and are referred to simply by their group numbers.^ In other words, because some part of a large distributed group of wind farms is always producing some power, it will never go completely down.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Electric Grid Archives 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, work by other groups involving transplants of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood in Krabbe's patients have been attempted with some success.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When something's wrong with your home PC, dump it on a tech's chair with no name, no phone number, and no description of the problem.

Periods

A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. .Although groups are the most common way of classifying elements, there are some regions of the periodic table where the horizontal trends and similarities in properties are more significant than vertical group trends.^ It's more than most of us are doing.
  • The Oil Drum | Local Scientist Splits Water, Saves World, Gets On TV 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although most hydrogen is produced and immediately used inside refineries or chemical plants, some 5 to 10 percent is delivered to distant locations by truck or pipeline.

^ One may read up on his paper on the topic (apparently there's more than one historical use for the phrase "bucket brigade").
  • Steve Jackson Games Illuminated Site of the Week Archive 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.sjgames.com [Source type: General]

.This can be true in the d-block (or "transition metals"), and especially for the f-block, where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements.^ For that matter it even depends on the form which the two elements take upon combining.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Blocks

This diagram shows the periodic table blocks.
.Because of the importance of the outermost shell, the different regions of the periodic table are sometimes referred to as periodic table blocks, named according to the subshell in which the "last" electron resides.^ Pham is my last name all my friends call me that because there is to many Alex names lol!
  • Kina Grannis » teeny tiny tour…*updated* 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.kinagrannis.com [Source type: General]

.The s-block comprises the first two groups (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals) as well as hydrogen and helium.^ The payoff: prize money from the group that awarded $10 million for the world's first private spaceflight two years ago.

^ Make sure it has a limited number of access points (say two, one for the highway coming in, one for the highway going out) and block them with semi's first thing in the morning.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ The space that two fuel tanks take up means only the 7-Series will offer the hydrogen package at first.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The p-block comprises the last six groups (groups 13 through 18) and contains, among others, all of the semimetals.^ All other sweeteners go through the salivary glands directly into the system and depletes phosphorus in the body.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Message 643630 - Posted 18 Sep 2007 13:56:58 UTC Last modified: 18 Sep 2007 14:26:59 UTC .

^ All the while they are spreading smallpox both through physical contact and by spraying more of the containers in crowed areas.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.The d-block comprises groups 3 through 12 and contains all of the transition metals.^ This seemed curious to me as the current flowing through the secondary should cause more current to flow on the primary side but the rectifier cells were still blocking all or nearly all current flow in the primary.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the while they are spreading smallpox both through physical contact and by spraying more of the containers in crowed areas.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ All you need is some water, two (ideally inert) metal plates and a container.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The f-block, usually offset below the rest of the periodic table, comprises the rare earth metals.^ Rare Earth Metal Magnets .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

Other

The chemical elements are also grouped together in other ways. .Some of these groupings are often illustrated on the periodic table, such as transition metals, poor metals, and metalloids.^ Some dinosaur groups are named after the first-discovered or major one of its kind, such as the tyrannosaurs or stegosaurs.

^ These arose in the aftermath of two major volcanic eruptions, with each cooling transition being followed by a period of relatively steady temperatures.
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These suggest that some dinosaurs lived in groups, or used the same routes regularly.

.Other informal groupings exist, such as the platinum group and the noble metals.^ Groups that promote nonsmoking as part of their religion, such as Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists, have much lower rates of lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - The Climate Dementors 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it similar to any other existing work, such as that of Stanley Meyer?
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Periodicity of chemical properties

The main value of the periodic table is the ability to predict the chemical properties of an element based on its location on the table. .It should be noted that the properties vary differently when moving vertically along the columns of the table than when moving horizontally along the rows.^ But instead of ponds, Valcent uses a closed, vertical system, growing the algae in long rows of moving plastic bags.

^ New studies in the variations of head crests led to more than eight different species of dinosaurs being reclassified as one species of Corythosaurus.

^ Different experts have "fleshed out" the skeleton of patosaurus by different amounts, so estimates of its weight vary from 20 tons to more than 50 tons.

Trends of groups

.Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group have the same electron configurations in their valence shell, which is the most important factor in accounting for their similar properties.^ H of the blood is the most important factor to determine the state of the microorganisms in the blood.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Struck by the weirdness of the theory, he set about devising a radically different account of the sub-atomic world, based on ideas from Victorian physics.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elements in the same group also show patterns in their atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.^ Because the BMI data was self-reported, they also used a correction factor they had developed, which showed the same pattern of results.

