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Republic of Peru
República del Perú  (Spanish)
Piruw Republika  (Quechua)
Piruw Suyu  (Aymara)
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish)
"National Anthem of Peru"

National seal:
Gran Sello del Estado Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
(Spanish)
"Great Seal of the State"
Capital
(and largest city)
Lima
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283
Official language(s) Spanish1
Ethnic groups  45% Amerindian, 37% Mestizo, 15% White, 3% Black, Asian[1]
Demonym Peruvian
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Alan García
 -  Vice President Luis Giampietri
 -  Prime Minister Javier Velásquez
 -  President of Congress Luis Alva Castro
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declared July 28, 1821 
 -  Consolidated December 9, 1824 
 -  Recognized August 14, 1879 
Area
 -  Total 1,285,216 km2 (20th)
496,225 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.8
Population
 -  30 June 2009 estimate 29,132,013[2] 
 -  2007 census 28,220,764 
 -  Density 22/km2 (193rd)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $272.560 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $9,223[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $139.502 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $4,720[3] 
Gini (2008) 47.9 (high
HDI (2007) 0.806 (high) (78th)
Currency Nuevo Sol (PEN)
Time zone PET (UTC-5)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .pe
Calling code +51
1 Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages are co-official in the areas where they are predominant.
Peru (Spanish: Perú, Quechua: Piruw, Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðel peˈɾu]  ( listen)), is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 36%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 29 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Contents

Etymology

José de San Martín's proclamation of Peru's independence on July 28, 1821.
The word Peru is derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the early 16th century.[4] When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.[5] Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Peru.[6] The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.[7] Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after the Peruvian War of Independence.

History

The earliest evidence of human presence in Peruvian territory has been dated to approximately 9,000 BCE.[8] The oldest known complex society in Peru and the Americas, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3000 and 1800 BCE.[9] These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures such as Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari, and Chimú. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.[10] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.[11]
Machu Picchu, the "Lost City of the Incas"
In the years between 1524 and 1526 hemorrhagic smallpox, introduced from Panama and preceding the Spanish conquerors swept through the Inca Empire.[12] The death of the Incan ruler Huayna Capac as well as most of his family including his heir, caused the fall of the Incan political structure and contributed to the civil war between the brothers Atahualpa and Huáscar.[13]
In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated Inca Emperor Atahualpa and captured him. Francisco Pizarro demanded gold and silver in exchange for the release of the Inca, and although Francisco Pizarro received a room of gold and the two following rooms with silver, up to the level of the reach of Atahualpa's arm, Atahualpa was executed and Francisco Pizarro conquered the Empire and imposed Spanish rule. Ten years later, the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included all of its South American colonies.[14] Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce.[15]
Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[16] However, by the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.[17] In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty of Peru.[18] The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were defeated.[19]
In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite hesitated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.[20] During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.[21] National identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation foundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[22] Between the 1840s and 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla through increased state revenues from guano exports.[23] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been squandered, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.[24]
Angamos, a decisive battle during the War of the Pacific.
Peru was defeated by Chile in the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, losing the provinces of Arica and Tarapacá in the treaties of Ancón and Lima. Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía.[25] The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[26] The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades.[27]
In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against president Fernando Belaunde. The new regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development but failed to gain widespread support.[28] In 1975, Velasco was forcefully replaced as president by General Francisco Morales Bermúdez, who paralyzed reforms and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy.[29]
During the 1980s, Peru faced a considerable external debt, ever-growing inflation, a surge in drug trafficking, and massive political violence.[30] Some 70,000 people died during the conflict between state forces and Maoist Shining Path guerrillas.[31] Under the presidency of Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000), the country started to recover; however, accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations forced his resignation after the controversial 2000 elections.[32] Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth; since 2006 the president is Alan García.[33]

Government

Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima.
Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and cannot seek immediate re-election, he or she must stand down for at least one full constitutional term before reelection.[34] The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[35] There is a unicameral Congress with 120 members elected for a five-year term.[36] Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President.[37] The judiciary is nominally independent,[38] though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today.[39]
The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.[40] General elections held in 2006 ended in a second round victory for presidential candidate Alan García of the Peruvian Aprista Party (52.6% of valid votes) over Ollanta Humala of Union for Peru (47.4%).[41] Congress is currently composed of the Peruvian Aprista Party (36 seats), Peruvian Nationalist Party (23 seats), Union for Peru (19 seats), National Unity (15 seats), the Fujimorista Alliance for the Future (13 seats), the Parliamentary Alliance (9 seats) and the Democratic Special Parliamentary Group (5 seats).[42]
Peruvian foreign relations have been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.[43] There is still an ongoing dispute with Chile over maritime limits in the Pacific Ocean.[44] Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. The Peruvian military is composed of an army, a navy and an air force; its primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country.[45] The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.[46]

Regions

Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and a council, which serves for a four-year term.[47] These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property.[48] The province of Lima is administered by a city council.[49]
Regions:
Province:

Geography

Topographic map of Peru
Peru covers 1,285,220 km² (496,193 sq mi). It neighbors Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean, dividing the country into three geographic regions. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán.[50] The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60% of the country's area is located within this region,[51] (70 million hectares) giving Peru the fourth largest area of tropical forest in the world after Brazil, Congo and Indonesia.[52]
Most Peruvian rivers originate in the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River are longer, have a much larger flow, and are less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow.[53] Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon.[54]
The peaks of the Andes are the source of many Peruvian rivers.
Peru, unlike other equatorial countries, does not have an exclusively tropical climate; the influence of the Andes and the Humboldt Current cause great climatic diversity within the country. The costa has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches.[55] In the sierra, rain is frequent during summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes.[56] The selva is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.[57] Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003; 5,855 of them endemic.[58] The Peruvian government has established several protected areas for their preservation.

Economy

The seaport of Callao is the main outlet for Peruvian exports.
Peru's economy has experienced significant growth in the last 15 years. It is considered an Emerging Market according to the MSCI [59]. Peru has a high Human Development Index score of 0.806.[60] Its 2008 per capita income was US$8,594;[3] 36.2% of its total population is poor, including 12.6% that is extremely poor.[61] Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.[62] Although exports have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive.[63]
Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations.[64]
Despite these adverse results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies.[65] Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[66]
Buildings in the financial district of San Isidro, Lima
Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%).[67] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption.[68] Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on April 12, 2006.[69] Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.[70]

Demographics

Quechuawomanandchild.jpgPeruolympicdelegationbyplopez.jpg
Top: Quechua country woman and her child in the Andean region.
Bottom: Peruvian Olympic delegation depicting the nation's multicultural society with traditional coastal garment.
With about 29 million inhabitants, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America as of 2007.[71] Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050.[72] As of 2007, 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas.[73] Major cities include Lima, home to over 8 million people, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo, all of which reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census.[74] In the Amazonian region, there are 16 ethno-linguistic families and more than 65 different ethnic groups.[75] After Brazil and New Guinea, Peru has the largest number of uncontacted tribes in the world.[76]
Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; their population decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases.[77] Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. After independence, there has been a gradual European immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.[78] Chinese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.[79] Other immigrant groups include Arabs and Japanese. Given Peru's high rate of racial miscegenation, the country's racial structure can be loosely classified as 45% Amerindian, 37% mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European), 15% White, and 3% African, Japanese, Chinese, and other.[1]
Spanish, the first language of 83.9% of Peruvians age 5 and older in 2007, is the primary language of the country. It coexists with several indigenous languages, the most important of which is Quechua, spoken by 13.2% of the population. Other native and foreign languages were spoken at that time by 2.7% and 0.1% of Peruvians, respectively.[80] In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 12.5% as Evangelical, 3.3% as of other denominations, and 2.9% as non-religious.[81] Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%).[82] Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.[83]

