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Personality disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F60.
ICD-9 301.9
MeSH D010554
.Personality disorders, formerly referred to as character disorders, are a class of personality types and behaviors that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it".[1][2] Personality disorders are noted on Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition, text revision) of the American Psychiatric Association.^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
  • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DSM-IV defines a personality disorder as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture .
  • Personality Disorders - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Psychiatric Association (2000).
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.Personality disorders are also defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), which is published by the World Health Organization.^ Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders.

^ Borderline personality disorder is characterized by emotion dysregulation, meaning quick, frequent, and painful mood swings that are beyond the control of the person with the problem.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, during the assessment process, longer-standing problems like personality disorders might be discovered.

.Personality disorders are categorized in ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, specifically under Mental and behavioral disorders: 28F60-F69.29 Disorders of adult personality and behavior.^ In each section below, the specific schema associated with each personality disorder will be highlighted.

^ Schizotypal personality disorder entails deficits in interpersonal relatedness and peculiarities of ideation, appearance, and behavior and dysphoric states such as anxiety and depression.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with Borderline Personality Disorder, individuals with histrionic personality disorder often find themselves discriminated against by mental health professionals because of the symptoms of their disorder.
  • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.These behavioral patterns in personality disorders are typically associated with severe disturbances in the behavioral tendencies of an individual, usually involving several areas of the personality, and are nearly always associated with considerable personal and social disruption.^ But it is possible to recover from the damaging behaviors associated with borderline personality disorder.
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^ The DSM-IV defines a personality disorder as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture .
  • Personality Disorders - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personality disorder is defined as the enduring pattern of behaviour that is stable, of long duration, and pervasive, and causes clinically significant impairment by producing behaviour that markedly deviates from social expectations.
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Additionally, personality disorders are inflexible and pervasive across many situations, due in large part to the fact that such behavior is ego-syntonic (i.e. the patterns are consistent with the ego integrity of the individual) and are, therefore, perceived to be appropriate by that individual.
.The onset of these patterns of behavior can typically be traced back to late adolescence and the beginning of adulthood and, in rarer instances, childhood.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Schizotypal personality disorder typically begins in early adulthood and may endure throughout life.
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^ Self-defeating personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of self-defeating behavior in work and personal relationships, often with complaints of exploitation by others; these persons are often unaware of their contributions to the outcomes of their behavior.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1] .It is therefore unlikely that a diagnosis of personality disorder will be appropriate before the age of 16 or 17 years.^ Previous Entries High possibility seen that personality disorder will worsen in old age .
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^ As with all other personality disorders as well, they may present with a clear Axis I diagnosis and the personality disorder may only become apparent after a few sessions of therapy.
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^ Asperger's Disorder is often misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) , though evident as early as age 3 (while pathological narcissism cannot be safely diagnosed prior to early adolescence).
  • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General diagnostic guidelines applying to all personality disorders are presented below; supplementary descriptions are provided with each of the subtypes.^ In each section below, the specific schema associated with each personality disorder will be highlighted.

^ It’s estimated that approximately 1 percent of the general population has avoidant personality disorder.

^ As with all other personality disorders as well, they may present with a clear Axis I diagnosis and the personality disorder may only become apparent after a few sessions of therapy.
  • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diagnosis of personality disorders can be very subjective; however, inflexible and pervasive behavioral patterns often cause serious personal and social difficulties, as well as a general functional impairment.^ The cause of borderline personality disorder is not well-understood.
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^ In general, personality disorders are probably caused by a combination of biological and social factors.

^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
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.Rigid and ongoing patterns of feeling, thinking and behavior are said to be caused by underlying belief systems and these systems are referred to as fixed fantasies or "dysfunctional schemata" (Cognitive modules).^ These themes often point to deeper, more firmly entrenched schemas, or core beliefs, that make a person more vulnerable to feelings of frustration, loneliness, and sadness.

^ The assessment should consider criminal thinking patterns, such as rationalization and justification for maladaptive behaviors.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After examining these interactions, a DBT therapist will help the person modify thoughts, feelings, and behaviors using different types of skills training.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

History

.The concept of personality disorders goes back to at least the ancient Greeks.^ New list The Dumas Brothel Lesbian Lunch -- The Movies « Back to Posts JANUARY 8, 2010 6:45PM Multiple Personalities Online Disorder and how to correct it .
  • Multiple Personalities Online Disorder and how to correct it - Tinkerertink69 - Open Salon 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, most people with this disorder go to at least six mental health care professionals looking for the right person to help them.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the initial steps of the CBT treatment for personality disorders is to help people begin scheduling pleasurable activities back into their lives.

[3]

Personality disorder definitions (ICD-10 (F60-F69))

General diagnostic criteria

According to ICD-10, the diagnosis of a personality disorder must satisfy the following general criteria, in addition to the specific criteria listed under the specific personality disorder under consideration:
.
  1. There is evidence that the individual's characteristic and enduring patterns of inner experience and behaviour as a whole deviate markedly from the culturally expected and accepted range (or "norm").^ Personality disorder is defined as the enduring pattern of behaviour that is stable, of long duration, and pervasive, and causes clinically significant impairment by producing behaviour that markedly deviates from social expectations.
    • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The personality disorders, located on Axis II in DSM-III-R and DSM-IV, consist of constellations of enduring or persistent maladaptive traits and/or symptoms that are characteristic of the way an individual experiences and interacts with his/her environment.
    • Basic Neurobiology of Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC twardon.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Schizoid personality disorder involves a pervasive pattern of indifference to social relationships and a restricted range of emotional experience and expression.
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Such deviation must be manifest in more than one of the following areas:
    1. cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting things, people, and events; forming attitudes and images of self and others);
    2. affectivity (range, intensity, and appropriateness of emotional arousal and response);
    3. control over impulses and gratification of needs;
    4. manner of relating to others and of handling interpersonal situations.
  2. The deviation must manifest itself pervasively as behaviour that is inflexible, maladaptive, or otherwise dysfunctional across a broad range of personal and social situations (i.e., not being limited to one specific "triggering" stimulus or situation).
  3. There is personal distress, or adverse impact on the social environment, or both, clearly attributable to the behaviour referred to in criterion 2.
  4. There must be evidence that the deviation is stable and of long duration, having its onset in late childhood or adolescence.
  5. The deviation cannot be explained as a manifestation or consequence of other adult mental disorders, although episodic or chronic conditions from sections F00-F59 or F70-F79 of this classification may coexist with, or be superimposed upon, the deviation.
  6. Organic brain disease, injury, or dysfunction must be excluded as the possible cause of the deviation.^ B. Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life.
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    ^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

    ^ Even more than bipolar disorder , individuals with borderline personality disorder ...
    • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    (If an organic causation is demonstrable, category F07.- should be used.)