^ For example the Hydrogen Wales group (http://www.h2wales.org.uk/) is dedicated to the same end (hydrogen energy) and has plenty of funding from the Crown.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At a sub- atomic level, the water and your child are made up of the same energy.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase.^ Three-eighths of an inch thick, inside measurement, at the bottom, the pipe gradually increases in size until it has an inside diameter of five-eighths of an inch at the top.
  • KeelyNet 2007 - November Whats New Index 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.keelynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since there are more filled energy levels, valence electrons are found farther from the nucleus.^ "There is nothing really new in this speech as it pertains to energy except more money for old programs -- the political equivalent of the triumph of hope over experience."
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fossils of a dinosaur called Brontosaurus were found to be identical to those of Apatosaurus, and since the name Apatosaurus had been given first, this was the name that had to be kept--so, officially, there is no dinosaur called Brontosaurus.

^ The device is filled with deuterium gas a more massive cousin of hydrogen with an extra neutron in its nucleus.

.From the top, each successive element has a lower ionization energy because it is easier to remove an electron since the atoms are less tightly bound.^ They use various selected combinations of frequencies to break the OH bond, which in theory requires less energy than ionization which is the hallmark of electrolysis.
  • The Oil Drum | Local Scientist Splits Water, Saves World, Gets On TV 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the ice-sheet, the climate of Greenland would be much warmer because the land surface would be a lower altitude and reflect less sunlight.
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his "hydrino", the electron sits a little closer to the proton than normal, and the formation of the new atoms from traditional hydrogen releases huge amounts of energy.

.Similarly, a group will also see a top to bottom decrease in electronegativity due to an increasing distance between valence electrons and the nucleus.^ Three-eighths of an inch thick, inside measurement, at the bottom, the pipe gradually increases in size until it has an inside diameter of five-eighths of an inch at the top.
  • KeelyNet 2007 - November Whats New Index 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.keelynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The frequency of dust storms has increased in recent years due to decreasing rainfall and increasing desertification.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - The Climate Dementors 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trends of periods

Periodic trend for ionization energy. Each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases.
.Elements in the same period show trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.^ These energy devises force the electrons in all water containing items to begin to move in a counter clock wise direction around the protons in that same water.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under current policies [renewables] would supply 7 percent of U.S. energy supplies by 2030 while coal would increase over the same period from 23 percent to 26 percent.

^ At a sub- atomic level, the water and your child are made up of the same energy.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moving left to right across a period, atomic radius usually decreases. .This occurs because each successive element has an added proton and electron which causes the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus.^ BlackLight says its technology can push an electron closer to the nucleus by way of a catalytic reaction, resulting in a huge amount of clean energy.

^ In his "hydrino", the electron sits a little closer to the proton than normal, and the formation of the new atoms from traditional hydrogen releases huge amounts of energy.

^ Some confusion occurs at the outset because of a failure to specify which elements of that circulation are supposed to generate the climate change (Wunsch, 2002).
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This decrease in atomic radius also causes the ionization energy to increase when moving from left to right across a period.^ Increases cholesterol Increases white blood cell numbers Decreases red blood cell numbers Causes production of radiolytic compounds (compounds unknown in nature) .
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are in an increased period of high activity on the Sun right now where it is hotter than ever.
  • Al Gore's Global Warming Lies - The Religion of Environmentalism 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.bobbyshred.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under current policies [renewables] would supply 7 percent of U.S. energy supplies by 2030 while coal would increase over the same period from 23 percent to 26 percent.

.The more tightly bound an element is, the more energy is required to remove an electron.^ It helps states adopt more energy-efficient requirements for new buildings, the nation's largest consumer of electricity and natural gas.

^ It is likely to be more efficient than other proposed methods because it produces higher temperatures while requiring less input energy.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally I would like to give one more example in which less energy is required to produce H2 and O2 from water than is released by the combining of the two.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, electronegativity will increase in the same manner as ionization energy because of the amount of pull that is exerted on the electrons by the nucleus.^ In this situation exactly the same amount of energy is required to produce hydrogen as is released when hydrogen and oxygen are combined.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think the main reason I drink tap water, is because of the amazing waste of energy and amount of pollution generated by plastic bottles.
  • Greenversations Question of the Week: Why do you drink bottled water or tap water? 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC blog.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These energy devises force the electrons in all water containing items to begin to move in a counter clock wise direction around the protons in that same water.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Electron affinity also shows a slight trend across a period. .Metals (left side of a period) generally have a lower electron affinity than nonmetals (right side of a period) with the exception of the noble gases.^ We are in an increased period of high activity on the Sun right now where it is hotter than ever.
  • Al Gore's Global Warming Lies - The Religion of Environmentalism 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.bobbyshred.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In certain cases, investors can be activists, either from the left side of the political spectrum with socially-responsible funds or from the right side with products like the Congressional Effect Fund .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Electric Grid Archives 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left wingers have, on average, higher IQ's than right wingers, are better read and tend to be better educated.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - The Climate Dementors 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