Indigenous communities

Indigenous peoples in Peru comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the country's present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. Indigenous peoples in Peru form about 45% of the total population (14 million). However, other sources are updated in 31% of the indigenous population [84][85]. At the time of European invasion, the indigenous peoples of the Amazon were mostly semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2000 nations and tribes which existed in 1500 died out as a consequence of the Spanish conquest, and many were assimilated into the general mixed-race Peruvian population. Most of the surviving peoples have since changed their lifestyles to some extent.
Peruvian indigenous communities face multiple threats to their existence. The laws made to protect them are not always respected by the Peruvian government or the companies who seek to explore the natural resources of their land.[86] In 2010, a reserve inhabited by uncontacted tribes in the remote Peruvian Amazon was protected from oil and gas companies, in a government decision.[87] According to local indigenous organization FENAMAD, "The news of the definitive elimination of ‘Lot 113’ from Perupetro’s oil maps is an important decision because, as well as guaranteeing the integrity of isolated peoples in Madre de Dios, it is an excellent precedent for the protection of isolated peoples in other regions and countries whose territories are included in oil lots"
In many other parts of Peru the government continues to allow companies such as Perenco, Repsol YPF and Petrobras to work on uncontacted tribes’ land.[87]
In 1994, Peru signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[88]

Culture

Anonymous Cuzco School painting, 18th century
Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions,[89] though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions.[90] During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative.[91] Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century.[92] Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.[93]
Peruvian literature has its roots in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.[94] In the early 20th century, the Indigenismo movement produced such writers as Ciro Alegría,[95] José María Arguedas,[96] and César Vallejo.[97] During the second half of the century, Peruvian literature became more widely known because of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.[98]
Ceviche is a citrus marinated seafood dish.
Peruvian cuisine is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking.[99] Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, humitas, and pachamanca. Because of the variety of climates within Peru, a wide range of plants and animals is available for cooking.[100] Peruvian cuisine has recently received acclaim due to its diversity of ingredients and techniques.[101]
Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish and African roots.[102] In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely from region to region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments.[103] Spanish conquest brought the introduction of new instruments such as the guitar and the harp, as well as the development of crossbred instruments like the charango.[104] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument.[105] Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, danza de tijeras, huayno and diablada.[106]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [2] Global Peace Index[107] 79 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 78 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 75 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 78 out of 133

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Peru (10/08), U.S. Department of State
  2. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI) del Perú". INEI. Retrieved on July 20, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Peru". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=293&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=57&pr.y=1. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 83.
  5. ^ Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 84.
  6. ^ Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 86.
  7. ^ Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Perú, p. 87.
  8. ^ Tom Dillehay et al, "The first settlers", pp. 16,20.
  9. ^ Jonathan Haas et al, "Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru", p. 1021.
  10. ^ Terence D'Altroy, The Incas, pp. 2–3.
  11. ^ Enrique Mayer, The articulated peasant, pp. 47–68.
  12. ^ Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek (Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991) pp. 54-56
  13. ^ Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Inca. New York, NY: Harcourt, Inc., 1970, 28-29.
  14. ^ Recopilación de leyes de los Reynos de las Indias, vol. II, pp. 12–13.
  15. ^ Peter Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain, p. 181.
  16. ^ Margarita Suárez, Desafíos transatlánticos, pp. 252–253.
  17. ^ Kenneth Andrien, Crisis and decline, pp. 200–202.
  18. ^ Mark Burkholder, From impotence to authority, pp. 83–87.
  19. ^ Scarlett O'Phelan, Rebellions and revolts in eighteenth century Peru and Upper Peru, p. 276.
  20. ^ Timothy Anna, The fall of the royal government in Peru, pp. 237–238.
  21. ^ Charles Walker, Smoldering ashes, pp. 124–125.
  22. ^ Paul Gootenberg, Between silver and guano, p. 12.
  23. ^ Paul Gootenberg, Imagining development, pp. 5–6.
  24. ^ Paul Gootenberg, Imagining development, p. 9.
  25. ^ Ulrich Mücke, Political culture in nineteenth-century Peru, pp. 193–194.
  26. ^ Peter Klarén, Peru, pp. 262–276.
  27. ^ David Palmer, Peru: the authoritarian tradition, p. 93.
  28. ^ George Philip, The rise and fall of the Peruvian military radicals, pp. 163–165.
  29. ^ Daniel Schydlowsky and Juan Julio Wicht, "Anatomy of an economic failure", pp. 106–107.
  30. ^ Peter Klarén, Peru, pp. 406–407.
  31. ^ Peru's Fujimori gets 25 years prison for massacres. Reuters. April 8, 2009.
  32. ^ BBC News, Fujimori: Decline and fall. Retrieved on July 21, 2007.
  33. ^ The Economist, Peru. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  34. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 112.
  35. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 122.
  36. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 90.
  37. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Articles N° 107–108.
  38. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Articles N° 146.
  39. ^ Jeffrey Clark, Building on quicksand. Retrieved on July 24, 2007.
  40. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 31.
  41. ^ (Spanish) Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales, Segunda Elección Presidencial 2006. Retrieved on May 15, 2007.
  42. ^ (Spanish) Congreso de la República del Perú, Grupos Parlamentarios. Retrieved on January 5, 2008.
  43. ^ Ronald Bruce St John, The foreign policy of Peru, pp. 223–224.
  44. ^ BBC News, Peru–Chile border row escalates. Retrieved on May 16, 2007.
  45. ^ Ministerio de Defensa, Libro Blanco de la Defensa Nacional, p. 90.
  46. ^ Ley N° 27178, Ley del Servicio Militar, Articles N° 29, 42 and 45.
  47. ^ Ley N° 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article N° 11.
  48. ^ Ley N° 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article N° 10.
  49. ^ Ley N° 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article N° 66.
  50. ^ AndesHandbook, Huascarán. Retrieved on August 12, 2007.
  51. ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, p. 16.
  52. ^ Painter, James (December 7, 2008). "Peru aims for zero deforestation" (in English). BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7768226.stm. 
  53. ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, p. 31.
  54. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005, p. 21.
  55. ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, pp. 24–25.
  56. ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, pp. 25–26.
  57. ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico, pp. 26–27.
  58. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005, p. 50.
  59. ^ MSCI Barra [1]
  60. ^ United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports 2008 Statistical Update. Retrieved on April 28, 2009.
  61. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Nota de prensaPDF (35.7 KB). Retrieved on June 12, 2009.
  62. ^ Rosemary Thorp and Geoffrey Bertram, Peru 1890–1977, p. 4.
  63. ^ Rosemary Thorp and Geoffrey Bertram, Peru 1890–1977, p. 321.
  64. ^ Rosemary Thorp and Geoffrey Bertram, Peru 1890–1977, pp. 318–319.
  65. ^ John Sheahan, Searching for a better society, p. 157.
  66. ^ (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Producto bruto interno por sectores productivos 1951–2006. Retrieved on May 15, 2007.
  67. ^ 2006 figures. (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006, p. 204. Retrieved on June 25, 2007.
  68. ^ (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006, pp. 15, 203. Retrieved on June 25, 2007.
  69. ^ Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, United States and Peru Sign Trade Promotion Agreement, April 4, 2006. Retrieved on May 15, 2007.
  70. ^ 2006 figures. (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006, pp. 60–61. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
  71. ^ United Nations, World Population ProspectsPDF (2.74 MB), pp. 44–48. Retrieved on July 29, 2007
  72. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Población, 1950–2050, pp. 37–38, 40.
  73. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 13.
  74. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 24.
  75. ^ Kathrin Wessendorf (2008). The Indigenous World 2008. Copenhagen, Denmark: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. p. 158. ISBN 9788791563447 8791563445. http://www.iwgia.org/graphics/Synkron-Library/Documents/publications/Downloadpublications/IndigenousWorld/IW%202008/THE%20INDIGENOUS%20WORLD-2008.pdf. Retrieved May 22nd 2009. 
  76. ^ "Uncontacted" Tribes Fled Peru Logging, Arrows Suggest. National Geographic News. October 6, 2008.
  77. ^ Noble David Cook, Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620, p. 114.
  78. ^ Mario Vázquez, "Immigration and mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru", pp. 79–81.
  79. ^ Magnus Mörner, Race mixture in the history of Latin America, p. 131.
  80. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 111.
  81. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 132.
  82. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú, p. 93.
  83. ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 17.
  84. ^ (Spanish) / Conclusiones del presidente de la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (pag.4)
  85. ^ (Spanish) / Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación
  86. ^ http://www.survivalinternational.org/tribes/isolatedperu
  87. ^ a b http://www.survivalinternational.org/news/5621
  88. ^ http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?C169
  89. ^ Víctor Andrés Belaunde, Peruanidad, p. 472.
  90. ^ Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Art of colonial Latin America, pp. 72–74.
  91. ^ Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Art of colonial Latin America, p. 263.
  92. ^ Edward Lucie-Smith, Latin American art of the 20th century, pp. 76–77, 145–146.
  93. ^ Damián Bayón, "Art, c. 1920–c. 1980", pp. 425–428.
  94. ^ Gerald Martin, "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870", pp. 37–39.
  95. ^ Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 151–152.
  96. ^ Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 178–179.
  97. ^ Jaime Concha, "Poetry, c. 1920–1950", pp. 250–253.
  98. ^ Gerald Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 186–188.
  99. ^ Tony Custer, The Art of Peruvian Cuisine, pp. 17–22.
  100. ^ Tony Custer, The Art of Peruvian Cuisine, pp. 25–38.
  101. ^ Embassy of Peru in the United States, Peruvian Gastronomy - History. Retrieved on May 27, 2008
  102. ^ Raúl Romero, "Andean Peru", p. 385–386.
  103. ^ Dale Olsen, Music of El Dorado, pp. 17–22.
  104. ^ Thomas Turino, "Charango", p. 340.
  105. ^ Raúl Romero, "La música tradicional y popular", pp. 263–265.
  106. ^ Raúl Romero, "La música tradicional y popular", pp. 243–245, 261–263.
  107. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