Personality disorder list

Classification of personality disorders

.The DSM-IV lists ten personality disorders, grouped into three clusters in Axis II. The DSM also contains a category for behavioral patterns that do not match these ten disorders, but nevertheless exhibit characteristics of a personality disorder.^ Axis I comorbidity of borderline personality disorder.

^ Personality disorders are marked by rigid, maladaptive behavior that develops into a recurring pattern.
  • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A comparative study.

.This category is labeled Personality disorder not otherwise specified.^ Although personality disorders are officially recognized mental health problems, many mental health care professionals won’t use labels such as “paranoid” or “schizoid” to describe the problem.

Cluster A (odd or eccentric disorders)

Cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders)

Appendix B: Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study

Appendix B contains the following disorders[4]. .They are still widely considered amongst psychiatrists as being valid disorders, for example by Theodore Millon.^ Factitious disorders are considered mental illnesses because they are associated with severe emotional difficulties."
  • Veterans - Personality Disorder | Corrente 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]

Deleted from DSM-IV

.The following disorders are still considered to be valid disorders by Millon.^ In addition, therapists may want to consider the following in treating patients with borderline personality disorder: Using mini-contracts for each session to encourage the patient to stay focused.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Along with professional treatment, consider following these lifestyle and self-care steps for personality disorders: .
  • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[5] .They were in DSM-III-R but were deleted from DSM-IV. Both appeared in an appendix entitled “Proposed diagnostic categories needing further study”,[6] and so did not have any concrete diagnostic criteria.^ Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A comparative study.

^ Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study.
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Personality disorders in children and adolescents

.Early stages and preliminary forms of personality disorders need a multi-dimensional and early treatment approach.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Although personality disorders are difficult to treat, there is increasing evidence that both medications and some forms of talk therapy can help many people.
  • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Stability and support are the keys to good treatment with someone who suffers from schizoid personality disorder.
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.Personality development disorder is considered to be a childhood risk factor or early stage of a later personality disorder in adulthood.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Prenatal exposure to wartime famine and development of antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood.

^ Aetiological risk factors for personality disorders.

Studies on the relevance of childhood abuse

.A study of almost 600 male college students, averaging almost 30 years of age and who were not drawn from a clinical sample, examined the relationship between childhood experiences of sexual and physical abuse and currently reported personality disorder symptoms.^ Childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ Reported pathological childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder.

.Childhood abuse histories were found to be definitively associated with greater levels of symptomatology.^ Frequency and correlates of childhood sexual and physical abuse histories in adult female borderline inpatients.

^ Have a history of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse during childhood.
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Severity of abuse was found to be statistically significant, but clinically negligible, in symptomatology variance spread over Cluster A, B and C scales.[7]
.Child abuse and neglect consistently evidence themselves as antecedent risks to the development of personality disorders in adulthood.^ Aetiological risk factors for personality disorders.

^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ What increases my risk for developing borderline personality disorder?
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.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In this particular study, efforts were taken to match retrospective reports of abuse with a clinical population that had demonstrated psychopathology from childhood to adulthood who were later found to have experienced abuse and neglect.^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ People who develop this disorder often have experienced significant childhood trauma, such as sexual, physical, or emotional abuse; neglect; or early loss of or separation from a parent.
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^ Childhood verbal abuse and risk for personality disorders during adolescence and early adulthood.

The sexually abused group demonstrated the most consistently elevated patterns of psychopathology. .Officially verified physical abuse showed an extremely strong role in the development of antisocial and impulsive behavior.^ The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior.

^ Impulsive behaviors that are self-damaging, such as substance abuse, binge eating , and reckless driving.
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^ The disorder is manifested by a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior as indicated by academic failure, poor job performance, illegal activities, recklessness, and impulsive behavior.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, cases of abuse of the neglectful type that created childhood pathology were found to be subject to partial remission in adulthood.^ Abuse and neglect in childhood: Relationship to personality disorder diagnoses.

^ Often people who get it faced some kind of childhood trauma such as abuse, neglect, or the death of a parent.
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[8]

Personality disorders and executives

In 2005, psychologists Belinda Board and Katarina Fritzon at the University of Surrey, UK, interviewed and gave personality tests to high-level British executives and compared their profiles with those of criminal psychiatric patients at Broadmoor Hospital in the UK. They found that three out of eleven personality disorders were actually more common in executives than in the disturbed criminals, they were:
.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  2. ^ Other authorities echo the importance of deviation from social expectations in personality disorder diagnosis, e.g. Berrios G E (1993) European views on personality disorders: a conceptual history. Comprehensive Psychiatry 34: 14-30
  3. ^ a b Millon, Theodore; Roger D. Davis (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 226. ISBN 0-471-01186-x. 
  4. ^ http://www.psychiatryonline.com/content.aspx?aID=5088
  5. ^ a b Millon, Theodore, Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2004
  6. ^ Fuller, AK, Blashfield, RK, Miller, M, Hester, T Sadistic and self-defeating personality disorder criteria in a rural clinic sample Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(6), 827-831 (2006)
  7. ^http://www.ingentaselect.com/vl=2446665/cl=50/nw=1/rpsv/cw/sage/08862605/contp1.htm Miller and Lisak. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 1999
  8. ^ Cohen, Patricia, Brown, Jocelyn, Smailes, Elizabeth. "Child Abuse and Neglect and the Development of Mental Disorders in the General Population" Development and Psychopathology. 2001. Vol 13, No 4, pp981-999. ISSN 0954-5794
  9. ^ Board, Belinda Jane (2005). "Disordered personalities at work". Psychology Crime and Law 11: 17. doi:10.1080/10683160310001634304. 