In 1789, Antoine Lavoisier published a list of 33 chemical elements. .Although Lavoisier grouped the elements into gases, metals, non-metals, and earths, chemists spent the following century searching for a more precise classification scheme.^ One of the more terrifying what-ifs that I have seen the American defence experts work themselves into a frenzy about is the follow concept: .
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ And to hell with the millions of American women who would pay the price for the next thirty years or more, well into the 21st century.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blueprints U.S. lawmakers are considering focus more on the nuts-and-bolts of how the systems would work, rather than their precise effects in lowering greenhouse gases.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1829, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner observed that many of the elements could be grouped into triads (groups of three) based on their chemical properties.^ Take your 30 terrorists and divide them into 10 groups of three.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1945, the large British chemical manufacturer ICI still maintained three divisions: one based on coal, one on petroleum, and one on molasses.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formed to Deliver Clean Energy Technologies "iESi is organized into three broad divisions to maximize return on its intellectual capital and intellectual property.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithium, sodium, and potassium, for example, were grouped together as being soft, reactive metals.^ There is much evidence that various dinosaur types lived in groups or herds, examples being Diplodocus, Triceratops, and Iguanodon.

^ Sodium and potassium together with proteins, phosphates and carbonates work to maintain the proper acid/alkaline balance in the blood.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Döbereiner also observed that, when arranged by atomic weight, the second member of each triad was roughly the average of the first and the third.^ The first is a pair of bolt cutters, the second is a pipe wrench, and the third is a box of roadside emergency flares.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ It has since topped that mark twice, first in last year's second quarter and then with earnings of $14.83 billion in the third quarter.

^ My reasons are several: first is the plastic waste that poses an environmental problem; second is the amount of energy WASTED in making the bottles; and third is the cost.
  • Greenversations Question of the Week: Why do you drink bottled water or tap water? 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC blog.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] This became known as the Law of triads..July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] German chemist Leopold Gmelin worked with this system, and by 1843 he had identified ten triads, three groups of four, and one group of five.^ In preparation the four smartest terrorists are sent to good universities outside of the US. Three study chemical engineering with a focus on synthesis, and one studies toxicology.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ For instance, suppose that whenever Ted, one of his neighbors, turned on the TV, Sol had to make sure the PV system was working, or the TV would not turn on.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Electric Grid Archives 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What I purpose is five; four-man teams one team per city; New York, DC, Chicago, LA and one floating.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.Jean Baptiste Dumas published work in 1857 describing relationships between various groups of metals.^ The figures compiled by the Osteoporosis Surveillance Expert Working Group were published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association .

^ Hagelstein [now] describes the mainstream scientific community as "mafias" that promote and publish their friends' work, unwilling to accept new ideas.

^ The greatest disparities the team found were in perceived influence over management decisions and quality of working relationships within groups.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although various chemists were able to identify relationships between small groups of elements, they had yet to build one scheme that encompassed them all.^ If all the information in all these buildings is destroyed, no one will know who owns what land!
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ All dinosaurs are classified in one of two large groups, according to the design and shape of their hip bones.

^ They are armed with suicide vests and various small arms purchased at area gun shows and have avoided any background checks against their ID or provided fake ID when needed.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.German chemist August Kekulé had observed in 1858 that carbon has a tendency to bond with other elements in a ratio of one to four.^ It is one small way I can reduce my carbon footprint and set an example for others to follow as well.
  • Greenversations Question of the Week: Why do you drink bottled water or tap water? 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC blog.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also puts the electron into the second shell and from there is can form a sort of covalent bond with the carbon atom as the carbon atoms has four “holes” in it's own second shell into which electrons can fit.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile the oxygen and carbon atoms are them able to also form more stable covalent bonds with each other.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methane, for example, has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.^ That is a lot of expense in order to bring you your hydrogen fuel stored on carbon atoms, isn't it?
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is very simple, in our current hydrogen energy system we "store" our hydrogen fuel by attaching hydrogen atoms to carbon "storage" atoms.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The burning of hydrocarbon fuels is essentially the transfer of hydrogen atoms from the carbon storage atoms to oxygen "storage" atoms which nature has again conveniently supplied to us in the form of air.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This concept eventually became known as valency. In 1864, fellow German chemist Julius Lothar Meyer published a table of the 49 known elements arranged by valency. .The table revealed that elements with similar properties often shared the same valency.^ A covalent bond is the equal sharing of electrons which are in the same valence shell of two atoms as opposed to an ionic bond which involves one atom taking an electron away from another atom entirely, often by moving it to a higher energy shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.English chemist John Newlands published a series of papers in 1864 and 1865 that described his attempt at classifying the elements: When listed in order of increasing atomic weight, similar physical and chemical properties recurred at intervals of eight, which he likened to the octaves of music.^ All childhood overweight and obesity policies and guidelines are similar (work to improve diets and increase physical activity) and have similarly been shown to be ineffective.