References

Etymology
  • (Spanish) Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. El nombre del Perú. Lima: Talleres Gráficos P.L. Villanueva, 1968.
History
  • Andrien, Kenneth. Crisis and decline: the Viceroyalty of Peru in the seventeenth century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985.
  • Anna, Timothy. The fall of the royal government in Peru. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.
  • Bakewell, Peter. Miners of the Red Mountain: Indian labor in Potosi 1545–1650. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1984.
  • BBC News. Fujimori: Decline and fall. November 20, 2000.
  • Burkholder, Mark. From impotence to authority: the Spanish Crown and the American audiencias, 1687–1808. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1977.
  • D'Altroy, Terence. The Incas. Malden: Blackwell, 2002.
  • Dillehay, Tom, Duccio Bonavia and Peter Kaulicke. "The first settlers". In Helaine Silverman (ed.), Andean archaeology. Malden: Blackwell, 2004, pp. 16–34.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. Between silver and guano: commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. Imagining development: economic ideas in Peru's "fictitious prosperity" of Guano, 1840–1880. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
  • Haas, Jonathan, Winifred Creamer and Alvaro Ruiz. "Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru". Nature 432: 1020–1023 (December 23, 2004).
  • Klarén, Peter. Peru: society and nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Mayer, Enrique. The articulated peasant: household economies in the Andes. Boulder: Westview, 2002
  • Mücke, Ulrich. Political culture in nineteenth-century Peru. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004.
  • O'Phelan, Scarlett. Rebellions and revolts in eighteenth century Peru and Upper Peru. Cologne: Böhlau, 1985.
  • Palmer, David. Peru: the authoritarian tradition. New York: Praeger, 1980.
  • Philip, George. The rise and fall of the Peruvian military radicals. London: University of London, 1978.
  • (Spanish) Recopilación de leyes de los Reynos de las Indias. Madrid: Cultura Hispánica, 1973
  • Schydlowsky, Daniel and Juan Julio Wicht. "Anatomy of an economic failure". In Cynthia McClintock and Abraham Lowenthal (ed.), The Peruvian experiment reconsidered. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983, pp. 94–143.
  • (Spanish) Suárez, Margarita. Desafíos transatlánticos. Lima: FCE/IFEA/PUCP, 2001.
  • The Economist. Peru. June 12, 2007.
  • Walker, Charles. Smoldering ashes: Cuzco and the creation of Republican Peru, 1780–1840. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.
Government
Regions
Geography
  • AndesHandbook. Huascarán. June 2, 2002.
  • (Spanish) Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú. El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico. Lima: Auge, 1996.
  • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005PDF (8.31 MB). Lima: INEI, 2005.
Flora and Fauna
Economy
  • (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva. Cuadros Anuales Históricos.
  • (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva. Memoria 2006. Lima: BCR, 2007.
  • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Nota de prensaPDF (35.7 KB). Lima: INEI, 2009.
  • International Monetary Fund. Peru. January 2010.
  • Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. United States and Peru Sign Trade Promotion Agreement. April 4, 2006.
  • Sheahan, John. Searching for a better society: the Peruvian economy from 1950. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
  • Thorp, Rosemary and Geoffrey Bertram. Peru 1890–1977: growth and policy in an open economy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.
  • United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2008. New York: UNDP, 2008.
Demographics
  • Cook, Noble David. Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
  • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Población, 1950–2050. Lima: INEI, 2001.
  • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú. Lima: INEI, 2008.
  • Mörner, Magnus. Race mixture in the history of Latin America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1967.
  • United Nations. World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. HighlightsPDF (2.74 MB). New York: United Nations, 2007.
  • Vázquez, Mario. "Immigration and mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru". In: Magnus Mörner, Race and class in Latin America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970, pp. 73–95.
Culture
  • Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Art of colonial Latin America. London: Phaidon, 2005.
  • Bayón, Damián. "Art, c. 1920–c. 1980". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 393–454.
  • (Spanish) Belaunde, Víctor Andrés. Peruanidad. Lima: BCR, 1983.
  • Concha, Jaime. "Poetry, c. 1920–1950". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 227–260.
  • Custer, Tony. The Art of Peruvian Cuisine. Lima: Ediciones Ganesha, 2003.
  • Embassy of Peru in the United States. The Peruvian Gastronomy.
  • Lucie-Smith, Edward. Latin American art of the 20th century. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
  • Martin, Gerald. "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3–45.
  • Martin, Gerald. "Narrative since c. 1920". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 133–225.
  • Olsen, Dale. Music of El Dorado: the ethnomusicology of ancient South American cultures. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.
  • (Spanish) Romero, Raúl. "La música tradicional y popular". In: Patronato Popular y Porvenir, La música en el Perú. Lima: Industrial Gráfica, 1985, pp. 215–283.
  • Romero, Raúl. "Andean Peru". In: John Schechter (ed.), Music in Latin American culture: regional tradition. New York: Schirmer Books, 1999, pp. 383–423.
  • Turino, Thomas. "Charango". In: Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. New York: MacMillan Press Limited, 1993, vol. I, p. 340.