Further reading

.
  • American Psychiatric Association.^ The 2006 American Psychiatric Association annual meeting was approaching, and I made it a point attend the few sessions they had on personality disorders.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.mcmanweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
    • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association and is used by mental health providers to diagnose mental illnesses and by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment.
    • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnnstudentnews.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Antisocial personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Antisocial personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC us.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    (2000). .Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.^ Posted On November 9, 2007 02:55:48 PM ...nostic_and_Statistical_Manual_of_Mental_ Disorders :2s8nlc2g]Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which is a handbook for mental health professionals and gives them the different ...
    • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR, Washington D.C., 2000) defines "personality" as: "...enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself...
    • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please sign this petition to support changing the name and designation of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in the next publication of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder - 5th edition (DSM-V).
    • Advocacy for Borderline Personality Disorder - The Petition Site 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    4th ed. (text revision). .(DSM-IV-TR).^ Compare the 1977 version with the one adopted 10 years later [in the DSM-III-R] and expanded upon in 1994 [in the DSM-IV] and in 2000 [the DSM-IV-TR]: .

    ^ DSM-IV-TR criteria .
    • Borderline Personality Disorder | ePsychology.us 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.epsychology.us [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The list of criteria that must be met for diagnosis is outlined in the DSM-IV-TR.[1] .
    • Borderline Personality Disorder | ePsychology.us 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.epsychology.us [Source type: Academic]

    Arlington, VA.
  • Häcker, H. O. Stapf (2004). Dorsch Psychologisches Wörterbuch, Verlag Hans Huber, Bern
  • Marshall, W. & Serin, R. (1997) Personality Disorders. In Sm.M. Turner & R. Hersen (Eds.) Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis. .New York: Wiley.^ New York: Wiley, 2001.
    • Histrionic personality disorder - causes, DSM, effects, therapy, adults, people, used, medication, brain, skills, effect, theory, women, health, traits, mood, Definition, Description 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Wiley.

    .508-541
  • Millon, Theodore (and Roger D. Davis, contributor) - Disorders of Personality: DSM IV and Beyond - 2nd ed.^ The DSM-IV defines a personality disorder as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture .
    • Personality Disorders - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A comparative study.

    ^ Personality disorders in the general population: DSM-IV and ICD-10 defined prevalence as related to sociodemographic profile.

    - New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1995 ISBN 0-471-01186-X
  • Fatal Flaws: Navigating Destructive Relationships With People With Disorders of Personality and Character, by Stuart C. Yudofsky, M.D. ISBN 1-58562-214-1

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Psychiatric Disorders
.The personality disorders are not disorders in the same sense as the other psychiatric disorders, and to reflect this, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) lists them under a separate axis, Axis II. For this reason, they are sometimes referred to as “Axis II Disorders.” Rather than discrete disorders in the sense of major depression or schizophrenia, they are more patterns of maladaptive behaviors.^ Schizophrenia does not mean she has more than one personality.
  • Perez Hilton: Multiple Personality Disorder??? 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC perezhilton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-social personality disorder is more than avoiding social interaction.
  • Personality Disorders: Are You Normal? - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ As with other mental disorders, the causes of borderline personality disorder are complex.
  • Borderline personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are disorders, however, in the sense that they do represent somewhat consistent clusters of symptoms, have a predictable course, and predictable responses to treatment.^ They are disorders, however, in the sense that they do represent somewhat consistent clusters of symptoms, have a predictable course, and predictable responses to treatment.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is tempting to rely on certain key behaviors (for example, wrist cutting) as if they were pathonomonic for a disorder, however this is rarely the case.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many personality disorders and they are clustered into types, based on symptoms.  Treatment usually includes talk therapy and sometimes medicine.  Additional Resources: Personality Disorders (Mental Health America) .
  • Wisconsin United for Mental Health - Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.wimentalhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, the disruptions they can cause in a person’s social and/or occupational functioning legitimizes their status as true disorders.^ The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown.
  • Schizoid personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC premium.europe.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the disruptions they can cause in a person’s social and/or occupational functioning legitimizes their status as true disorders.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exact cause of personality disorders is unknown.
  • Personality Disorders: MedlinePlus 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Personality disorders - Scripps Health - San Diego 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • HowStuffWorks "Personality Disorders - Medical Dictionary" 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC healthguide.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Personality Disorders - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Personality Disorders - NY Times Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Personality disorders Information at myOptumHealth 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.myoptumhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AllRefer Health - Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Personality disorders - Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Working Definitions

.
  • Personality Trait. A stable, recurring pattern of human behavior.
  • Personality Type. A constellation of personality traits recognizable as a frequent and familiar combination – e.g.^ Types of pampering and the narcissistic personality trait.

    ^ A constellation of personality traits, which are inflexible and maladaptive.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A constellation of personality traits recognizable as a frequent and familiar combination – e.g.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    the compulsive personality, characterized by preoccupations with work, detail, order, time, money, and cleanliness.
  • .
  • Personality Disorder. A constellation of personality traits, which are inflexible and maladaptive.^ Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders.

    ^ Personality Disorders: States vs. Traits?
    • personality disorder - Medical Journal Articles 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC psychiatry.jwatch.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When the behavior is inflexible, maladaptive, and antisocial, then that individual is diagnosed with a personality disorder.
    • Personality Disorders - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These traits lead to difficulties in work or interpersonal relations, and can cause subjective distress.
  • Neurosis. An unfashionable term for a non-psychotic mental disorder that causes the patient unpleasant feelings (including anxiety, depression, pathological shame or guilt).^ These traits lead to difficulties in work or interpersonal relations, and can cause subjective distress.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Main Types and causes of mental disorders .
    • mental disorder :: Personality disorders -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Depression , anxiety and eating disorders.

    Many disorders formerly called neuroses are now incorporated into more major mood disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, dysthymia, adjustment disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, etc.