^ The native chemical and physical properties of sodium bicarbonate account for its wide range of applications, including cleaning, deodorizing, buffering, and fire extinguishing.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am in the process of doing that and while I was doing it I was looking for something in current technology which was similar to the process I described in those papers.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7] This law of octaves, however, was ridiculed by his contemporaries.[8]
Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleev
Russian chemistry professor Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer independently published their periodic tables in 1869 and 1870, respectively. .They both constructed their tables in a similar manner: by listing the elements in a row or column in order of atomic weight and starting a new row or column when the characteristics of the elements began to repeat.^ Both devices can be made from "junk" and if they are made new they are still not very expensive.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have paraphrased the key elements of this new public health plan, as well as his list of evidence, briefly below: 1.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The instructions are simple to understand and yet as detailed as they need to be in order for the reader to understand the various systems that are needed to construct a working system.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The success of Mendeleev's table came from two decisions he made: The first was to leave gaps in the table when it seemed that the corresponding element had not yet been discovered.^ I mention this background for two reasons: First, Chance actually told me where the joke came from, which I appreciate (and if you send something in for "Just for Grins" please tell me where it's from).

^ In the first of this two-part series on how investors can play the build-out in clean infrastructure, I present four stocks I came across while doing research on this.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Electric Grid Archives 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Mendeleev was not the first chemist to do so, but he went a step further by using the trends in his periodic table to predict the properties of those missing elements, such as gallium and germanium.^ But scientists risk missing important regional and local trends by taking only a global approach to land use change.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The detector will use the Earth as a filter to exclude other types of neutrinos, such as those from the sun, which could confuse the detector.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such measurements provide a "Rosetta Stone" for translating the physical properties of other brown dwarfs, even those not in a binary system, according to Stassun.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The second decision was to occasionally ignore the order suggested by the atomic weights and switch adjacent elements, such as cobalt and nickel, to better classify them into chemical families.^ [Quantum] theory suggests that if electricity were passed into a mixture of water and a chemical catalyst, the extra energy would be released in the form of heat.

^ The second is to cross a boundary into a "safe zone" -- the safer the better.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ (II) the information needed for an individual or legal surrogate to make informed decisions regarding the completion of such an order; and .

.With the development of theories of atomic structure, it became apparent that Mendeleev had inadvertently listed the elements in order of increasing atomic number.^ In 1989, it created the Health Services Commission to develop a prioritized list of health services ranked in order of importance to the entire population to be covered.

[12]
.With the development of modern quantum mechanical theories of electron configurations within atoms, it became apparent that each row (or period) in the table corresponded to the filling of a quantum shell of electrons.^ This empty space is filled with explosives and the phones are configured to detonate at a specific time period.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ When we add heat energy the hydrogen atom reacts by becoming excited and the result is that it's lone electron moves into a higher energy shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Mendeleev's original table, each period was the same length. .However, because larger atoms have more electron sub-shells, modern tables have progressively longer periods further down the table.^ When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, however, some of us became interested again - in part because of public concern that the ocean circulation is 'shutting down', and more sensibly because of the need to understand the oceanic energy budget.
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just because the virus is infectious and spreads easily, however, does not mean that it is more serious .

[13]
.In the years that followed after Mendeleev published his periodic table, the gaps he left were filled as chemists discovered more chemical elements.^ The research was first published last year, but has been re-examined following a series of protests from cancer organisations over the findings.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same year, an analysis of more than 900 articles published in professional journals between 1993 and 2003 found a similar unanimity.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wind energy industry expects even more distinct growth within the next years than it had in 2004 WindEnergy Study 2006 published .
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The last naturally-occurring element to be discovered was francium (referred to by Mendeleev as eka-caesium) in 1939.[14] The periodic table has also grown with the addition of synthetic and transuranic elements. The first transuranic element to be discovered was neptunium, which was formed by bombarding uranium with neutrons in a cyclotron in 1939.[15]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ IUPAC article on periodic table
  2. ^ Science Standards of Learning Curriculum Framework
  3. ^ Dynamic periodic table
  4. ^ a b Ball, p. 100
  5. ^ Ball, p. 101
  6. ^ Newlands, John A. R. (1864-08-20). "On Relations Among the Equivalents". Chemical News 10: 94–95. http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/EA/NEWLANDSann.HTML#newlands3. 
  7. ^ Newlands, John A. R. (1865-08-18). "On the Law of Octaves". Chemical News 12: 83. http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/EA/NEWLANDSann.HTML#newlands4. 
  8. ^ Bryson, Bill (2004). A Short History of Nearly Everything. London: Black Swan. pp. 141–142. ISBN 9780552151740. 
  9. ^ Ball, pp. 100–102
  10. ^ Pullman, p. 227
  11. ^ Ball, p. 105
  12. ^ Atkins, p. 87
  13. ^ Ball, p. 111
  14. ^ Adloff, Jean-Pierre; Kaufman, George B. (2005-09-25). Francium (Atomic Number 87), the Last Discovered Natural Element. The Chemical Educator 10 (5). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  15. ^ Ball, p. 123

References

  • Atkins, P. W. (1995). The Periodic Kingdom. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.. ISBN 0-465-07265-8. 
  • Ball, Philip (2002). The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284100-9. 
  • Brown, Theodore L.; LeMay, H. Eugene; Bursten, Bruce E. (2005). Chemistry:The Central Science (10th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-109686-9. 
  • Pullman, Bernard (1998). The Atom in the History of Human Thought. Translated by Axel Reisinger. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515040-6. 

