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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha: Wikis


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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

PDB rendering based on 1i7g.
Available structures
1i7g, 1k7l, 1kkq, 2p54
Symbols PPARA; MGC2237; MGC2452; NR1C1; PPAR; hPPAR
External IDs OMIM170998 MGI104740 HomoloGene21047 GeneCards: PPARA Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PPARA 206870 at tn.png
PBB GE PPARA gnf1h00859 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5465 19013
Ensembl ENSG00000186951 ENSMUSG00000022383
UniProt Q07869 Q542P9
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001001929 NM_011144
RefSeq (protein) NP_001001929 NP_035274
Location (UCSC) Chr 22:
44.93 - 45.02 Mb
Chr 15:
85.61 - 85.63 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), also known as NR1C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 1), is a nuclear receptor protein encoded by the PPARA gene.

Peroxisome proliferators receptor ligands include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha, which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined.[1]


See also


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha has been shown to interact with Nuclear receptor coactivator 1,[2][3] Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1,[4] AIP,[5] EP300[2][4] and Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1.[5]


  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: PPARA peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha". 
  2. ^ a b Dowell, P; Ishmael J E, Avram D, Peterson V J, Nevrivy D J, Leid M (Dec. 1997). "p300 functions as a coactivator for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (52): 33435–43. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9407140. 
  3. ^ Treuter, E; Albrektsen T, Johansson L, Leers J, Gustafsson J A (Jun. 1998). "A regulatory role for RIP140 in nuclear receptor activation". Mol. Endocrinol. (UNITED STATES) 12 (6): 864–81. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 9626662. 
  4. ^ a b Dowell, P; Ishmael J E, Avram D, Peterson V J, Nevrivy D J, Leid M (May. 1999). "Identification of nuclear receptor corepressor as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha interacting protein". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (22): 15901–7. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10336495. 
  5. ^ a b Sumanasekera, Wasana K; Tien Eric S, Turpey Rex, Vanden Heuvel John P, Perdew Gary H (Feb. 2003). "Evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha is complexed with the 90-kDa heat shock protein and the hepatitis virus B X-associated protein 2". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (7): 4467–73. doi:10.1074/jbc.M211261200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12482853. 

Further reading

  • Bouwens M, Afman LA, Müller M. (2008). "Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells reveals an individual gene expression profile response.". BMC Genomics 9: 262. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-262. PMID 18518955. 
  • Berger J, Moller DE (2002). "The mechanisms of action of PPARs.". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 409–35. doi:10.1146/ PMID 11818483. 
  • Kuenzli S, Saurat JH (2003). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in cutaneous biology.". Br. J. Dermatol. 149 (2): 229–36. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05532.x. PMID 12932225. 
  • Mandard S, Müller M, Kersten S (2004). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (4): 393–416. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3216-3. PMID 14999402. 
  • van Raalte DH, Li M, Pritchard PH, Wasan KM (2005). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha: a pharmacological target with a promising future.". Pharm. Res. 21 (9): 1531–8. doi:10.1023/B:PHAM.0000041444.06122.8d. PMID 15497675. 
  • Lefebvre P, Chinetti G, Fruchart JC, Staels B (2006). "Sorting out the roles of PPAR alpha in energy metabolism and vascular homeostasis.". J. Clin. Invest. 116 (3): 571–80. doi:10.1172/JCI27989. PMID 16511589. 
  • Sher T, Yi HF, McBride OW, Gonzalez FJ (1993). "cDNA cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional characterization of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor.". Biochemistry 32 (21): 5598–604. doi:10.1021/bi00072a015. PMID 7684926. 
  • Mukherjee R, Jow L, Noonan D, McDonnell DP (1995). "Human and rat peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) demonstrate similar tissue distribution but different responsiveness to PPAR activators.". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 51 (3-4): 157–66. doi:10.1016/0960-0760(94)90089-2. PMID 7981125. 
  • Miyata KS, McCaw SE, Patel HV, et al. (1996). "The orphan nuclear hormone receptor LXR alpha interacts with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and inhibits peroxisome proliferator signaling.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (16): 9189–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.16.9189. PMID 8621574. 
  • Chu R, Lin Y, Rao MS, Reddy JK (1996). "Cloning and identification of rat deoxyuridine triphosphatase as an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (44): 27670–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.44.27670. PMID 8910358. 
  • Tugwood JD, Aldridge TC, Lambe KG, et al. (1997). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: structures and function.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 804: 252–65. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb18620.x. PMID 8993548. 
  • Li H, Gomes PJ, Chen JD (1997). "RAC3, a steroid/nuclear receptor-associated coactivator that is related to SRC-1 and TIF2.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (16): 8479–84. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.16.8479. PMID 9238002. 
  • Dowell P, Ishmael JE, Avram D, et al. (1998). "p300 functions as a coactivator for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (52): 33435–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.52.33435. PMID 9407140. 
  • Inoue I, Shino K, Noji S, et al. (1998). "Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) in primary cultures of human vascular endothelial cells.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246 (2): 370–4. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8622. PMID 9610365. 
  • Treuter E, Albrektsen T, Johansson L, et al. (1998). "A regulatory role for RIP140 in nuclear receptor activation.". Mol. Endocrinol. 12 (6): 864–81. doi:10.1210/me.12.6.864. PMID 9626662. 
  • Rubino D, Driggers P, Arbit D, et al. (1998). "Characterization of Brx, a novel Dbl family member that modulates estrogen receptor action.". Oncogene 16 (19): 2513–26. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201783. PMID 9627117. 
  • Yuan CX, Ito M, Fondell JD, et al. (1998). "The TRAP220 component of a thyroid hormone receptor- associated protein (TRAP) coactivator complex interacts directly with nuclear receptors in a ligand-dependent fashion.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (14): 7939–44. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.14.7939. PMID 9653119. 
  • Chinetti G, Griglio S, Antonucci M, et al. (1998). "Activation of proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma induces apoptosis of human monocyte-derived macrophages.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (40): 25573–80. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.40.25573. PMID 9748221. 
  • Costet P, Legendre C, Moré J, et al. (1998). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform deficiency leads to progressive dyslipidemia with sexually dimorphic obesity and steatosis.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (45): 29577–85. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.45.29577. PMID 9792666. 
  • Masuda N, Yasumo H, Furusawa T, et al. (1998). "Nuclear receptor binding factor-1 (NRBF-1), a protein interacting with a wide spectrum of nuclear hormone receptors.". Gene 221 (2): 225–33. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(98)00461-2. PMID 9795230. 
  • Ellinghaus P, Wolfrum C, Assmann G, et al. (1999). "Phytanic acid activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in sterol carrier protein 2-/ sterol carrier protein x-deficient mice.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (5): 2766–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.5.2766. PMID 9915808. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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