Speculations on Etiology

.Personality is formed through an interaction of genetic and developmental influences.^ Personality is formed through an interaction of genetic and developmental influences.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather the borderline personality disorder cause is the result of many factors ranging from a biological vulnerability, genetic and hormonal influences, as well as environmental factors may be at the root of borderline personality disorder cause.
  • Borderline Personality Disorders: Understanding behaviors linked to personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.poisonedlove.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the causes of borderline personality disorder have not been confirmed through scientific research, genetic and environmental factors are thought to predispose people to develop this disorder.
  • Facts, Help and Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder, BPD 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC brookhavenhospital.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Severe personality disorders generally imply a mood disorder, mild neurological abnormality (such as attention deficit disorder or learning disability), or a family history of alcoholism or personality disorder, plus some kind of early loss, trauma, or abuse.^ Family history of the disorder Family history of substance abuse disorders Symptoms Common symptoms of antisocial personality disorder include: .
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder | Psychiatry at NYU Langone Medical Center 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC psych.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies show increased prevalence of childhood abuse, incest, or neglect, early loss, or family alcoholism in hospitalized patients with severe personality disorders.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Personality Disordered also suffer from a cognitive deficit.
  • Personality Disorders in the Paranoid-Narcissistic Spectrum 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the developmental history is apparently benign, the likelihood of an affective or organic factor is even greater.^ There is a lack of research on the causes of HPD. Even though the causes for the disorder are not definitively known, it is thought that HPD may be caused by biological, developmental, cognitive, and social factors.
  • Histrionic personality disorder - causes, DSM, effects, therapy, adults, people, used, medication, brain, skills, effect, theory, women, health, traits, mood, Definition, Description 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Personality traits that are maladaptive in adulthood may have been more adaptive in childhood.^ A constellation of personality traits, which are inflexible and maladaptive.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personality traits that are maladaptive in adulthood may have been more adaptive in childhood.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Difficulties in psychological development during childhood, perhaps associated with neglect, abuse, or inconsistent parenting, may create identity and personality problems.
  • NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness | Mental Illnesses 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.nami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, it is possible to see how troublesome personality traits were reinforced by the family environment.^ What are some tips for how to assess personality traits?
  • Diagnosing Personality Disorders | The Carlat Psychiatry Report 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.thecarlatreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, it is possible to see how troublesome personality traits were reinforced by the family environment.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some researchers believe an authoritarian or overprotective parenting style can lead to the development of dependent personality traits in people who are susceptible to the disorder.
  • Dr. McBee on the Psychological Disorders - Dependent Personality Disorder, Anxious Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.drmcbee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it may happen that initially adaptive behaviors become counterproductive in adulthood, particularly if the environment has changed.^ However, someone may acquire a personality disorder as a result of a precipitating factor such as a head injury causing antisocial personality disorder, which is what happened to Phineas Gage for example.
  • Are personality disorders different from ordinary personality ? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ However, they may not become noticeable to others until many years later.
  • Multiple Personality Disorder Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment: Self-destructive behavior can be changed in social and therapeutic environments such as group therapy.
  • OLOL Baton Rouge - Borderline personality disorder. Borderline personality... 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ololrmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Appreciation of the Role of Early Trauma in Severe Personality Disorders
.Several studies show increased prevalence of childhood abuse, incest, or neglect, early loss, or family alcoholism in hospitalized patients with severe personality disorders.^ Personality disorders often begin forming as early as childhood or adolescence.

^ Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: Do personality disorders increase clinical severity?

^ Several studies show increased prevalence of childhood abuse, incest, or neglect, early loss, or family alcoholism in hospitalized patients with severe personality disorders.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chronic post-traumatic stress disorder may produce symptoms that aggravate the personality disorder.^ AOD use may trigger or aggravate a personality disorder.
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder | Psychology Today 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.psychologytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms General symptoms of a personality disorder General signs and symptoms that may indicate a personality disorder include: .
  • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Personality Disorders manifest in a combination of symptoms.

.Developmental histories of patients with severe personality disorder must attend to potential trauma, abuse, and neglect.^ Patients with personality disorders are rarely happy.
  • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A history of trauma, abuse or deprivation is common.
  • Spectrum - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.spectrumbpd.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder.
  • An Equifinality Model of Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.aaets.org [Source type: Academic]

.Specific therapeutic attention to traumatic events may be crucial to success of treatment.^ Specific therapeutic attention to traumatic events may be crucial to success of treatment.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no specific treatment for this disorder, although psychotherapy may be useful in gradually helping people make choices that affect their own life.
  • Dependent Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC appraisercentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, simply stating the effectiveness of a given treatment for a specific problem citing relevant research studies may help the patient be more open to certain treatments.
  • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diagnosis

Making a Personality Diagnosis

.Making a diagnosis of a personality disorder can be difficult.^ Borderline personality disorder makes it difficult to control impulsive behavior.

^ Borderline Personality Disorder is one of the most difficult personality disorders to diagnosis and treat.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: BPD Is a Difficult and Frightening Disorder to Deal With 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC mindbodyfitness.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Borderline personality disorder is difficult to treat.
  • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline personality disorder - Revolution Health 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

.It generally requires observing an individual over time, and the reliability of cross sectional diagnosis of a personality disorder is poor.^ Commentary on Allik: cross-cultural diagnosis of personality disorder.
  • American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. - Dimensional Models of Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.appi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It generally requires observing an individual over time, and the reliability of cross sectional diagnosis of a personality disorder is poor.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diagnosis of Personality Disorder requires an evaluation of the individual’s long-term patterns of functioning.
  • Humana Military Healthcare Services Behavioral Health - Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.humana-military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under sufficient stress, most individuals have the capacity to “regress” to a less mature state.^ Under sufficient stress, most individuals have the capacity to “regress” to a less mature state.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most serious and sadistic crimes committed by such individuals will be when they are at the peak of their dominant extreme self-state.
  • Personality Disorders in the Paranoid-Narcissistic Spectrum 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a patient diagnosed with a serious mental illness, can begin to have difficulties coping with this new stress, and can appear at that time like a person with a personality disorder.^ How is antisocial personality disorder diagnosed?
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder � Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Diagnosis, and Risk Factors � on MedicineNet.com 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personality disorders are similar to physical illness.
  • Abnormal Psychology: Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How is Avoidant Personality Disorder diagnosed?
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder - HealthyPlace 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to longitudinal evaluations, the reliability of a diagnosis is enhanced by interviewing collateral sources such as family members.^ Splitting is also a common source of tension in relationships with friends and family members.
  • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Building a strong social support system by developing positive relationships with other people, such as family members, friends, and health professionals.
  • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This treatment also relies on involvement from informal supports, such as family and close friends, to reinforce the desired behavior.
  • Personality Disorders - Adults 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.mhawestchester.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taking a full history is important as well.^ Taking a full history is important as well.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this interview, the doctor will ask questions about symptoms and mental well-being, and take a medical, psychiatric and social history.
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The doctor will ask questions about symptoms and mental well-being, and take a medical, psychiatric and social history.

