Personality disorder: Wikis

  
  
  

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Personality disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F60.
ICD-9 301.9
MeSH D010554
.Personality disorders, formerly referred to as character disorders, are a class of personality types and behaviors that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it".[1][2] Personality disorders are noted on Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition, text revision) of the American Psychiatric Association.^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
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^ The DSM-IV defines a personality disorder as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture .
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^ American Psychiatric Association (2000).
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.Personality disorders are also defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), which is published by the World Health Organization.^ Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders.

^ Borderline personality disorder is characterized by emotion dysregulation, meaning quick, frequent, and painful mood swings that are beyond the control of the person with the problem.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, during the assessment process, longer-standing problems like personality disorders might be discovered.

.Personality disorders are categorized in ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, specifically under Mental and behavioral disorders: 28F60-F69.29 Disorders of adult personality and behavior.^ In each section below, the specific schema associated with each personality disorder will be highlighted.

^ Schizotypal personality disorder entails deficits in interpersonal relatedness and peculiarities of ideation, appearance, and behavior and dysphoric states such as anxiety and depression.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with Borderline Personality Disorder, individuals with histrionic personality disorder often find themselves discriminated against by mental health professionals because of the symptoms of their disorder.
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[3]
.These behavioral patterns in personality disorders are typically associated with severe disturbances in the behavioral tendencies of an individual, usually involving several areas of the personality, and are nearly always associated with considerable personal and social disruption.^ But it is possible to recover from the damaging behaviors associated with borderline personality disorder.
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^ The DSM-IV defines a personality disorder as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture .
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^ Personality disorder is defined as the enduring pattern of behaviour that is stable, of long duration, and pervasive, and causes clinically significant impairment by producing behaviour that markedly deviates from social expectations.
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Additionally, personality disorders are inflexible and pervasive across many situations, due in large part to the fact that such behavior is ego-syntonic (i.e. the patterns are consistent with the ego integrity of the individual) and are, therefore, perceived to be appropriate by that individual.
.The onset of these patterns of behavior can typically be traced back to late adolescence and the beginning of adulthood and, in rarer instances, childhood.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Schizotypal personality disorder typically begins in early adulthood and may endure throughout life.
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^ Self-defeating personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of self-defeating behavior in work and personal relationships, often with complaints of exploitation by others; these persons are often unaware of their contributions to the outcomes of their behavior.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1] .It is therefore unlikely that a diagnosis of personality disorder will be appropriate before the age of 16 or 17 years.^ Previous Entries High possibility seen that personality disorder will worsen in old age .
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^ As with all other personality disorders as well, they may present with a clear Axis I diagnosis and the personality disorder may only become apparent after a few sessions of therapy.
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^ Asperger's Disorder is often misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) , though evident as early as age 3 (while pathological narcissism cannot be safely diagnosed prior to early adolescence).
  • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General diagnostic guidelines applying to all personality disorders are presented below; supplementary descriptions are provided with each of the subtypes.^ In each section below, the specific schema associated with each personality disorder will be highlighted.

^ It’s estimated that approximately 1 percent of the general population has avoidant personality disorder.

^ As with all other personality disorders as well, they may present with a clear Axis I diagnosis and the personality disorder may only become apparent after a few sessions of therapy.
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.Diagnosis of personality disorders can be very subjective; however, inflexible and pervasive behavioral patterns often cause serious personal and social difficulties, as well as a general functional impairment.^ The cause of borderline personality disorder is not well-understood.
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^ In general, personality disorders are probably caused by a combination of biological and social factors.

^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
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.Rigid and ongoing patterns of feeling, thinking and behavior are said to be caused by underlying belief systems and these systems are referred to as fixed fantasies or "dysfunctional schemata" (Cognitive modules).^ These themes often point to deeper, more firmly entrenched schemas, or core beliefs, that make a person more vulnerable to feelings of frustration, loneliness, and sadness.

^ The assessment should consider criminal thinking patterns, such as rationalization and justification for maladaptive behaviors.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After examining these interactions, a DBT therapist will help the person modify thoughts, feelings, and behaviors using different types of skills training.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

History

.The concept of personality disorders goes back to at least the ancient Greeks.^ New list The Dumas Brothel Lesbian Lunch -- The Movies « Back to Posts JANUARY 8, 2010 6:45PM Multiple Personalities Online Disorder and how to correct it .
  • Multiple Personalities Online Disorder and how to correct it - Tinkerertink69 - Open Salon 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, most people with this disorder go to at least six mental health care professionals looking for the right person to help them.
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^ One of the initial steps of the CBT treatment for personality disorders is to help people begin scheduling pleasurable activities back into their lives.