External links

Government
  • (Spanish) Web portal of the Peruvian Government
  • (Spanish) Directory of Peruvian Government websites
General reference

Related information


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Flag of Peru
Coat of Arms of Peru
Peru's location in South America
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west.Fransesco Pizarro founded Peru

Sourced

  • The next Augustan age will dawn on the other side of the Atlantic. There will, perhaps, be a Thucydides at Boston, a Xenophon at New York, and, in time, a Virgil at Mexico, and a Newton at Peru. At last, some curious traveller from Lima will visit England and give a description of the ruins of St Paul’s, like the editions of Balbec and Palmyra.
    • Horace Walpole, English art historian, writer, antiquarian and politician in a letter to Sir Horace Mann (1774-11-24).
  • Do the rhetorical quarrels of bourgeois political parties have anything to do with the interests of the humble and downtrodden?
    • Mario Vargas Llosa, The War of the End of the World (1981), trans. Helen R. Lane (Penguin, 1997, ISBN 0-140-26260-1), p. 54

Unsourced

  • I would not change my native land, for rich Peru with all her gold.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
For other places with the same name, see Peru (disambiguation).
El Misti, Arequipa
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:pe-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Lima
Government Constitutional republic
Currency Nuevo sol (PEN)
Area 1,285,220 km2
Population 27,925,628 (July 2006 est.)
Language Spanish (official), Quechua , Aymara
Religion Roman Catholic 90%
Electricity 220V/60Hz (North American plug)
Calling Code +51
Internet TLD .pe
Time Zone UTC -5
Peru [1] is a country in South America, situated on the western side of that continent, facing the South Pacific Ocean and straddling part of the Andes mountain range that runs the length of South America. Peru is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil and Bolivia to the east, and Chile to the south. Peru is a country that has a diversity and wealth little common in the world. The main attractions are their archaeological patrimony of pre-Columbian cultures and the center of Inca's Empire, their gastronomy, their colonial architecture (has imposing colonial constructions) and their natural resources (a paradise for the ecological tourism).

Understand

Although Peru has rich natural resources and many great places to visit, many of the people live in poor conditions. 36% of the population live under the poverty line. The rich, consisting mostly of a Hispanic elite, live in the cities. Nevertheless, most Peruvians are great nationalists and love their country with pride (largely stemming from Peru's history as the center of both the Inca Empire and Spain's South American Empire). Also, many Peruvians separate the state of Peru and its government in their minds. Some of them distrust their government and police, and people are used to fighting corruption and embezzlement scandals, as in many countries.
The Peruvian economy is healthy and quite strong, however, still some Peruvians see their economy as stuck in a rut. It is indebted and dependent on industrial nations, especially the United States. This dependence, combined with US foreign policy decisions in recent years has contributed to a widely held negative view about the United States government in Peru, but not against individual US citizens.
The word gringo, is used commonly, but is not generally intended as offensive. The original meaning encompassed all white-skinned people who do not speak Spanish. Many people use the word gringo exclusively for Americans or American look-alikes. It's not uncommon for blonde people to be called gringo. Peruvians do not hesitate to greet you with "¡Hola, gringo!".
Peruvians are known for being creative and also hard-working people. Most Peruvians are very busy working to earn their keep and some others to survive. That does not leave much time for travel. Many have not seen more than the surrounding villages or cities. Very few ever leave the country, although many have relatives living abroad. This may explain why Peruvians tend to be quite curious about other countries and lifestyles.
Generally, people are very friendly, peaceful and helpful. When in trouble, you mostly can rely on getting help. But as with any setting, it is always good to watch out for yourself and try to avoid bad situations. If you get into an argument, it is a good idea to remain amicable, but firm. Most of the time, you can find a compromise that satisfies everyone.
Peru is not exactly a haven for efficiency. Do not expect things to be on time, or exactly as they intend to be. Outside of the more upscale tourist services and big cities like Lima, English is uncommon and the people, trying to be friendly, can give wrong or inexact advice, a translator can always be helpful in this cases. Plan ahead and leave plenty of time for traveling.
You may also want to see Tips for travel in developing countries for some useful hints.
Central Coast
Southern Coast
Northern Coast
Southern Sierra
Central Sierra
Northern Sierra
Altiplano
San Martín
Peruvian Amazon
Madre de Dios
Plaza de Armas de Lima
Plaza de Armas de Lima
Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
Inca walls at Sacsayhuamán
Inca walls at Sacsayhuamán
The hummingbird, Nazca area
The hummingbird, Nazca area
La Alpaca. Huayllay National Sanctuary
La Alpaca. Huayllay National Sanctuary
Llamas at Machu Picchu
Llamas at Machu Picchu

Visas

Tourists from North America, Australia, Japan, and the European Union (and many others, check with the nearest Peruvian Embassy [2]) receive a visa upon arrival for up to 90 days.
When entering the country, you need to pass the immigration office (imigracion). There you get a stamp in your passport that states the number of days you are allowed to stay (usually 90 days). You can get an extension at immigration offices in any major city for 20US$ per month plus 26 soles administration fee. Make sure to take your time, don't expect things to be ready within less than an hour or even a day. The maximum extension allows you to stay for up to 180 days in total. When those 180 days are up and you would like to stay for longer, it's possible to cross the border to a neighbouring country (Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia or Chile) and return the next day and obtain another 180 days. Of course you can also leave the country before your first 90 days are over.
Furthermore, you will receive an extra official paper to be kept in the passport (make sure you don't lose it!). When leaving, you need to visit the emigration office (migracion), where you get the exit stamp. Imigracion and migracion are found on all border crossing-points. Extensions of the time to stay are no problem. Traveling to and from neighboring countries by land is no problem.

By plane

The capital city of Lima has the Jorge Chávez International Airport with frequent flights all over the world. Main airlines are American Airlines, Delta, Lan, Lan Peru, Continental, Iberia, Copa, Taca and others. There are non-stop flights to Lima from Atlanta, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, and New York City in the United States. There is also a non-stop flight to Toronto, Canada with Air Canada. There are five different airlines that offer non-stop service to Europe. In the future there may be non-stop flights from Oceania or Asia but for now travelers usually connect through Los Angeles.
For example, Iberia flies directly from Madrid to Lima, the trip lasting around 13 hours but it is not recommended. KLM Flights are much better in quality.
When leaving the country on an international flight you have to pay a departure tax. The amount changes, but expect it to be US $25-$30 or the equivalent in soles. This has to be paid in cash before entering the departure area.
There is also an internal flight tax, around 6 USD, same conditions as the international one.
The city of Iquitos has flights to Leticia, Colombia with AviaSelva. They have a $10 departure tax.

From Ecuador

Although Ecuador neighbors Peru, it is hard to find cheap flights connecting anything but the capitals. In particular, flying from Ecuador to Iquitos is not possible directly, nor can you travel directly from other large towns across the border.