.It is tempting to rely on certain key behaviors (for example, wrist cutting) as if they were pathonomonic for a disorder, however this is rarely the case.^ It is tempting to rely on certain key behaviors (for example, wrist cutting) as if they were pathonomonic for a disorder, however this is rarely the case.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, they are also among the least reliable diagnoses.
  • Personality Disorders | in Chapter 12: Abnormal | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.intropsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Specific personality disorders can have very particular difficulties when they are not able to live according to their usual style (for example, when a dependent person is removed from the object of their dependency).
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of greatest importance is a full and accurate social and development history, in order to demonstrate the individual’s behaviors over time and in different situations.^ Of greatest importance is a full and accurate social and development history, in order to demonstrate the individual’s behaviors over time and in different situations.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Psychology of Sociopathic Behavior Sociopaths are socially defective individuals, but whereas evidence suggests some are born that way, it also suggest others are the product of their environment.

^ They are inflexible and pervasive across varied situations, due primarily to the fact that such behaviors are "ego-syntonic" (i.e., patterns that are consistent with the identity of the individual).

.Personality tests, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory complement the clinical interview and are a useful preventive against a clinician’s biases and blind spots.^ Personality tests, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory complement the clinical interview and are a useful preventive against a clinician’s biases and blind spots.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The single most commonly used test of this type is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, or MMPI. .
  • Personality disorders, Information about Personality disorders 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychological testing may be helpful - distinct patterns on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory and other psychological tests can indicate behavioral instability and impulsivity, and some patients demonstrate a variety of disturbances on neuropsychological tests, especially those involving complex attentional functioning.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.mhsanctuary.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are not in themselves diagnostic.^ They are not in themselves diagnostic.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may lie about or fake symptoms, hurt themselves to bring on symptoms, or alter diagnostic tests (such as contaminating a urine sample).
  • Veterans - Personality Disorder | Corrente 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the acute management of a patient with a suspected personality disorder, an assessment of current strengths and weaknesses is often more pertinent than precise categorical diagnosis.^ Critical developments in the assessment of personality disorder.
  • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personality disorders improve much more often than had ever been recognized or than had even been suspected.

^ Anti-social personality disorder is more than avoiding social interaction.
  • Personality Disorders: Are You Normal? - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Approaches to Describing Personality

.
  • Categorical. In this approach, specific personality disorders are defined by diagnostic criteria in a manner similar to other mental.^ The following links have to do with specific personality disorders.
    • Personality Disorders | Mormon Share Lesson Helps 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC mormonshare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Personality disorders are similar to physical illness.
    • Abnormal Psychology: Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mental Disorders » Ob-Ps » Personality disorders Personality disorders .
    • Personality disorders - Definition, Description, Resources 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The advantages of such an approach are that this approach is consistent with the approach used by psychiatrists (in DSM-IV) to describe all other mental disorders.^ Other mental disorders - - - Factitious disorders .
    • mental disorder :: Personality disorders -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Other personality types: Several other personality types have been described but are not classified as disorders in the DSM-IV-TR. .
    • Personality Disorders: Psychiatric Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (The current DSM-IV uses the same approach.
    • Orange County Community Resources 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.orangecounty.net [Source type: Original source]

    .This approach is useful in research, as it presents a consistent approach to case identification, and thus is convenient for the types of empirical research that require large, homogeneous groups of patients (for example, treatment studies).^ This approach is useful in research, as it presents a consistent approach to case identification, and thus is convenient for the types of empirical research that require large, homogeneous groups of patients (for example, treatment studies).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ B. Medications play an important role in the comprehensive treatment of BPD. For more on this topic, refer to the section on this website "Medications Used and Studied in the Treatment of BPD".
    • NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness | Mental Illnesses 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.nami.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ While there is no accurate way to distinguish between the 2 groups at initial presentation, studies such as PI-500 highlight features that may serve as useful predictors of outcome.
    • Clinical Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder: Course of Borderline Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    .There are disadvantages to approach, however.^ There are disadvantages to approach, however.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A categorical approach must draw a potentially arbitrary line between the normal and pathological: either people have the disorder or they do not.^ A categorical approach must draw a potentially arbitrary line between the normal and pathological: either people have the disorder or they do not.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York State Office Of Mental Health, "Why would psychiatry and psychology turn so viciously against people they call mentally disordered?
    • TARA Association for Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.tara4bpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ People with personality disorders have long-standing patterns of thinking and acting that differ from what society considers usual or normal.
    • Schizoid Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Furthermore, though groups of patients may be superficially linked by common symptoms, they may in fact have heterogeneous pathologies, in which case the diagnoses attached may not have predictive value.^ Furthermore, though groups of patients may be superficially linked by common symptoms, they may in fact have heterogeneous pathologies, in which case the diagnoses attached may not have predictive value.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They can be helpful for some symptoms in some patients.
    • Assessment and Management of Personality Disorders - October 15, 2004 - American Family Physician 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ironically, as a group of disorders, they are among the most common of the severe mental disorders, and occur frequently with other illnesses (e.g., substance use disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders).