[3]

Personality disorder definitions (ICD-10 (F60-F69))

General diagnostic criteria

According to ICD-10, the diagnosis of a personality disorder must satisfy the following general criteria, in addition to the specific criteria listed under the specific personality disorder under consideration:
.
  1. There is evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behaviour as a whole deviate markedly from the culturally expected and accepted range (or "norm").^ Personality disorder is defined as the enduring pattern of behaviour that is stable, of long duration, and pervasive, and causes clinically significant impairment by producing behaviour that markedly deviates from social expectations.
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    ^ The personality disorders, located on Axis II in DSM-III-R and DSM-IV, consist of constellations of enduring or persistent maladaptive traits and/or symptoms that are characteristic of the way an individual experiences and interacts with his/her environment.
    • Basic Neurobiology of Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC twardon.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Schizoid personality disorder involves a pervasive pattern of indifference to social relationships and a restricted range of emotional experience and expression.
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Such deviation must be manifest in more than one of the following areas:
    1. cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting things, people, and events; forming attitudes and images of self and others);
    2. affectivity (range, intensity, and appropriateness of emotional arousal and response);
    3. control over impulses and gratification of needs;
    4. manner of relating to others and of handling interpersonal situations.
  2. The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behaviour that is inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and social situations (i.e., not being limited to one specific "triggering" stimulus or situation).
  3. There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both, clearly attributable to the behaviour referred to in criterion 2.
  4. There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having its onset in late childhood or adolescence.
  5. The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other adult mental disorders, although episodic or chronic conditions from sections F00-F59 or F70-F79 of this classification may coexist with, or be superimposed upon, the deviation.
  6. Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as the possible cause of the deviation.^ B. Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life.
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    ^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

    ^ Even more than bipolar disorder , individuals with borderline personality disorder ...
    • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    (If an organic causation is demonstrable, category F07.- should be used.)

Personality disorder list

Classification of personality disorders

.The DSM-IV lists ten personality disorders, grouped into three clusters in Axis II. The DSM also contains a category for behavioral patterns that do not match these ten disorders, but nevertheless exhibit characteristics of a personality disorder.^ Axis I comorbidity of borderline personality disorder.

^ Personality disorders are marked by rigid, maladaptive behavior that develops into a recurring pattern.
  • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A comparative study.

.This category is labeled Personality disorder not otherwise specified.^ Although personality disorders are officially recognized mental health problems, many mental health care professionals won’t use labels such as “paranoid” or “schizoid” to describe the problem.

Cluster A (odd or eccentric disorders)

Cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders)

Appendix B: Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study

Appendix B contains the following disorders[4]. .They are still widely considered amongst psychiatrists as being valid disorders, for example by Theodore Millon.^ Factitious disorders are considered mental illnesses because they are associated with severe emotional difficulties."
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[5]

Deleted from DSM-IV

.The following disorders are still considered to be valid disorders by Millon.^ In addition, therapists may want to consider the following in treating patients with borderline personality disorder: Using mini-contracts for each session to encourage the patient to stay focused.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Along with professional treatment, consider following these lifestyle and self-care steps for personality disorders: .
  • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[5] .They were in DSM-III-R but were deleted from DSM-IV. Both appeared in an appendix entitled “Proposed diagnostic categories needing further study”,[6] and so did not have any concrete diagnostic criteria.^ Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A comparative study.

^ Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study.
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Personality disorders in children and adolescents

.Early stages and preliminary forms of personality disorders need a multi-dimensional and early treatment approach.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Although personality disorders are difficult to treat, there is increasing evidence that both medications and some forms of talk therapy can help many people.
  • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Stability and support are the keys to good treatment with someone who suffers from schizoid personality disorder.
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.Personality development disorder is considered to be a childhood risk factor or early stage of a later personality disorder in adulthood.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Prenatal exposure to wartime famine and development of antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood.

^ Aetiological risk factors for personality disorders.

Studies on the relevance of childhood abuse

.A study of almost 600 male college students, averaging almost 30 years of age and who were not drawn from a clinical sample, examined the relationship between childhood experiences of sexual and physical abuse and currently reported personality disorder symptoms.^ Childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ Reported pathological childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder.

.Childhood abuse histories were found to be definitively associated with greater levels of symptomatology.^ Frequency and correlates of childhood sexual and physical abuse histories in adult female borderline inpatients.

^ Have a history of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse during childhood.
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Severity of abuse was found to be statistically significant, but clinically negligible, in symptomatology variance spread over Cluster A, B and C scales.[7]
.Child abuse and neglect consistently evidence themselves as antecedent risks to the development of personality disorders in adulthood.^ Aetiological risk factors for personality disorders.

^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ What increases my risk for developing borderline personality disorder?
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.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In this particular study, efforts were taken to match retrospective reports of abuse with a clinical population that had demonstrated psychopathology from childhood to adulthood who were later found to have experienced abuse and neglect.^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ People who develop this disorder often have experienced significant childhood trauma, such as sexual, physical, or emotional abuse; neglect; or early loss of or separation from a parent.
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^ Childhood verbal abuse and risk for personality disorders during adolescence and early adulthood.

The sexually abused group demonstrated the most consistently elevated patterns of psychopathology. .Officially verified physical abuse showed an extremely strong role in the development of antisocial and impulsive behavior.^ The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior.

