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Perm (English)
Пермь (Russian)
Перем (Komi-Permyak)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Perm, Sibirskay Street, 6.jpg
Sibirskaya Street
Map of Russia - Perm Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Perm Krai on the map of Russia
Perm is located in Perm Krai
Location of Perm on the map of Perm Krai
Coordinates: 58°0′N 56°19′E / 58°N 56.317°E / 58; 56.317Coordinates: 58°0′N 56°19′E / 58°N 56.317°E / 58; 56.317
Coat of Arms of Perm.svg
Coat of arms
Flag of Perm.png
Holiday June 12[citation needed]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Perm Krai
In administrative jurisdiction of Perm Krai[citation needed]
Administrative center of Perm Krai, Permsky District[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
City Head[citation needed] Igor Shubin[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Area 799.68 km2 (308.8 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2002 Census) 1,001,653 inhabitants[1]
Rank 13th
- Density 1,253 /km2 (3,200/sq mi)[2]
Time zone YEKT/YEKST (UTC+5/+6)
Founded May 15, 1723[citation needed]
Postal code(s) 614xxx[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 342[citation needed]
Official website

Perm (Russian: Пермь, IPA [pʲɛrmʲ]; Komi-Permyak: Перем, Perem; Komi: Перым, Perym) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia. It is situated on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.

Perm's 2007 estimated population was 990,200 (2007 est.)[3], down from 1,001,653 recorded in the 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census. As of the 2002 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia.

Perm is served by Bolshoye Savino Airport and hosts Bakharevka air base.

The word "Perm" is probably Komi or Veps in origin. "Parma" is translated from Komi-Permyak language as a hilly place, covered with woods. Alternately, the name may originate from the Veps term "Pera maa" or "Perama" (distant land in English). The city is widely believed to be the namesake of the Permian geologic period, but the period was actually named for the ancient kingdom of Permia.



Kama River near Perm

Perm covers an area of 799.68 square kilometers (308.76 sq mi).

The city of Perm is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Urals access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. Kama divides the city into two parts, the central part and the right bank part, and it stretches for 70 km along the Kama and 40 km across it. The city street grid parallels the Kama River, travelling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them.

Another distinguishing feature of the city's relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyanka, Yegoshikha, Motoviliha (all are on the left bank of Kama River), and Gaiva (on the right bank).

Perm has a continental climate with warm summers and long, cold winters.


During the early Middle Ages, the region of Perm was populated by pagan Finno-Ugric tribes who lived to the southeast of the legendary Bjarmaland and northeast of Volga Bulgaria. Between the 13th and 14th centuries, Russian fur traders and Christian missionaries from Novgorod and later Moscow founded the first settlements in the area.[citation needed] Saint Stephen of Perm is credited with the conversion of the local population to Christianity in the late 14th century. In the 15th century, the Perm region, because of its highly profitable fur trade, was an object of a bitter rivalry between Novgorod and Moscow, and in 1472 Perm was finally annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, soldiers, merchants, Christian monks, and priests were followed by Tsarist administration officials and peasant settlers from western Russia.

Perm was first mentioned as a village, Yegoshikha, in 1647; however, the history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter I of Russia. Vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg.

Perm was founded on May 15 (May 4 in Julian calendar), 1723, and has had town status since 1781. By 1797, it was already an administrative center of the gubernia with the same name.

Ulitsa Pokrovskaya in central Perm around 1910.

In the 19th century, Perm became a major trade and industrial center with a population of more than 20,000 people in the 1860s, with several metallurgy, paper, and steamboat producing factories, including one owned by a British entrepreneur. In 1870, an opera theatre was opened in the city, and in 1871 the first phosphoric factory in Russia was built. In 1916, Perm State University — a major educational institution in modern Russia — was opened.

After the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories. In December 1918 the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev (who acknowledged the authority of the Omsk Government of Aleksandr Kolchak), took Perm. In 1919 the city was retaken by the Red Army.