By boat

The city of Iquitos in the Amazonas region has connections by boat to Leticia in Colombia and Tabatinga in Brazil (about 10 hours).

Get around

Times and Distances

Yurimaguas-Iquitos(water): 2.5 days
Quito-Lima(bus): 25 hours
Lima-Cuzco(bus): 24 hours
Lima-Cuzco(plane): 1.5 hours

In cities and around

Inside the cities, there is usually no problem getting around on city buses or taxis. Buses cost between 0.70 and 1.50 Soles ( US$ 0.20 - 0.40) inside a city, taxis between 7 and 8 soles (US$ 2.00 - 2.40) in Lima, normally less in other cities. "Taxi" does not necessarily mean a car; the term also refers to bicycles, motor rickshaws, and motor bikes for hire. Taxis are divided between "formal" taxis, painted and marked as such and have a sticker with SOAT, and informal ones, that are just cars with a windshield sticker that says "Taxi". The last ones are better left to the locals, especially if you don't speak Spanish. Apart from the more upscale radio taxi (also the more expensive ones), the fare is not fixed or metered, but it is negotiated with the driver before getting into the vehicle. Ask at your hotel or hostal about the rate you may expect to pay to ride to a specific location to have a point of reference. There is no tipping at taxis.
"Micros" (from microbus), are small minivans or Coaster buses, also known as "combis" and "custers". They do not have actual bus stops (they exist, although in practice the driver won't stop unless you ask), but fixed routes. The direction is shown by boards in the windscreen or painted on the side. If you want to catch a bus, just give the driver a sign (raise your hand similar to hitch-hiking) to stop. If the bus is not completely overfilled (and sometimes when it is, too), it will stop to pick you up. During the ride, the ticket collector will ask you for the fee. If you want to exit, just say loudly "Bajo!" (BAH-ho) or "Esquina baja!" (s-KEE-nah BAH-ha), and the driver will stop at the next possibility. They are cramped and dirty, and not helpful unless in small towns or during off peak hours. They also stop in the middle of the road, so be careful when getting down.
Please note: Micros are very common but known for being quite dangerous, different government programs are trying to reduce the amount of micros, it is advised to not take a micro.

By bus

Some main roads, especially along the coastal strip, are paved, but there are still a lot of dirt roads in very poor condition. In the rainy season, landslides may block even major roads.
Inter-city travel is mostly by bus, and some cities have train connections. In contrast to colectivos, buses, and of course trains, start from fixed points, either the central bus terminal or the court of the appropriate bus company. It is a good idea to buy your ticket one day in advance so that you can be relatively sure of finding a seat. If you come directly before the bus leaves, you risk finding that there are no more seats available. In most bus terminals you need to buy a separate departure tax of 1 or 1,5 soles.
If you are so unlucky as to be taller than 1.80m, you will most likely be uncomfortable on the ride since the seats are much tighter than in Europe or the USA. In this case, you can try to get the middle seat in the rear, but on dirt roads the rear swings heavily. In older buses, the seats in the first row are the best, but many buses have a driver cabin separated from the rest of the bus so that you look an a dark screen or a curtain rather than out the front windshield. In older buses, you can get one or two seats beside the driver, which gives you a good view of the passing landscape. In this case, don't be too surprised when the driver is chewing his coca leaves.
First-class express buses, complete with video, checked luggage and even meal service, travel between major cities. You may need to present a passport to purchase a ticket.
Make sure that your luggage is rainproof since it is often transported on the roof of the bus when travelling in the Andes.
Avoid bus companies that allow travellers to get into the bus outside the official stations. They are normally badly managed and can be dangerous, due both to unsafe practices or to highway robberies, which are unfortunately not uncommon. This should be heeded especially by female travellers going on their own. There are many shoddy bus services in Peru, and it's best to go with one of the major companies such as Cruz del Sur or Ormeño. Get information at the hotel, hostal or tourist information booth before catching a ride.

By train

Even when going by train, it's best to buy the ticket in advance. Buy 1st class or buffet class (still higher), or you risk getting completely covered by luggage. People will put their luggage under your seat, in front of your feet, beside you and everywhere where some little place is left. This makes the journey quite uncomfortable, since you can't move any more and the view of the landscape is bad.
There are five rail lines in Peru:
Service between Arequipa and Juliaca has been suspended as of of early 2007.
For more information on [trains to Machu Picchu], go to PeruRail's web site [3].
The Ferrocarril Central Andino the line joining Lima to Huancayo is the second highest railway in the world and the Highest in South America. The Journey on board of the Train of the Andes, through the heart of Peru is simply breathtaking. It is an 11 hour experience where the train reaches an altitude of 4781m.a.s.l (15681ft) and goes through 69 tunnels, 58 bridges and makes 6 zigzags. In 1999, the company was privatized, in 2005, Ferrocarril Central Andino renovated their passenger wagons in a Luxurious and comfortable way which puts the railway in the list of the most famous trains along with the Orient Express and the Transsiberien.
Ferrocarril Central
Ferrocarril Central

By foot

Beside the famous Inca trail to Machu Picchu, you can do a lot of more hikes all along the Sierra, preferably in the dry season. The hiker's Mecca is Huaraz, where you can find a lot of agencies that offer guided tours and/or equipment to borrow. The thin vegetation in the higher Sierra makes off-trail hiking easy. Good maps are hard to find inside Peru. It is better to bring them from home. Make sure you have enough iodine to purify your drinking water. When hiking in higher altitude, good acclimatisation is absolutely necessary. Take a good sleeping bag with you, since nights in the Sierra may become bitterly cold (-10°C in 4,500m altitude are normal, sometimes still colder). Beware of thunderstorms that may rise up very suddenly. Rapid falling temperature and hard rain falls are a serious danger in higher altitudes. Don't forget that the night lasts for 12 hours year-round, so a flashlight is a good idea. When hiking on higher, but not snow covered mountains, water may be rare. Getting alcohol for stoves is easy: Either buy the blue colored alcohol de quemar or, better, simply buy pure drinking alcohol. You can get this in every town for about 3 Soles (US$0,85) per liter. (Don't even think about drinking it). It won't be so easy to find special fuel for gasoline stoves. Gasoline for cars can also be found in many hardware stores (ferreterias) sold by liters, but you can actually buy it directly on gas stations, provided you bring your own bottle.

By car

It is also possible to tour the interior of the country by car. This gives you a chance to get "off the beaten track" and explore some of the areas that haven't been transformed by tourism. An international driver's license is needed for driving in Peru.
Peru has three main roads which run from north to south: the fully paved Panamericana (RN 1) which passes through the whole country; more to the east there are the partially paved Carretera de la Sierra (RN 3) as well as the Carretera Marginal de la Selva (RN 5). Most parts of these roads are toll roads in the direction from north to south. The main roads are connected by 20 streets from west to east.
Beware that, aside from a few major roads which are in good condition, most roads are unpaved and your speed on them will be severely restricted. For these roads a 4WD is necessary. This is especially true during the rainy season from November to April. You should travel very well informed about your route. Take a good road map with you (e.g. Waterproof Peru Map by ITMB). On the web, cochera andina provides useful information about road conditions, travel times and distances for more than 130 routes in Peru.
Be sure to bring plenty of gas, as gas stations in unpopulated areas are very rare and will often times be closed. Purchasing gas late at night can be an adventure all its own, as even in more populated areas gas stations tend to close early and the pumps are locked. The owner of the station sometimes sleeps inside and, if you can rouse him, he will come out and let you fill up. Be aware of the higher gasoline consumption in the mountains which often increases to more than 20 liters / 100 km (12 MPG).
The traffic regulations are almost the same as in Europe and the U.S. But locals tend to interpret them freely. You better honk in unclear situations, e.g. in curves and at crossings to indicate the right of way. Also note that traffic checkpoints tend to be scattered throughout the country and the police may try to extract bribes from foreigners for passage. It would be wise to travel with a native speaker who can navigate the roads and deal with law enforcement.