    .Finally, the use of these disorders in too superficial a manner can invite “labeling” and stigmatization of the individual.
  • Dimensional. In the dimensional approach, personalities are seen on a continuum from “normal” to ‘deviant.” Generally, personality is divided into specific traits, which are then scaled.^ The following links have to do with specific personality disorders.
    • Personality Disorders | Mormon Share Lesson Helps 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC mormonshare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Generally, personality disorders are divided into three subtypes (or clusters), and include the following: .
    • Personality Disorders - New York Presbyterian Hospital 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality Disorders | Health Library | Weill Cornell Physicians | Advancing Science. Enhancing Life. 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.weillcornell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.health.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/mental_health/mental_health_about/personality/Pages/index.aspx 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospital - Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC content.jeffersonhospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality Disorders - University of Chicago Medical Center 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.uchospitals.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality Disorders - Weill Cornell Department of Surgery 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cornellsurgery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality Disorders - New York Presbyterian Hospital 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Teen personality disorders are divided into three clusters.
    • Personality Disorders - Teen Health 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.teenhelp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In this approach, a disorder is defined in terms of a statistical deviance from the normal range of behaviors.^ Defining Abnormal versus Normal Behavior .
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC oak.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In this approach, a disorder is defined in terms of a statistical deviance from the normal range of behaviors.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
    • Personality Disorder | Ask Dr. Oz 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC ask.doctoroz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This approach may be more valid than a categorical approach, as it avoids seemingly arbitrary all-or-none decision.^ This approach may be more valid than a categorical approach, as it avoids seemingly arbitrary all-or-none decision.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All the effort to boost children's self-esteem may have backfired and produced a generation of college students who are more narcissistic than their Gen X predecessors, according to a new study led by...
    • Narcissistic Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Understanding this may keep them from taking on borderline patients, who may be more than they can handle.
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Furthermore, it has the capacity to permit a greater appreciation of individual differences.^ Furthermore, it has the capacity to permit a greater appreciation of individual differences.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Disadvantages lie in the implementation of a dimensional approach.^ Disadvantages lie in the implementation of a dimensional approach.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Defining normal behavior requires a normative sample; collecting a true normative sample that represents the actual range of adaptive behaviors can be illusory.^ Defining normal behavior requires a normative sample; collecting a true normative sample that represents the actual range of adaptive behaviors can be illusory.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Personality disorders are medically defined as long-term, pervasive, inflexible patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are not well adapted or do not fit within the range of behavior considered normal.
    • AGS Aging in the Know 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthinaging.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this approach, a disorder is defined in terms of a statistical deviance from the normal range of behaviors.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Furthermore, the dimensional ratings obtained are based on standardized tests, which vulnerable to biases in design.
  • Prototypical. Patients’ personalities are compared with typical examples of well-recognized personality types, such as the compulsive, the hysterical, the antisocial, etc.^ Patients’ personalities are compared with typical examples of well-recognized personality types, such as the compulsive, the hysterical, the antisocial, etc.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The concept of such a personality type is not new.
    • Antisocial Personality Disorder, Alcohol, and Aggression 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC pubs.niaaa.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Furthermore, the dimensional ratings obtained are based on standardized tests, which vulnerable to biases in design.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The advantage of such an approach is that this approach models the way the way that clinicians think about disorders (comparing an individual to idealized forms of health and disease).^ The advantage of such an approach is that this approach models the way the way that clinicians think about disorders (comparing an individual to idealized forms of health and disease).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "They represent either extreme or significant deviations from the way the average individual or a given culture perceives, thinks, feels and particularly relates to others.
    • BBC NEWS | Health | Personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Once hospitalization is no longer necessary the individual is encouraged to seek other forms of borderline personality disorder treatment including group therapy.

    It also facilitates recognition of certain patterns. .Disadvantages to this approach include is vulnerable to bias, the subjectivity of the approach which makes inter-rater reliability difficult.^ Disadvantages to this approach include is vulnerable to bias, the subjectivity of the approach which makes inter-rater reliability difficult.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This in turn makes research on the disorders difficult.
  • Structured Assessments Of Adaptive Strengths And Preferred Defense Mechanisms. This approach avoids defining a disorder altogether, and simply describes a persons personality in terms of t psychological strengths and weaknesses.^ Critical developments in the assessment of personality disorder.
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It can be extremely difficult to live with a personality disorder.

    ^ In this article, I will describe this personality disorder that is so misunderstood.
    • Personality Disorders - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The appraisal is done in a structured, albeit qualitative manner.^ The appraisal is done in a structured, albeit qualitative manner.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This approach is useful as a complement to other forms of diagnosis, and can be helpful in planning a patient’s management and treatment.^ This approach is useful as a complement to other forms of diagnosis, and can be helpful in planning a patient’s management and treatment.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This approach is useful in research, as it presents a consistent approach to case identification, and thus is convenient for the types of empirical research that require large, homogeneous groups of patients (for example, treatment studies).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is therefore unlikely the clinician will have much success in using techniques or treatment modalities, which have not first been approved by the patient for use.
    • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, a person’s strengths and weaknesses may fluctuate with time, and may be less stable than the personality traits assessed by other approaches.^ However, a person’s strengths and weaknesses may fluctuate with time, and may be less stable than the personality traits assessed by other approaches.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One personality may be more malevolent than the others.
    • Multiple Personality Disorder: Fact or Fiction? 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That one person is less valuable than the other in a relationship?
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Narcissistic Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    Furthermore, strength and weakness assessments may depend greatly on the clinician’s interviewing skill

The DSM-IV Personality Disorders

.The personality disorders are divided into three clusters, organized alphabetically: Types A, B and C. Type A is called the “Odd Cluster”, Type B the Dramatic Cluster, and Type C the Anxious Cluster.^ Learn about the dramatic cluster (Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Antisocial), the anxious cluster (Obsessive-compulsive, Avoidant, Dependent,) and the eccentric cluster (Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal).
  • Personality Disorders Workshops 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.dcs.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Join a support group for people with your type of personality disorder so that you can connect to others facing similar challenges.

^ Persons with this disorder often feel anxious and depressed, and may experience intense discomfort when alone for more than a brief time.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

A. The Odd Cluster

.
  • Paranoid Personality. This is defined by the person’s high level of suspiciousness.^ This is defined by the person’s high level of suspiciousness.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Persons who have a paranoid personality disorder show a pervasive and unjustified mistrust and suspiciousness of others.
    • personality disorder -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by suspiciousness and a distrust of others.
    • Personality Disorders | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Persons with disorder are mistrustful of everyone.^ Persons with disorder are mistrustful of everyone.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Persons who have a paranoid personality disorder show a pervasive and unjustified mistrust and suspiciousness of others.
    • personality disorder -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet, despite how devastating these abusive events can be to an individual, not everyone who experiences them will develop borderline personality disorder.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This distrust does not reach the level of a delusion, however.^ This distrust does not reach the level of a delusion, however.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .More on this disorder
  • Schizoid personality. This disorder is defined by the individual’s lacks of intimate relationships, and their tendency to be frightened by closeness.^ The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown.
    • Schizoid personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC premium.europe.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • georgiahealthinfo.gov 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What is the outlook for people with schizoid personality disorder?
    • Schizoid Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality Disorder | Ask Dr. Oz 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC ask.doctoroz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See More Answers » How is schizoid personality disorder treated?
    • Personality Disorder | Ask Dr. Oz 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC ask.doctoroz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They seem to be virtually incapable of personal warmth, and are anxious when others try to be close (due to the fear of the intimacy of socialization).^ They seem to be virtually incapable of personal warmth, and are anxious when others try to be close (due to the fear of the intimacy of socialization).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They do not seem to care about others.
    • AGS Aging in the Know 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthinaging.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Often absorbed with their own thoughts and feelings, they fear closeness and intimacy with others.
    • Personality Disorders - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .More on this disorder
  • Schizotypal personality. This disorder is defined by the presence of odd and eccentric ideas.^ Cluster A personality disorders are individuals who have odd, eccentric behaviors.
    • Understanding Personality Disorders in Relationships 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC counsellingresource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More on this disorder Dependent personality.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder include: .
    • Schizotypal personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
    • Schizotypal personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC us.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    .These ideas seem outside the norm, may influence daily behavior, but are not psychotic.^ These ideas seem outside the norm, may influence daily behavior, but are not psychotic.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These behaviors may be called "survivor behaviors."
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Professionals may find that these patients bring out the worse in them, and unprofessional behaviors are more likely with such patients.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    More on this disorder