Grand Duke Mikail Alexandrovich was executed in the outskirts of Perm with his secretary Nicholas Johnson on June 12, 1918 on the orders of the Perm Cheka.[citation needed] Their bodies were never recovered. A few weeks later on July 7, 1918, Andronic Nikolsky, the Archbishop of Perm, was also murdered by the Bolsheviks in the city. In 2000, the Russian Orthodox Church glorified him as Hieromartyr Andronik, Archbishop Of Perm, one of the Russian New Martyrs and Confessors.[citation needed]

Soviet Times

In the 1930s, Perm grew as a major industrial city with aviation, shipbuilding, and chemical factories built during that period. Development continued after the 1940s and virtually every major industry became represented by numerous factories in Perm. To this day, almost 80% of the city's population is employed in manufacturing.[citation needed] During the Great Patriotic War (World War II), Perm was a vital center of artillery production in the Soviet Union.

From 1940 until 1957, the city was named Molotov (Мо́лотов), after Vyacheslav Molotov.

Modern city


The city is a major administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center. The leading industries include machinery, defence, oil production (about 3% of Russian output), oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, timber and wood processing and the food industry.

Administrative divisions

Administrative divisions
Building of the Perm Administration

Perm is divided into seven city districts:

City District Population (2002 Census)
Dzerzhinsky (Дзержи́нский) 153,403
Industrialny (Индустриа́льный) 160,039
Kirovsky (Ки́ровский) 126,960
Leninsky (Ле́нинский) 57,569
Motovilikhinsky (Мотови́лихинский) 176,564
Ordzhonikidzevsky (Орджоники́дзевский) 11,631
Sverdlovsky (Свердло́вский) 215,487


The Perm Opera and Ballet House is the one of the best in Russia[4]. There are many other theatres in Perm, including the Drama theatre, the Puppet Theatre, the Theatre for Young Spectators, and the Theatre "Near Bridge".

Perm Opera and Ballet House

Among the cities museums and galleries, the Perm State Art Gallery is recognized for its outstanding collections of art, including paintings from the 15th to 18th century art movements, and wooden sculptures from the region. It is housed in a notable early 19th century structure, once an orthodox cathedral. The spire of the museum towers over the rest of Perm, as it is situated on the Komsomolsky Prospect. [1] [5] Perm is receiving attention from the development of the new Museum of Contemporary Art, which came into existence officially in March 2009. [6][7]

On 4 December 2009 a fire in one of Perm's well-known evening venues, the ‘Lame Horse’ night club killed more than 100 people.[8][9][10][11][12][13] The club was holding a large party to celebrate its eighth anniversary, when the fire erupted, reported to have been caused by outdoor fireworks igniting low-hanging decorative plastic sheeting attached to the club's wooden ceiling. Invited guests are reported to have included many of the club owners' family members and friends.[14]


Perm is a scientific center; some of the scientific institutes are combined in the Perm Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Perm is a home to several major universities including Perm State University [15], Perm State Technical University [16], Perm State Teachers' Training University, Perm State Medical Academy [17], Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy [18], Perm State Agricultural Academy, The Institute of Art and Culture, Perm State Choreographic School[19], Perm branch of state university Higher school of economics [20] and others. There are also three military schools in Perm.


Perm is an important railway junction on the Trans-Siberian Railway with lines radiating to Central Russia, the north part of the Urals, and the far east of Russia. The Kama River is an important link in the unifying deep-water system of the European part of Russia. The river connects the city with European waterways. It is possible to ship cargo from the Kama river area to the sea ports of the White, Baltic, Azov, Black, and Caspian seas without reloading.[21]

Perm is served by the international airport Bolshoye Savino, 16 km south-west.

Perm's public transit network includes tram, bus, and trolleybus routes.

Twin towns - Sister cities

Perm is twinned with:


The three main professional sports played in Perm are football, ice hockey and basketball. The largest football club in Perm is Amkar, who play in the Russian Premier League[24]. Perm is also home to the two-time Russian Basketball Super League champions, Ural Great. The largest Ice hockey team based in Perm is Molot-Prikame Perm who play in the Vysshaya Liga.[25]

Notable citizens

See: Category:People from Perm

The following people were either born in Perm or made names for themselves while residing there.