Touting

Like in most countries, also in Peru there is a vast crowd of touts hanging around the airports and bus stations or bus terminals. It is any travellers' wise decision not to do business with the people that are trying to sell you their stuff on the street/bus station/airport. First of all, if they would have a decent place, they wouldn’t have to sell it to non suspecting tourists trying to drag them off from wherever they can find them. More important, it really is not a good idea to hand out money to the first person you meet upon arriving somewhere.
TIP: When you arrive in any town, be sure to have already decided what hotel you will be going to. Don't mention this or any other information to the touts awaiting you. They will use whatever you tell them to construe lies to make you change your mind and go with them. If you’ve already picked a reasonable hotel chances are that you will be OK there and they will have any (extra) information you’d be looking for, like bookings for tours or tickets.

Talk

In tourist centers like Cusco and Machu Picchu or in high class hotels, English and sometimes other languages are spoken. If you intend to visit other sites, or other areas of the country, you'll need Spanish. Like every other Latin American country, Peruvian Spanish replaces vosotros (and its 2nd-person plural conjugations) with ustedes (3rd-person plural). For example: ¿Cómo están? instead of ¿Cómo estáis?. South American Spanish likes diminutives (gringuito is more affectionate than gringo).
If you learn languages easily, try to learn Quechua, the language of the Incas. It will be highly appreciated in the countryside of the Sierra, where many indigenous speak it as a first language. On the Altiplano, the unofficial language Aymara is widely spoken. Aymara was the language of the Tihuanacu culture.

See

Wildlife

With 84 of the earth's 104 known life zones, Peru is rich in wildlife diversity. The Amazon basin is home to pink dolphins, jaguars, giant river otters, primates, 4,000 types of butterflies and one-third of the world's 8,600 bird species.

Folklore

The diversity of Peru's people and cultures is reflected in a rich tradition of festivals, dance and music. In the Andes, the plaintive wail of the flute and beat of the drum accompany songs depicting indigenous life while dancers masked as devils and spirits are a marriage of pagan and Christian beliefs. In the jungle, ceremonial music and dance are a window into tribal life. And along the coast, a blend of elegant Spanish sounds and vibrant African rhythms reflect the Conquest and later slave labor of the New World.

Trekking

Trekking is a great way to see the country. The most widely known route is the classic Inca Trail to Machu Picchu. Other popular routes include Cordillera Blanca, Colca Canyon, Ausangate Trek and Salcantay (also spelt Salkantay) Trek.

Buy

The currency of Peru is the nuevo sol. US$1 is worth 2.90 nuevo soles (as of 28 November 2009). Coins are available in five, two and one sol, and in 50, 20, 10, 5 and 1 cent. 5 and 1 cent coins are not normally accepted outside of big supermarkets or banks, so avoid them (or bring them home and give them to your nearest small child aged 3 to 10, who will enjoy them.). Notes are available at 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 soles denominations; 200 soles notes are uncommon and will not be accepted in the same places that will not accept a 100 USD note or a 50 pound note.
Counterfeiting is common: take time to get familiar with the money and do not hesitate to reject any note or coin (especially the 5 sol coins) that look suspicious, just like any Peruvian would do. In other words, if you want to look like a savvy foreigner, take 10 seconds anytime you receive a paper note to look it over. Don't take any note that is ripped; you won't be able to use it anywhere else but a bank.
If you are stuck with a counterfeit coin or note, if you try to use it at big stores they may want to confiscate it. Don't accept damaged/ripped bills, since you will have to take them to a bank in order to change them into new ones before you can spend them. Be especially careful when exchanging money with money-changers on the street (a common way for counterfeit money to enter the money supply) or at the border (notably the one with Ecuador).
Typically, small bills are very helpful to carry around. Change large bills into small ones as often as possible. If you only have 50 and 100 Soles notes on you, consider changing them at a bank. Local merchants have been known to claim to not have any change on them, forcing you to wait in public while they search for some (potentially dangerous) and sometimes with the hope that you'll grow impatient and let them keep the change.
Travelers checks or credit cards are usual. Although cash has a ca. 2% better change rate, you are strongly advised not to carry large amounts of cash on your journey. The Banco de Credito (BCP) gives good rates on traveler checks. Rates in change offices are often somewhat worse. It's always worth comparing them before changing your money. When changing your money in change offices, check their calculations. Most of them make calculations on the fly for the amount you want using an electronic calculator in plain view, even showing you the process step by step (unless they are brutally obvious, like changing tens or hundreds). If they don't show, keep the money in your pocket and find someone that does. Even in the bank, check your bills for authenticity.
ATMs are available in big cities, upmarket hotels, and touristic areas. With a Cirrus or Maestro sign on it, you can withdraw cash easily. Make sure nobody is trying to see your PIN code. The exchange rate is the same as credit cards but fees are much lower. Most banks do not charge a fee for getting cash from their ATM's, however some do. Stay away from BBVA Banco Continental - their ATM's charge very high fees and don't tell you until it's too late (the fee is printed on the receipt, but not on the screen or next to the ATM as it is in other countries).
In smaller towns, it can happen that there are nobody who will accept your credit card or traveler checks. For this case, you should have taken care that you have enough cash with you. Nice new Dollar bills (not too high,10 or 20 US$ bills are fine) can help, too, since they are easier to change than travelers checks. In Peru, it not as common for US$ to be accepted in transactions as in other countries (such as Ecuador). Often in small towns, local shops will change money for you. If so, it will be clearly marked. Take only US$ bills in good condition since bills slightly torn or even old-looking will not be accepted.

Costs

As a low budget traveller, you can live on US$ 15 per day without problems. Basic hotels or hostels (hospedajes) can be easily found in all Peru. The cost per night is about US$ 3 - 6.
There are a lot of very cheap restaurants (US$ 0.50 - 1.50), but maybe this is not the best place to save your money. In somewhat better restaurants you can get lunch and dinner menus for US$ 2 - 3. Of course, in every city you can find restaurants where you can spend US$ 20 and more if you want.
Buses are not very expensive. The usual price for a 10 h bus ride in a normal bus (not "Royal Class" or something like that) is about US$ 6. However, you'd do well in paying the extra buck, the difference between a $6 ticket and a $12 is enormous. Again, avoid bus companies that allow travellers to get into the bus outside the official stations. They are normally badly managed and can be dangerous, due both to unsafe practices or to highway robberies, which are unfortunately not uncommon. This should be heeded especially by female travellers going on their own. Get information at the hotel, hostal or tourist information booth before catching a ride.
Trains (except the ones for Machu Picchu, which are relatively expensive) run for similar fees.
Don't forget to retain your exit fee of US$30.25 They do accept USD or Soles for the fee and be sure to pay the exit fee before you get in line for security checks or you'll get to wait again.