Further reading

  • Bouma, J. (1989). "An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements". J. Chem. Ed. 66: 741. 
  • Eric Scerri (2007). The periodic table: its story and its significance. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530573-6. 
  • Mazurs, E.G (1974). .Graphical Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years.^ To try and do this in one attempt could be disastrous, so I think we should phase it in over a 5 year period.

    ^ CRETACEOUS PERIOD, from 135 to 65 million years ago New dinosaurs appeared during the Cretaceous period, but by the end of the Cretaceous period, all dinosaurs had died out.

    ^ The anthropogenic factors drove the overall cooling during the period, and the natural ones modulated the evolution of the cooling.
    • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
     

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to The periodic table article)

From Wikiversity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
H
1.0079
2
He
dad
3
Li
6.941
4
Be
9.0122
5
B
10.811
6
C
12.011
7
N
14.007
8
O
15.999
9
F
18.998
10
Ne
20.18
11
Na
22.990
12
Mg
24.305
13
Al
26.982
14
Si
28.086
15
P
30.974
16
S
32.066
17
Cl
35.453
18
Ar
39.948
19
K
39.098
20
Ca
40.078
21
Sc
44.956
22
Ti
47.867
23
V
50.942
24
Cr
51.996
25
Mn
54.938
26
Fe
55.845
27
Co
58.933
28
Ni
58.693
29
Cu
63.546
30
Zn
65.39
31
Ga
69.723
32
Ge
72.81
33
As
74.922
34
Se
78.96
35
Br
79.304
36
Kr
83.80
37
Rb
85.468
38
Sr
87.62
39
Y
88.906
40
Zr
91.224
41
Nb
92.906
42
Mo
95.94
43
Tc
97.907
44
Ru
101.07
45
Rh
102.91
46
Pd
106.42
47
Ag
107.87
48
Cd
112.41
49
In
114.82
50
Sn
118.71
51
Sb
121.76
52
Te
127.60
53
I
126.90
54
Xe
131.29
55
Cs
132.91
56
Ba
139.33
57*
La
138.91
72
Hf
178.49
73
Ta
180.95
74
W
183.84
75
Re
186.21
76
Os
190.23
77
Ir
192.22
78
Pt
195.08
79
Au
196.97
80
Hg
200.59
81
Tl
204.38
82
Pb
207.2
83
Bi
208.98
84
Po
[208.98]
85
At
[209.99]
86
Rn
[222.02]
87
Fr
[223.02]
88
Ra
[226.03]
89*
Ac
[227.03]
104
Rf
[263.11]
105
Db
[262.11]
106
Sg
[266.12]
107
Bh
[264.12]
108
Hs
[269.13]
109
Mt
[168.14]
58
Ce
140.12
59
Pr
140.91
60
Nd
144.24
61
Pm
[144.91]
62
Sm
150.36
63
Eu
151.96
64
Gd
157.25
65
Tb
158.93
66
Dy
162.50
67
Ho
164.93
68
Er
167.26
69
Tm
168.93
70
Yb
173.04
71
Lu
174.97
90
Th
232.04
91
Pa
231.04
92
U
238.03
93
Np
[237.05]
94
Pu
[244.06]
95
Am
[243.06]
96
Cm
[247.07]
97
Bk
[247.07]
98
Cf
[251.08]
99
Es
[252.08]
100
Fm
[257.10]
101
Md
[258.10]
102
No
[259.10]
103
Lr
[262.11]
Nonmetals Alkaline Metals Alkaline-Earth Metals Transition Metals Poor Metals
Metalloids Halogens Noble Gases Lanthanoids Actinoids

Cells with text in red are gaseous at room temperature.
Cells with text in green are liquid at room temperature.
Cells with text in black are solid at room temperature.
.Cells with a dashed red outline are not found naturally on earth.^ Increases cholesterol Increases white blood cell numbers Decreases red blood cell numbers Causes production of radiolytic compounds (compounds unknown in nature) .
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the idea of mining Helium 3, an isotope found on the Moon but not on the Earth (at least in nature) disturbs Mr. Smith from an environmentalist standpoint.
  • KeelyNet 2007 - November Whats New Index 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.keelynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chemical - which, ironically is a well-known "marker" for determining whether food has been irradiated" - has never been found naturally in any food on earth.
  • Freedom Club USA - Health News 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.freedomclubusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.Elements 43, 61, and 84 and greater are only known as radioactive.^ The used fuel rods are composed of uranium, plutonium, heavy radioactive metals called "transuranics" and lighter radioactive elements known as "fission products."
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nuvola apps edu science.svg Subject classification: this is a chemistry resource .