B. The Dramatic Cluster

.
  • Antisocial personality. This disorder is defined by the individuals disregard for rules, laws and social conventions.^ Antisocial personality disorder?
    • Personality disorders Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Antisocial personalities typically ignore the normal rules of social behavior.
    • Personality Disorders - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hill J. Early identification of individuals at risk for antisocial personality disorder.
    • CIGNA - Antisocial Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Sometimes referred as “psychopaths” they are dishonest, and unconcerned about the effect of their behavior on others.^ They are generally referred as psychopaths or sociopaths.
    • Abnormal Psychology: Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They do not seem to care about others.
    • AGS Aging in the Know 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthinaging.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They have no respect for other people and feel no remorse about the effects of their behavior on others.
    • Personality Disorders - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .More on this disorder.
  • Narcissistic personality. Persons with this disorder are grandiose, needing constant attention.^ Narcissistic personality disorder .
    • Personality Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
    • Personality Disorders - body, causes, What Are Personality Disorders?, How Are Personality Disorders Diagnosed?, What Causes Personality Disorders?, How Are Personality Disorders Treated? 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Somatoform, Dissociative, Personality, Mood, and Thought Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC web.jjay.cuny.edu [Source type: Academic]
    • mental disorder :: Personality disorders -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Products Tagged narcissistic personality disorder .
    • Amazon.com: narcissistic personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Narcissistic Personality disorder.
    • Narcissistic Personality Disorder (Index, Health) @ Grandiosity.org 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.grandiosity.org [Source type: General]

    .They have a lack of empathy for others, and an exaggerated sense of self-importance.^ They also lack a stable sense of who they are.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Exaggerated self-importance .
    • personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.mudrashram.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Self-centered, exaggerated sense of self-importance, demands attention .
    • Personality Disorders | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They tend to act as if they are superior to unique from others.^ They also tend to be dependent on others.

    ^ They are characterized by lying, manipulativeness, and a selfish disregard for the rights of others; some may act impulsively.
    • Personality Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Personality disorders, Information about Personality disorders 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ People who have avoidant personality disorder are very sensitive to criticism and judgment from others, so they tend to stay away from social interactions.

    .More on this disorder
  • Borderline personality. These individuals are emotionally intense and unstable, with impulsive behavior, self-destructiveness, an inner emptiness and an intolerance of being alone.^ Treatments for borderline personality disorder .
    • Borderline personality disorder - Revolution Health 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Psychopharmacology of borderline personality disorder.
    • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prediction of outcome in borderline personality disorders.
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    M ore on this disorder
  • .
  • Histrionic personality. Individuals with this disorder are dramatic, with attention-seeking behavior.^ What is the outlook for people with histrionic personality disorder?
    • Histrionic Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Histrionic personality disorder Medical Information .
    • Histrionic personality disorder Medical Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How is histrionic personality disorder diagnosed?
    • Histrionic Personality Disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They often present as a caricature of femininity or masculinity.^ They often present as a caricature of femininity or masculinity.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They look no different from anyone else, and often present as very attractive and intelligent people.
    • Orange County Community Resources 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.orangecounty.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Their presentation is seen as odd, as they often dress in a peculiar manner and come across as suspicious and lacking in emotional expression.
    • Personality Disorders in Personality Synopsis at ALLPSYCH Online 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC allpsych.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    More on this disorder

C. The Anxious Cluster

.
  • Avoidant personality. Persons with this disorder avoid social situations because of fears of rejection, criticism, or disappointment.^ Avoidant personality disorder - - - Dependent personality disorder .
    • mental disorder :: Personality disorders -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Avoidant personalities are anxious to avoid the risks of social contact.
    • Personality Disorders | in Chapter 12: Abnormal | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.intropsych.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Avoidant personality disorder.
    • Personality Disorders - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They tend to avoid occupational or social challenges and are seen as “underachievers.” .^ They avoid normal social interactions.
    • Paranoid personality disorder - dose, children, causes, DSM, effects, therapy, paranoia, withdrawal, person, people, used, medication, effect, women, health, traits, mood, Definition 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They tend to avoid occupational or social challenges and are seen as “underachievers.” .
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Do you tend to avoid social relationships?
    • Personality Disorder Test - Personality Test 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.4degreez.com [Source type: Original source]

    .More on this disorder
  • Dependent personality. Persons with this disorder cling to a stronger person, sometimes submissively.^ The dependent and hysterical personality disorders are also more common among women.
    • A Report on Mental Illnesses in Canada - Public Health Agency of Canada 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.phac-aspc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Avoidant personality disorder - - - Dependent personality disorder .
    • mental disorder :: Personality disorders -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ More on this disorder Dependent personality.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They rely on that person for help and advice, and are anxious when faced with the need for an independent decision.^ They rely on that person for help and advice, and are anxious when faced with the need for an independent decision.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Because they rely on others to handle their problems, they often do not learn the skills of independent living, thus perpetuating dependency.