Handicrafts

Peru is famous for a lot of different, really nice and relatively cheap handicrafts. Keep in mind that buying handicrafts support traditional skills and helps many families to gain their modest income. Look for:
  • Pullovers, and a lot of other (alpaca-)woolen products in all the Sierra. Puno is maybe the cheapest place.
  • Wall carpets (tejidos).
  • Carvings on stone, wood and dried pumpkins.
  • Silver and gold jewellery.
  • typical music instruments like pan flutes (zampoñas), skin drums.
  • many other
Do not accept any handicrafts that look like (or actually are) precolumbian pottery or jewelry. It is illegal to trade them and there is the possibility not only of them being confiscated, but of being prosecuted for illegal trading, even if the actual artifacts are copies or fakes. Dealing with the police from the criminal side is messy and really unpleasant.
Buyer beware: Watch out for fake (Bamba)Alpaca wool products many items sold to the unsuspecting gringo are actually synthetic or ordinary wool! That nice soft jumper in the market for $8 or so is most certain to be acrylic. Even in places such as Puno there is no easy way to tell if it is made from Alpaca, sometimes it might have a small percentage of Alpaca mixed in with other fibres. Baby Alpaca is not from baby animals but the first shearing and the fibre is very soft and fine. Generally Alpaca fibre has a low lustre and a slightly greasy hand to it and is slow to recover from being stretched. Shop and compare; real Alpaca is expensive.

Bargaining

Bargaining is very common. If you are not used to it, respect some rules. If you intend to buy something, first ask the price, even if you already know what it actually should cost. Then check whether everything is all right. (Does the pullover fit you? Do you really want to buy it? Is the expiration date on the cheese exceeded? etc.) If the price is OK, pay it. If not, it's your turn to say a lower price, but stay realistic. First get an idea about how much you would expect to pay. Then say a price about 20-30% lower. It's always good if you can give some reason for that. Once you have said a price, you cannot give a lower one later. This would be regarded as a very impolite behavior. If you feel that you can't get your price, just say "No, gracias." and begin to walk away. This is your last chance. If you are lucky, the seller will give you a last offer, if not, say "No, gracias." again and go on walking. Realize that most of the products in touristy markets (i.e. the market in Pisac) will be sold in nearly every other market throughout your travels in Peru and South America, so try not to worry about never again finding that particular alpaca scarf.
Keep in mind: Never begin to bargain if you don't really want to buy! It is similarly important not to over-bargain. Poverty can force a vendor to sell, even without making a fair profit. In fact, when dealing with vendors in poorer areas of the country it is worth considering whether getting the "best price" is really what is most important to you.

General Notes

Supermarkets can only be found in cities and are somewhat expensive. In every town, there is at least one market place or hall, except Lima that has a dense concentration of supermarkets, malls and department stores. In cities, there are different markets (or sections of one big market) for different articles.
Stores with similar articles tend to be grouped in the same street. So, if you once know the appropriate street when looking for something special, it shouldn't be no more problem to find it quite soon.
Giving tips in restaurants (at least when basic or middle-range) is not very common but 10% for good service is polite. In the cities, you will always find some beggars, either sitting on the streets, or doing a musical number on the buses. Many of them really need help, especially the elderly and handicapped. Usual givings are about 0.10 - 0.20 Soles (US$ 0.03 - 0.06). This is not much, but some unskilled workers don't get much more than 10 Soles for a hard working day. Whether you want to give money to child beggars or not is your decision. But consider that doing so may make it more attractive for parents to send their children begging in the street instead of sending them to school. Buy them food instead, they do need it.

Eat

Peruvian cuisine is among the most varied in the world. Not only does the country grow a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it does so throughout the year. Peruvian geography offers at least 8 different climates (desert along the coast, steep and high mountains, the Amazon basin). In Lima, due to its history as an important Spanish colonial port, the dishes are a mixture of amerindian, spaniard, african, asian and even italian influences that contribute to the ever changing platos criollos (creole dishes). Rice is the staple foodstuff, and expect many dishes to include rice, in the Siera it's corn and potatoes, and in the Jungle yuca. Meat is traditionally included in most Peruvian dishes. Chicken (pollo), pork, sheep and beef are common. Alpacas are actually kept for wool, not for meat. Mostly, you will find that alpaca meat is rather tough. An Andean delicacy is guinea pig (cuy). Peruvian cuisine includes dishes which use various organs, including anticuchos, a kebab made from very marinated and spicy beef heart, and cau-cau (sounds like cow-cow), made from cow stomach served in a yellow sauce with potatoes. Anticuchos are a standard street stall food, but be careful with it.
Fish can be found along the coast (of course), but also in the jungle area since the rivers supply fresh fish (but beware of contamination in the area known as high jungle or selva alta, where most of the cocaine is made and strong chemicals get dumped into rivers; mining is a minor source of pollution in this area). In the Sierra, trout (truchas) are bred in several places. A very common fish dish is ceviche, raw fish prepared by marination in lemon juice. Popular variations of the dish can include shellfish, and even sea urchin. The exact recipe and mode of preparation of ceviche will vary from region to region. Definitely worth a try, especially in summer, but cleanliness and sanitation make all the difference. Use care when buying from street vendors and remember that it is often served spicy.
Throughout Peru there is a wide variety of potato dishes (papas, not patatas as in Spain), the traditional Andean vegetable. Papa a la Huancaina is a tasty dish of potato slices and diced boiled egg topped with a thin, creamy yellow sauce, and usually includes a lettuce leaf and an olive or two. (A similar green sauce, called Ocopa, can be served over potatoes or yuca.) Papa rellena is mashed potato reformed into a potato-like shape, but with meat, vegetables, and other spicy filling in the middle. Aji de gallina is shredded chicken in a thick, spicy, cheese-based sauce over sliced potatoes, often with an olive and slice of hard-boiled egg. Causa is mashed potato layered with mayonnaise-based tuna salad mixed with hot peppers.
Many Peruvian dishes can be very spicy and heavy, so if you have a weak stomach, proceed with caution.
Nowadays, the transport routes from the flat jungle areas are good enough to supply all the country with vegetables and fruits. Nevertheless, vegetables still have the status of a garnish for the meat. Vegetarian restaurants exist in all cities, but are relatively rare. In most areas, there is a rich offering of tropical fruits and fresh squeezed juices.
The natives typically eat in small restaurants or Chinese eateries ("chifas"); a menu there costs 5-8 Soles and includes a soup, a choice of main dish, and a drink.
If you count on international fast food chains, you will be disappointed. You find them almost nowhere except in the largest cities, and the prices are uniformly astronomical.
Peruvians are quite proud of their desserts, especially in Lima. Try them with care, since they tend to be extremely sweet and loaded with sugars, eggs yolks and similar ingredients. Try mazamorra morada, or purple custard, made from the same purple corn used for chicha morada drink; together with arroz con leche (rice with sweetened condensed milk) is called a combinado (combination). Picarones are a sort of donut, made from fried yams dough and served with chancaca, a very sweet sugarcane syrup. And the sweetest dessert suspiro Limeño is perfect if you are in sore need of a high-calorie glucose shock.