Contents

How to use this periodic table

.The periodic table lists all the known elements.^ Chemical elements Periodic table of e...
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All list elements are Level 0.

^ Licensed from Columbia University Press periodic table Organized array of all the chemical elements in approximately increasing order of their atomic weight .
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is a useful tool for identifying trends and properties of them.^ It's a tool used by the wealthy and selfish to increase the value of property, in the name of environmentalism on a local scale.
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The category identified as "derivative contraband" includes property used to manufacture, store, or transport contraband.

Some things of interest to chemists are:

Groups and Periods

.The periodic table is arranged into groups or columns, and periods or rows.^ The thead element represents the block of rows that consist of the column labels (headers) for the parent table element, if the thead element has a parent and it is a table .
  • HTML 5 Reference 11 September 2009 3:51 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The VALIGN, LANG and DIR attribute values may be inherited from other table elements in the following order: cells < rows < row groups < columns < column groups < table < default.

^ Description
The TBODY element encloses a series of table row definitions and specifies the defaults for all the rows in this group.

Groups

.Elements in the same group, or family, have similar properties.^ The similarities to the sporting events will point to the same terrorist group.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ The group used the same approach to resolve the family tree of fungi, organisms that originated about the same time as animals.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus rule 1) no family members in the same group.

.Elements from the same group are found in vertical columns.^ Since most chemical properties result from outer electron interactions, this tends to explain why elements in the same group exhibit similar physical and chemical properties.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The colgroup element represents a group of one or more columns in the table that is its parent, if it has a parent and that is a table element.
  • HTML 5 Reference 11 September 2009 3:51 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Description The COLGROUP element defines a group of one or more columns and specifies the defaults for all the columns in this group.

.Some groups are given non-scientific names, such as the halogens, noble gases, alkaline metals, and the alkaline-earth metals.^ If you listen to the rhetoric produced by some environmental groups one would come away with the understanding that , all greenhouse gases must be expunged.
  • Pete's Place On Global Warming - Windows Live 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC petestx.spaces.live.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some dinosaurs have been named on very scant evidence, such as a single bit of fossil bone, or just one tooth or claw.

^ Some dinosaur groups are named after the first-discovered or major one of its kind, such as the tyrannosaurs or stegosaurs.

.Elements in the same group act similarly because they have the same valence electron configuration.^ Since most chemical properties result from outer electron interactions, this tends to explain why elements in the same group exhibit similar physical and chemical properties.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The elements grouped in the final column (Group 18) have no valence electrons and are called the inert gases , or noble gases, because they react chemically only with extreme difficulty.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the first rail lines were built by the same people who built the pre-railroad tramways, and that's the gauge they used.

Periods

.Each period represents the filling up of orbitals generated by the principal quantum number.^ Go away and come up with some numbers for outfitting ever applicable homeowner (with enough land area) with PV or wind, hydrogen generators, and fuel cells.
  • The Oil Drum | Local Scientist Splits Water, Saves World, Gets On TV 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She blows up the head table with the president, three senators, five representatives, and the postmaster general.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ They do not care about the general public when they fill up.
  • Air-Car Ready for Mass Production 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: Original source]

Non-metals

Non-metals are found on the top-right corner of the p-block elements. .These elements tend to gain electrons when forming a bond with metals, or share electron between two non-metals to form a covalent bond.^ I wired these two electrodes to each other to form a circuit between them.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This oxidation reaction releases electrons which race around the wire connecting the zinc anode to the carbon rod cathode and powers whatever load is between the two.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore these two elements cannot combine spontaneously and energy has to be added.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The boxes are also blue in colour

Alkaline Metals

Alkaline metals are known as the most reactive metals. This can be observed by their reaction with water, for example. .Their reactivity is attributed to the low ionization energy of the outermost electron in the atom.^ In his "hydrino", the electron sits a little closer to the proton than normal, and the formation of the new atoms from traditional hydrogen releases huge amounts of energy.

^ Also note here that the energy that causes the transfer of the electron from the hydrogen atom to the oxygen atom comes from the oxygen, not the hydrogen.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we add heat energy the hydrogen atom reacts by becoming excited and the result is that it's lone electron moves into a higher energy shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their most common oxidative state is +1.they tend to lose 1 electron to complete their outer shells

Alkaline-Earth Metals

.Alkali-Earth Metals have the second lowest ionization energy.^ Group 1 (with one valence electron) and Group 2 (with two valence electrons) are called the alkali metals and the alkaline-earth metals , respectively.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

Their most common oxidation state is +2

Transition Metals

.The atoms of the transition metals have more complicated electron arrangements than other atoms.^ But it's a lot more complicated than that, of course.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q. What occurs more often in December than any other month?