Monument to Fyodor Gral

See also


  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Perm citizens — The Official website of Perm Administration.
  4. ^ Барыкина Л. Пермяки высадились на Манхэттене//Ведомости от 25.01.2008
  5. ^ The City of Perm: ART, CULTURE, SPORT
  6. ^ Perm Museums' Plan Dubbed the 'New Bilbao' | News | The Moscow Times
  7. ^
  8. ^ "BBC News - Explosion in Russian nightclub 'kills scores'". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  9. ^ "Russia: Explosion In Nightclub In Perm Kills 100 People, Reports Say". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  10. ^ "Russian Nightclub Explosion Kills At Least 100 In Perm: Reports - The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  11. ^ "100 Killed in Explosion @ Perm, Russia Night Club". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  12. ^ "Nightclub explosion in Perm, Russia kills more than 100 people". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  13. ^ "Perm, Russia Nightclub Explosion Kills More Than 100: Reports". Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  14. ^ "Число погибших в ночном клубе в Перми превысило 100 человек" (in Russian). (Rambler Media Group). 5 December 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  15. ^ Perm State University
  16. ^ Заставка - Пермский государственный технический университет
  17. ^ Perm State Academy Of Medicine
  18. ^
  19. ^ Perm State Ballet college
  20. ^ Государственный университет - Высшая школа экономики
  21. ^ Transport infrastructure — Perm regional server.
  22. ^ "Cities Twinned with Duisburg". 2009 Duisberg City Council. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  23. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr Destrict". © 2009 Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  24. ^ Matches Perm sports clubs
  25. ^ Perm, Russia - Perm city information

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Perm station
Perm station

Perm is the largest city and administrative capital of Perm Krai.


Perm (Russian: Пермь) is a large industrial city situated on the Kama river banks, at the western foothills of the Ural Mountain range. The city was founded in 1723 by Vasily Tatishchev, who was sent by Peter I to exploit the vast amounts of ores found in the region. The city was named Molotov (Мо́лотов), after Vyacheslav Molotov, the minister of foreign affairs under Jozef Stalin.

Get in

During Soviet times, Perm was a closed city to foreigners as well as to non-residents to a great extent. After the fall of the Communist regime in 1991, Perm rapidly modernised, causing an increasing demand for public transportation in and out of the city.

By plane

Perm has an international airport called Bolshoe Savino (IATA: PEE; ICAO: USPP), maintaining international flights from Frankfurt (with Lufthansa) and several CIS capitals such as Dushanbe and Yerevan. Bolshoe Savino airport is the hub of Perm Airlines [1]. Perm Airlines, Aeroflot, SkyExpress and S7 Airlines to Moscow (5-6 times per day to Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo and Vnukovo airports), St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Surgut, Sochi (Adler) and Samara. KD Avia ensures a daily route to Kaliningrad, providing there connection to many european cities. In summer, charter flights are operated to Dubai, Munich, Tashkent and several destinations of the Turkish riviera. Perm's second regional airport Bakharevka now mainly serves as a helicopter airport.

By train

Perm-II station is an important junction on the Trans Siberian Railway and therefore very well served by train. There are many daily trains to Moscow, among which Perm's brand train called "Kama", as well as other major Russian cities.

By car

Although Perm lies on the "Siberian Trakt", the main motorway from Moscow to Siberia, its roads are no different from most of Russia's road network - of poor quality.

By bus

The central bus station of Perm, located on Shosse Kosmonavtov opposite the central market, mostly serves destinations in the province. Furthermore there are daily connections with Ekaterinburg, Kazan, Izhevsk and Chelyabinsk.

By boat

Perm is accessible through its Kama river port. Passenger transportation limits to recreational cruises to Chaikovsky, Kazan, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Volgograd. Cruise companies tend to sell return tickets only.