^ Impulsive behaviors that are self-damaging, such as substance abuse, binge eating , and reckless driving.
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^ The disorder is manifested by a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior as indicated by academic failure, poor job performance, illegal activities, recklessness, and impulsive behavior.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, cases of abuse of the neglectful type that created childhood pathology were found to be subject to partial remission in adulthood.^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ Often people who get it faced some kind of childhood trauma such as abuse, neglect, or the death of a parent.
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[8]

Personality disorders and executives

In 2005, psychologists Belinda Board and Katarina Fritzon at the University of Surrey, UK, interviewed and gave personality tests to high-level British executives and compared their profiles with those of criminal psychiatric patients at Broadmoor Hospital in the UK. They found that three out of eleven personality disorders were actually more common in executives than in the disturbed criminals, they were:
.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  2. ^ Other authorities echo the importance of deviation from social expectations in personality disorder diagnosis, e.g. Berrios G E (1993) European views on personality disorders: a conceptual history. Comprehensive Psychiatry 34: 14-30
  3. ^ a b Millon, Theodore; Roger D. Davis (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 226. ISBN 0-471-01186-x. 
  4. ^ http://www.psychiatryonline.com/content.aspx?aID=5088
  5. ^ a b Millon, Theodore, Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2004
  6. ^ Fuller, AK, Blashfield, RK, Miller, M, Hester, T Sadistic and self-defeating personality disorder criteria in a rural clinic sample Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(6), 827-831 (2006)
  7. ^http://www.ingentaselect.com/vl=2446665/cl=50/nw=1/rpsv/cw/sage/08862605/contp1.htm Miller and Lisak. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 1999
  8. ^ Cohen, Patricia, Brown, Jocelyn, Smailes, Elizabeth. "Child Abuse and Neglect and the Development of Mental Disorders in the General Population" Development and Psychopathology. 2001. Vol 13, No 4, pp981-999. ISSN 0954-5794
  9. ^ Board, Belinda Jane (2005). "Disordered personalities at work". Psychology Crime and Law 11: 17. doi:10.1080/10683160310001634304. 

Further reading

.
  • American Psychiatric Association.^ The 2006 American Psychiatric Association annual meeting was approaching, and I made it a point attend the few sessions they had on personality disorders.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.mcmanweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
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    ^ This manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association and is used by mental health providers to diagnose mental illnesses and by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment.
    • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnnstudentnews.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Antisocial personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Antisocial personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC us.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    (2000). .Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.^ Posted On November 9, 2007 02:55:48 PM ...nostic_and_Statistical_Manual_of_Mental_ Disorders :2s8nlc2g]Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which is a handbook for mental health professionals and gives them the different ...
    • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR, Washington D.C., 2000) defines "personality" as: "...enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself...
    • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please sign this petition to support changing the name and designation of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in the next publication of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder - 5th edition (DSM-V).
    • Advocacy for Borderline Personality Disorder - The Petition Site 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    4th ed. (text revision). .(DSM-IV-TR).^ Compare the 1977 version with the one adopted 10 years later [in the DSM-III-R] and expanded upon in 1994 [in the DSM-IV] and in 2000 [the DSM-IV-TR]: .

    ^ DSM-IV-TR criteria .
    • Borderline Personality Disorder | ePsychology.us 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.epsychology.us [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The list of criteria that must be met for diagnosis is outlined in the DSM-IV-TR.[1] .
    • Borderline Personality Disorder | ePsychology.us 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.epsychology.us [Source type: Academic]

    Arlington, VA.
  • Häcker, H. O. Stapf (2004). Dorsch Psychologisches Wörterbuch, Verlag Hans Huber, Bern
  • Marshall, W. & Serin, R. (1997) Personality Disorders. In Sm.M. Turner & R. Hersen (Eds.) Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis. .New York: Wiley.^ New York: Wiley, 2001.
    • Histrionic personality disorder - causes, DSM, effects, therapy, adults, people, used, medication, brain, skills, effect, theory, women, health, traits, mood, Definition, Description 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Wiley.

    .508-541
  • Millon, Theodore (and Roger D. Davis, contributor) - Disorders of Personality: DSM IV and Beyond - 2nd ed.^ The DSM-IV defines a personality disorder as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture .
    • Personality Disorders - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A comparative study.

    ^ Personality disorders in the general population: DSM-IV and ICD-10 defined prevalence as related to sociodemographic profile.

    - New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1995 ISBN 0-471-01186-X
  • Fatal Flaws: Navigating Destructive Relationships With People With Disorders of Personality and Character, by Stuart C. Yudofsky, M.D. ISBN 1-58562-214-1

External links


Simple English

A personality disorder or character disorder is a type of personality where a person thinks, feels and behaves differently from how society expects them to. These thoughts, feelings and behaviours can cause problems for the person, and for other people around them. In the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries, personality disorders are thought to be a kind of mental illness and are treated by medical professionals.

Contents

Types

In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , a book about mental illness, there are ten personality disorders in three "clusters" or groups.

Cluster A: Odd or eccentric

  • Paranoid personality disorder
  • Schizoid personality disorder
  • Schizotypal personality disorder

Cluster B: Dramatic or emotional

Cluster C: Anxious or fearful


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Personality disorder, which are similar to those in the above article.








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