^ The Hydrogen News # 19 I have noticed that my material seems to be more readily accepted among chemists than people in other disciplines such as electricity or electronics with electronics people more accepting than electricians.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This group contains many well known metals, such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (cu), mercury (Hg), and Gold (Au).^ We offer aluminum alloys with zinc, copper, magnesium, nickel, iron and more.

^ Copper Nickel Metals .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Na (Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Poor Metals

The poor metals consist of aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, tin, lead, and bismuth.

Metalloids

Metalloids roughly form a staircase line in the periodic table. This line divides metals and nonmetals. The elements around this partition have intermediate metal- and non-metal-like properties. Many of them can be used as semiconductors.

Halogens

.All halogens are missing just one electron to fill their valence electron shell.^ What has much of the physics world up in arms is Dr Mills's claim that he has produced a new form of hydrogen, the simplest of all the atoms, with just a single proton circled by one electron.

^ To move electrons from one shell to another releases energy as is seen when oxygen combines with hydrogen.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just follow simple scholarly practices, ones that all readers use.
  • Characterizing a Fogbank: What Is Postmodernism, and Why Do I Take Such a Dim View of it? » Certain Doubts 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC el-prod.baylor.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason, in most chemical reactions, halogens tend to gain one electron.^ Now he said that the products used in the engine for combustion are hydrogen and oxygen, so the this chemical reaction can only be the reverse of the one already mentioned.
  • The “run your car on water” scam 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.joewein.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Michael J. Economides is one of the most instantly recognizable names in the petroleum and chemical engineering professions and the energy industry.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most chemical reactions in a cell take place in the cytoplasm.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

halogens always exists as diatomic molecules. .Going down the group, the color of elements increase; due to decreasing effective nuclear charge, atomic radius increase and electronegativity decreases.^ In other words, because some part of a large distributed group of wind farms is always producing some power, it will never go completely down.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Electric Grid Archives 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There exists no such gas as HHO or HOH. Elemental hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic due to the atomic force that cannot be overcome by electrical forces.
  • The Millennial Files » Beware of Browns Gas/HHO and Dennis Klein hoaxes 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mmmfiles.com [Source type: General]

^ The frequency of dust storms has increased in recent years due to decreasing rainfall and increasing desertification.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - The Climate Dementors 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Halogens are not always in -1 oxidation state; when reacting with other more electronegative atoms, they give positive oxidation states.^ They all state that the system creates eratic (much more powerful response) than gasoline.
  • The Millennial Files » Beware of Browns Gas/HHO and Dennis Klein hoaxes 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mmmfiles.com [Source type: General]

^ These carriers, don't give a squat what the price of Oil is, the higher the oil goes, the more business they get.
  • The Democratic Party 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: General]

^ Thus increased gas taxes have always been deeply unpopular - far more so than their equivalent in general sales or other taxes.
  • GREENIE WATCH: 02/01/2006 - 03/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC antigreen.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples are Cl2O7, and BrO-.

Noble Gases

.The noble gases have a full valence electron shell.^ The Sulfur atom has 6 electrons in it's 3rd shell (valence shell) and it is this shell to which other atoms bond.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxygen has 6 electrons in it's 2nd shell (valence) and hydrogen has one electron in it's first (only) shell.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, noble gases do not normally react with other elements, hence their former title inert gases.^ The elements grouped in the final column (Group 18) have no valence electrons and are called the inert gases , or noble gases, because they react chemically only with extreme difficulty.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There may be other compressed gases, such as normal air, that have better liquid/gas compression ratios and hence are more suitable for this type of attack.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

.In fact, until 1962, they were thought completely nonreactive.^ They thought that they could hide the fact that the Earth was warmer 1000 years ago than it is now.

^ The religious freaks completely distort the facts and they are filing suit in federal court in Washington, DC. They say that they will be forced to put athiests on the radio and yatayatayatayata.
  • The Democratic Party 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: General]

^ They thought that they could hide the fact that the Earth was warmer 1000 years ago than it is right now.

.This group consists of the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.^ Zero or more groups each consisting of one or more dt elements followed by one or more dd elements.
  • HTML 5 Reference 11 September 2009 3:51 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

They all are colorless gases (nonmetals). .If you look at any periodic table, the density of the the noble gases increase as you go downwards.^ Cheney Riot Posted: May, 18, 2004 You have to go to http://www.rense.com/ and look at the picture of Dick Cheney!
  • Stewart & Janet Swerdlow answer your questions. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.expansions.com [Source type: General]

^ If you go to the hardware store looking for a drill, chances are what you really want is not a drill but a hole.
  • The Great Lakes Zephyr - Wind Energy & Hydrogen Journal: 03/01/2006 - 04/01/2006 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.whizzyrds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Licensed from Columbia University Press periodic table Organized array of all the chemical elements in approximately increasing order of their atomic weight .
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

This is because the mass of the atoms gets larger.