Get around

Getting around in Perm is not very easy for non-locals. Distances tend to be great given the fact that the city stretches along the Kama river. Getting from from one end to the other often requires changing buses and/or trams multiple times. Tram costs 12 RUB and bus 12 RUB, regardless the number of stops. Changing bus or tram, however, requires buying a new ticket. Tickets are sold by conductors only. The city, although spaciously built, is increasingly coping with heavy traffic, especially its vast centre. However, Perm has a well-developed bus and tram network serving the whole city including its most distant suburbs such as Gaiva and Kur'ya. Perm airport Bolshoe Savino is served by bus 35. Public transport works from 05:30am until 12:30am.


Although an industrial city, Perm has some places worth visiting.

  • The Museum of Arts, located at the crossing of Komsomolsky Prospekt and Ordzhonikidze Street is one of the largest in Russia.
  • The 18th century Perm-I train station is worth seeing, although it needs a lick of paint. The Motovilikha open-air museum located at the Square of 1905 (north of the centre) boasts an impressive collection of warfare made in the city's Motovilikha factories. There, you are looking at tanks, scud launchers and ballistic missiles.
  • The world famous Opera and Ballet Theatre "Chaikovsky" offers high-standard opera and ballet events.
  • In summer, entertainment is best found at the Kama Boulevard. With dozens of party tents and (live) music, it is a popular place for all ages.
  • In February, the annual Snow, Ice and Fire Festival is a must-see. The festival boasts an international ice and snow sculpture competition with teams from all over the world competing. It takes place mainly in Park Gorkogo, located halfway Komsomolsky Prospekt.
  • The main regional sights are the Ice Caves in Kungur and Perm-36 in Chosovoi, the only remaining camp of the GULAG archipelago, now a museum.


The Perm province, called Prikamye, is known to offer the best of the Ural Mountains. It has more karst rocks, rivers, caves and nature reserves than any other region in the Urals, apart from the polar Ural Mountain area. River rafting is extremely popular. Other favourite outdoor activities are fishing and hiking. For those, staying too short to leave the city, it is well worth to attend a sports game of local favourites:

  • Hockey club "Molot Prikamye" ("the hammer of Prikamye"), playing in Russia's second ice hockey league after degradation in 2007. Molot Prikamye plays home games in the "Molot" stadium, located in Motovilikha area. Although football is gaining popularity, ice hockey remains Russia's number 1 sport.
  • Basketball team "Ural Great", who are among the best teams of Russia since 2002. They also play at the "Molot" stadium.
  • Football team "Amkar". Amkar plays in Russia's premier league, although their stadium "Zvezda" does not give this impression as it is very small. Nevertheless, Zvezda stadium boasts a good atmosphere. Tickets are usually sold at the stadium on the morning of match day. Tickets are sold to anybody who is prepared to conquer the long queues at the ticket office. Zvezda stadium is situated in Kuybisheva street, not far from Komsomol Square.


With the city quickly developing, new shopping malls appear everywhere. Definitely worth seeing is the always crowded Central Bazaar, with uncountable kiosks and market stands, as well as huge market halls. The bazaar is located opposite the central bus station, at the very beginning of Kosmonavtov avenue. Perm also has a Chinese market, with mostly clothing being sold.


There are a number of suitable hotels in the centre.