    ^ They seem to be virtually incapable of personal warmth, and are anxious when others try to be close (due to the fear of the intimacy of socialization).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .More on this disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality. Persons with this disorder (sometimes called OCPD) have a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility.^ Heredity also contributes to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.anotherlifefoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Personality disorders - CNN.com 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC cgi.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Obsessive-compulsive: Share control with the patient.
    • Personality Disorders: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Compulsive personality disorder.
    • Personality Disorders - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They may be described as being preoccupied with work or duty, not enjoying life, and being rigid and inflexible.^ That's because they tend to be inflexible, rigid, and unable to respond to the changes and demands of life.
    • Personality Disorders: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Support - HealthyPlace 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In an AOD treatment program, they may describe themselves as being unique and requiring special treatment.
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ And with my new understanding I could begin to work on supporting her as the book describes and helping her improve her life.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder Solved! 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.bpdsolved.com [Source type: General]

    .This disorder is different from Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), an Axis I diagnosis in that OCPD people do not have clear rituals or intrusive thoughts, and rarely see their habits as being alien to themselves (or “ego dystonic” which is common in OCD, but not OCPD).^ Introduction Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental health co ...
    • Obsessive Personality Disorder - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Read on ›› View Wellpedia for Obsessive compulsive disorder (ocd) .
    • Obsessive Personality Disorder - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This disorder is different from Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), an Axis I diagnosis in that OCPD people do not have clear rituals or intrusive thoughts, and rarely see their habits as being alien to themselves (or “ego dystonic” which is common in OCD, but not OCPD).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    More on this disorder

How Personality Disorders Present

.
  • In Medical Settings. Personality disordered patients are often very challenging for doctors.^ Medications may be prescribed for patients with specific personality disorders.
    • Personality Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Personality disorders, Information about Personality disorders 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Histrionic personality disorder Medical Information .
    • Histrionic personality disorder Medical Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Patient Surveys for Personality disorders .
    • Personality disorders Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

    .They are more likely to have interpersonal problems in the doctor-patient relationship.^ This can also lead to problems in the relationship between patient and therapist.
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC web4health.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Understanding this may keep them from taking on borderline patients, who may be more than they can handle.
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Patients may benefit from participation in 12-step programs for their AOD problems and for relationship dependencies and conflicts.
    • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .They may be more prone to being noncompliant with their medical care.^ They may be more prone to being noncompliant with their medical care.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They may be described as being preoccupied with work or duty, not enjoying life, and being rigid and inflexible.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please note that medical information found on this website is designed to support, not to replace the relationship between patient and physician/doctor and the medical advice they may provide.
    • Personality Disorder News, Research 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: General]

    .They can have particular difficulty in coping with any restrictions on their normal function: hospitalization, disability or medical regimens (e.g.^ They can have particular difficulty in coping with any restrictions on their normal function: hospitalization, disability or medical regimens (e.g.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Specific personality disorders can have very particular difficulties when they are not able to live according to their usual style (for example, when a dependent person is removed from the object of their dependency).
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Individuals with this disorder may have particular difficulty expressing anger, which contributes to the impression that they lack emotion.
    • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    dietary restrictions) can be particularly trying for these patients. .Professionals may find that these patients bring out the worse in them, and unprofessional behaviors are more likely with such patients.
  • In The Family. Patients with personality disorders are more likely to have marital conflicts (including violent conflicts), and problems with child rearing.^ Professional skepticism of multiple personality disorder.
    • Multiple Personality Disorder: Fact or Fiction? 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Medications may be prescribed for patients with specific personality disorders.
    • Personality Disorders - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Personality disorders, Information about Personality disorders 20 September 2009 11:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Patients with personality disorders are rarely happy.
    • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The risk of divorce is high in this group of patients.
  • Within The Individual.^ The risk of divorce is high in this group of patients.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many support groups exist within communities throughout the world that are devoted to helping individuals with this disorder share their commons experiences and feelings.
    • Therapist Unlimited Blog » » personality disorder 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC blog.therapistunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The task of this group is to define the clinical issues in patients' resource limitations and to help therapists bring these issues into the individual therapy through interpretation.
    • Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Patients with personality disorders can experience multiple losses resulting from their behaviors: divorce, job losses are all common.^ Professional skepticism of multiple personality disorder.
    • Multiple Personality Disorder: Fact or Fiction? 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is one of the most common personality disorders.
    • mental disorder :: Personality disorders -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Patients with personality disorders are rarely happy.
    • Narcissism, Narcissistic Pathologies, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC samvak.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Their difficulties in the medical setting can result in poorer outcomes from medical conditions.^ Their difficulties in the medical setting can result in poorer outcomes from medical conditions.
    • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Symptoms of borderline personality disorder are not caused by another medical condition or by medicines, and they are not a result of long-term substance abuse problems.
    • Health Information 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dependent Personality Disorder must be distinguished from dependency arising as a consequence of Axis I disorders (e.g., Mood Disorders, Panic Disorder , and Agoraphobia ) and as a result of general medical conditions .

    Specific personality disorders can have very particular difficulties when they are not able to live according to their usual style (for example, when a dependent person is removed from the object of their dependency).

Comorbidity

.Personality disorders are often of high risk for various disorders.^ Aetiological risk factors for personality disorders.

^ Personality disorders are often of high risk for various disorders.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personality disorders vary in severity.
  • Personality Disorders: Mental Health Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have high rates of Axis I psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance abuse.^ They have high rates of Axis I psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance abuse.
  • Psychiatric Disorders/Personality disorders - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people also have mood, anxiety, substance abuse, or eating disorders.
  • Personality Disorders: Mental Health Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personality disorders often coexist with mood, anxiety, substance abuse, and eating disorders.
  • Personality Disorders: Psychiatric Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may have higher rates of medical illnesses as well, for the reasons described above.^ They may be caused by a combination of parental upbringing, one's personality and social development, as well as genetic and biological factors.
  • Introduction to Personality Disorders - Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Personality disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.csoinc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Aroostook Mental Health Services, Inc. - Personality Disorders 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.amhc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, they may require extra assistance in processing medical information.
  • Assessment and Management of Personality Disorders - October 15, 2004 - American Family Physician 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In an AOD treatment program, they may describe themselves as being unique and requiring special treatment.
  • Chapter 7—Personality Disorders -- SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Some specific concerns:
  • Antisocial, borderline, and histrionic personalities are vulnerable to alcohol and drug abuse.
  • Borderline personalities are vulnerable to brief reactive psychosis and to major depression.
  • Schizotypal and schizoid personalities are vulnerable to schizophrenia.
  • Dependent personalities are vulnerable to agoraphobia.
  • Compulsive personalities are vulnerable to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Personality disorder, which are similar to those in the above article.








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