Lanthanoids

.Lanthanoids are the first elements to have electrons in an f orbital.^ These group numbers correspond to the number of s, p, and d orbital electrons added since the last noble gas element (in column 18).
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electrons are added to the f orbital to create the next element until element number 72, Hafnium.^ You rinse and repeat until your credibility is enormous and a large number of people are on the lookout for whatever you broadcast next and they tell their friends and the press and so on.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ What this number expresses is the force with which the element holds onto an electron in oxidation/reduction reactions.
  • HydrogenNews 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 66.49.140.168 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THEN, CREATE A PRIME ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (PAP) That's a sequence of prime numbers in which each number is separated from the next by the same difference.

Actinoids

The actinoids are radioactive elements. .Their radioactivity is due to the fact that any nucleus with greater than 82 protons can not be stable.^ In fact, they've discovered that the overall abundance of birds and other organisms is much greater in Phoenix than in the surrounding desert.

^ The technology exists to exploit it to a far greater extent than this but utility companies have not been interested due to its intermittent nature.
  • The Oil Drum | Local Scientist Splits Water, Saves World, Gets On TV 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are related to the lanthanoids. .The actinoids are the second groups of elements to add electrons to the f orbital.^ Since most chemical properties result from outer electron interactions, this tends to explain why elements in the same group exhibit similar physical and chemical properties.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Separately a second terrorist group has created a company that develops electronic voting machines, now widely deployed.
  • Schneier on Security: Announcing: Movie-Plot Threat Contest 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: General]

^ These group numbers correspond to the number of s, p, and d orbital electrons added since the last noble gas element (in column 18).
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

Unknown

.There are some unknown elements on the periodic table.^ Chemical elements Periodic table of e...
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At present, there are three versions of the periodic table, each with its own unique column headings, in wide use.
  • Periodic table encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 9 February 2010 16:16 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Whether it turns out to be He-3, solar energy, or some as yet unknown technology that draws humanity back to the moon, there's an irony here.
  • KeelyNet 2007 - November Whats New Index 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.keelynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, due to the understanding of periodic table positions their descriptions can be estimated.^ I must admit, however, that the possible positive effects on combustion efficiency due to very small amounts of hydrogen being added to intake air are intriguing.
  • The Millennial Files » Beware of Browns Gas/HHO and Dennis Klein hoaxes 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mmmfiles.com [Source type: General]

Fun Facts

  • Iridium and Osmium have the greatest density
  • Francium is the least electronegative element and Fluorine is the most electronegative element

See Also


Simple English

The periodic table of the chemical elements is a list of known atoms (chemical elements). In the table the elements are placed in the order of their atomic numbers starting with the lowest number. The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of electrons or protons in that particular atom.

In the periodic table the elements are arranged into periods and groups.

A row of elements across the table is called a period. Each period has a number: from 1 to 7. Period 1 has only 2 elements in it: hydrogen and helium. Period 2 and Period 3 both have 8 elements. Other periods are longer.

A row of elements down the table is called a group. There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table. Each group has a number: from 1 to 18. Elements in a group have electrons arranged in similar ways, which gives them similar chemical properties (they behave in similar ways). For example, group 18 is known as the noble gases because they are all gases and they do not combine with other atoms.

The periodic table can be used by chemists to observe patterns, and relationships between the elements. For example, elements to the top and far left of the table are the most metallic, and elements on the bottom right are the least metallic. (e.g. lithium is much more metallic than xenon). There are also many other patterns and relationships.

There are three systems of group numbers; one using Arabic numerals (1,2,3) and the other two using Roman numerals (I, II, III). The Roman numeral names were used at first and are the traditional names; the Arabic numeral names are newer names that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) decided to use as well. The IUPAC names were meant to replace the older Roman numeral systems as they used the same names to mean different things, which was confusing.

The Periodic Table was invented and arranged by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907).

Contents

Standard periodic table

Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period ↓
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
 Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Uuq
115
Uup
116
Uuh
117
Uus
118
Uuo

* Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

Chemical Series of the Periodic Table

State at standard temperature and pressure

  • those in blue are gases
  • those in green are liquids
  • those in black are solid

Radioactivity

  • those with solid borders have stable isotopes (Primordial elements)
  • those with dashed borders have only radioactive naturally occurring isotopes
  • those with dotted borders do not occur naturally (Synthetic Elements)
  • those without borders are too radioactive to have been discovered yet.

Other methods for displaying the chemical elements

Other pages

Other websites

koi:Периоддэз сьӧрті химия ӧтувторрезлӧн тэчас


frr:Perioodisch tabäle

rue:Періодічна сістема елементів


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Water, which are similar to those in the above article.








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