  • Hotel Amaks Premier (Отель Амакс). (formerly "Turist") on Ordzhonikidze street is a good choice for leisure and business tourists. This mid-sized hotel was completely renovated in 2006-2007. The staff speaks a number of foreign languages, including English and French. The Kama boulevard, central shopping street Komsomolsky Prospekt and the "Chaikovsky" Opera & Ballet Theater are on walking distance. The hotel has a large bar/restaurant with a very affordable a la carte menu next to its modern bowling facilities. Small swimming pool with sauna/banya in the basement.  edit
  • Hotel Ural (Отель Урал), 58, Lenin street, +7-(342)-218-62-20 (, fax: +7-(342)-236-34-54), [2]. It's Perm's largest hotel. Apart from a wide choice of room classes, the hotel offers a wide range of facilities. Although parts of the hotel were thoroughly renovated, it still has a grey Soviet look.  edit
  • Next to hotel Ural lies the Prikamye Hotel (Отель Прикамье). Although the hotel is quite large, it offers very little facilities.  edit
  • New Star Hotel (Новая Звезда), ул. Газеты «Звезда», 38-Б (east from the railstation Perm II), +7-(342)-220-68-01 (), [3]. , (opened 2006) is a more upscale hotel. Prices are also upscale. The hotel stands on Gazety Zvezda Street. Since the building is among the tallest in the area, the top floors offer panoramic views over Perm's skyline. Double room: from 4300 rubles (2009).  edit
  • Also newly opened, the Gabriel Hotel (Габриэль Отель). , which stands on Kirova street is also a very nice place to stay. Everything is taken care of!  edit
  • Zhemchuzhina Hotel Complex (Жемчужина), ул. Бульвар Гагарина, 65-А, +7-(342)-261-90-91 (), [4]. , (“the Pearl” — in translation), opened at the beginning of 2008 is a more upscale hotel. Prices are also upscale. Central location of the hotel as well as its proximity to the highways makes it possible to get to any point of the city. The hotel stands on Gagarina Blvd. 65a. It is the 10-storeyed hotel building . Standard Premium room: from 3500 rubles (2009).  edit

For world-class stay, althrough not located in the center, the city also hosts a Hilton hotel [5].

Stay safe

Visitors have very little to worry about in Perm when sticking to common sense. Pickpocketing is common in the crowded public transport and in the Central and Chinese Bazars. Occasional drunkards may be somewhat annoying but rarely pose any menace. It is wise to stay out of city parks during the night time, particularly the huge Balatovo Park. Reckless drivers are probably the biggest threat regarding safety.

Routes through Perm
MoscowKirov  W noframe E  YekaterinburgNovosibirsk
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Perm discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also perm



Wikipedia has an article on:



Possibly from Finnish pеrämаа - "the earth behind".

Proper noun


  1. City in Russia, administrative centre of Perm kray near the Ural mountains.



  • Anagrams of empr
  • prem


German Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia de


Perm n.

  1. a city in Russia (Пермь)
  2. (geology) Permian

Simple English

File:Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii - City of Perm. General view (1910).jpg
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky. City of Perm. General view (1910)
File:Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii - General view of the city of Perm from Gorodskie Gorki (1910).jpg
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky. View of the city of Perm from Gorodskiye Gorki (1910)

Perm (Russian: Пермь, pronounced:pʲɛrʲmʲ) is a city and administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia. It is lies on the banks of the Kama River, at the foot of the Ural Mountains.

Perm is one of the largest cities in Russia, with 976,116 (2006 est.) inhabitants, down from 1,001,653 recorded in 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census.

In geology, the Permian period takes its name from the region.

From 1940 until 1957 the city was named Molotov (Мо́лотов), after Vyacheslav Molotov.


Administrative divisions

File:Administration of Perm
Building of the Perm Administration

Perm is divided into seven city districts:

City DistrictPopulation (2002 Census)
Dzerzhinsky (Дзержи́нский) 153,403
Industrialny (Индустриа́льный) 160,039
Kirovsky (Ки́ровский) 126,960
Leninsky (Ле́нинский) 57,569
Motovilikhinsky (Мотови́лихинский) 176,564
Ordzhonikidzevsky (Орджоники́дзевский) 111,631
Sverdlovsky (Свердло́вский) 215,487

Modern city

The city is a major administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center. The leading industries include machinery, defence, oil production (about 3% of Russian output), oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, timber and wood processing and the food industry.

There is one international airport in Perm Bolshoye Savino (Big Savino). Perm is also served by the smaller Airport "Bakharevka".

Perm's public transit network includes streetcar (tram), bus, and trolleybus routes.

Sister cities

Perm is the sister city of (twinned with):


  • FC Amkar Perm, the football club based in Perm, playing in the Russian Premier League
  • Molot-Prikame Perm, ice hockey club playing in the Russian Hockey Super League
  • PBC Ural Great, the basketball club based in Perm, playing in the Russian Basketball Super League

Other websites

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