Drink

The Pisco-Nasca area is famous for wine cultivating. Their more expensive vintages compare favorably against Chilean imports. Beer is nice, stronger than American brands but less full bodied than European ones. Most of Peruvian beers are made by Backus, currently owned by SAB Miller.
When drinking at bars and/or restaurants, be aware that Peruvian "Happy Hour" is a little different than in most countries. Prices for drinks will usually be posted on the walls and be a little cheaper than normal. The real differences is that you will be served 2 drinks, instead of one, for the listed price -- giving a new meaning to the term "half price." This can be a great way to save money (if you are traveling with a group) or to meet locals (if you are traveling alone). It can also lead you to get completely falling-down-drunk by accident, so be careful.
  • Inca kola, [4]. The Peruvian equivalent of Coca Cola in the rest of the world, which was recently purchased by Coca Cola yet retains its unique taste. It is bright yellow and tastes like bubble gum.
  • Pisco Sour. An alcoholic drink with an interesting ingredients list, such as egg whites, that is the main drink in Peru and is available in most places. It is made from Pisco, a peruvian kind of brandy that is worth a try; it is a strong drink as pisco is over 40° (around 70 to 80 proof) spirit, and the sweet taste can be deceiving. Since Chile registered the brand Chilean Pisco for commercial purposes in some countries, peruvian producers decided to defend the denomination of origin(Pisco is a very old city in Peru) by being very strict about the quality standards. Be sure that you will find a very high quality product in any brand of Pisco made in Peru.
  • Emoliente. Another popular drink in Peru, often sold in the streets by vendors for 50 centimos (approximately 16 cents US). Served hot, its flavor is best described as a thick, viscous tea, but surprisingly refreshing - depending on what herb and fruit extracts you choose to put into it, of course. Normally the vendor's mix will be good enough if you choose not to say anything, but you're free to select the mix yourself. Normally sold hot, is the usual after-party drink, as a "reconstituyente", but it can be drunk cold too.
  • Chicha de Jora, A cheap traditional alcoholic drink made from corn that is fermented and rather high in alcohol content for a non-distilled beverage. Not normally available at formal restaurants and quite uncommon in Lima outside of residentail areas. Places that sell chicha have a long stick with a brightly-colored plastic bag on it propped up outside their door.
  • Chicha morada, not to be confused with the previous one, is a soft drink made from boiled purple corn, with sugar and spices added (not a soda). Quite refreshing, it is widely available and very recommendable. Normally Peruvian cuisine restaurants will have their freshly made supply as part of the menu; it is also available from street vendors or diners, but take care with the water. Bottled or canned chicha morada is made from concentrates and not as pleasant as freshly-boiled chicha.
  • Coca Tea or Mate de Coca, a tea made from the leaves of the coca plant. It is legal to drink this tea in Peru. It is great for adjusting to the altitude or after a heavy meal. It may be found cold but normally is served hot.
  • You can find many places that serve fresh fruit drinks. Peru has a wide variety of fruits since its natural variety, so if you get a good "jugueria" you will have lots of options to choose from.
  • The peruvian amazon cities offer some typical drinks too as: masato, chuchuhuasi, hidromiel and others.
  • Coffee. Peru is the world's largest producer of organic coffee. Ask for 'cafe pasado', the essence produced by pouring boiling hot water over fresh ground coffee from places like Chanchamayo.
  • All of Peru's wines are inexpensive. Tacama, Ocucaje and Santiago Queirolo branded wines are the most reliable.
  • Cusqueña is the local brand of Peruvian Beer, available at most bars and restaurants. It is light, cheap, and surprisingly tasty. There other reliable brands, however. Be careful when drinking in high altitudes (i.e. Cuzco) as you will get drunk much faster than normal.
  • When traveling in cosmopolitan areas (Lima, etc), be sure to check out a supermarket chain such as Wong's. This is a great way to stock up on snacks for traveling, as well as a place to buy hard-to-find products such as imported Cuban Rum (especially sought after by Americans).

Sleep

Hotels in Peru are very common and fairly cheap. They range from 1 - 5 stars. 5 star hotels are normally for package tourism or business travel, and very uncommon outside of Lima. 4 star hotels are usually a bit on the expensive side ( > US$30 per night) and not common, but in large cities. 3 star hotels are a good compromise between price and quality and usually US$10 - US$30. 2 and 1 star hotels are very cheap ( < 10 US$), but don't expect hot water or a particularly safe neighborhood.
In many cities there are hotels in residential areas, but they are not tourist hotels but "couples" rooms for lovers. They are usually signed as "Hostel", which can confuse the unaware traveller thinking it was a backpackers.

Learn

Peruvian Spanish, particularly in the Sierra and jungle, is pronounced much more clearly than European Spanish and Spanish from other Latin American countries, especially Mexico, Colombia and Chile. People don't tend to speak too fast, although in coastal areas, especially Lima, people speak considerably faster than in other areas, and they also use slang quite liberally. On the whole, Peru is a good and cheap place to embark on Spanish courses (once you are there).
Some slang terms:
chévere, bacán, cool.
chela (Cerveza), a beer.
Me da cólera, Me llega, it pisses me off.
Ya, right, sure (sometimes "ok" or "yup").
Loco ,crazy person.Usually said in a friendly manner, also means "mate, friend, buddie"
Tombo, is cop (and cops don't like hearing it).
Chibolo(a), a kid.
Bamba fake, counterfeit goods & products
Money is often refered to as plata (as in silver). Mucha plata = too much money ("that's expensive!").
Some slang terms come from Quechua:
Que piña: means 'what bad luck' even though 'piña' in Quechua means 'coraje' or in English 'infuriating'.
Tengo una yaya: means 'I'm injured'. In quechua 'yaya' means injury. And 'yawar' means blood.

Work

While there a very limited options for unskilled work and local wages are very low, teaching English or other language tutoring is an option.
Avoid paying for volunteering. Simply contact a bunch of NGOs and let them know you are interested in working for them. Sometimes you can also get a paid job after doing some volunteer work. Just be clear that you are able to stay a fixed amount of time for unpaid work, and that you would need some money to continue your work.

Stay safe

Emergency numbers in Peru are 011 / 5114. In Lima ring 105. In Lima and some of the larger cities there is a sort of local police called "Serenazgo": you may ask for help but they have no tourist oriented services.
  • Be aware of your surroundings and try to avoid unlit or unpopulated areas especially at night. There is a lot of petty crime that can turn violent. Avoid groups of male youngsters since there are many small gangs trying to rob passerbys. If you witness a robbery be very careful before intervening, since robbers may be armed and are quite prone to shooting if they feel threatened.
  • Armed robberies of tourists are fairly common.
  • A dirty old backpack with valuable contents is safer than a new one with old clothes in it. It's often good not to look too rich.
  • Some travelers don't use wallets, but keep the bills and coins directly in their pocket. Let's say some little bills on the left side and the rest on the right side. Thus, the pickpocket's job gets much harder.
  • Don't walk around with debit- or creditcards in your pocket. Leave them in a safe place, when you do not directly need them, because tourists have been kidnapped and forced to take out money each day for a period of a few days.
  • If you want to take large amounts of cash out with you, a neck wallet is always a good idea - you can hide it under your shirt.
  • Watch out for false bills. Every bank has posters that explain what to check when getting higher valued bills. The only security element that has not been falsified is the bichrome 10,20,50,100 or 200 now also used on US$ bills. Don't be shy about checking any bills you receive. Most Peruvians do so, too. You may get false bills even at upscale places or (quite unusually, but it's been known to happen) banks, so check there too.
  • Ignore any requests to carry luggage or packages for strangers. There could be illegal items or drugs in there, and you are the one who'll be caught with them and have the problems afterwards.
  • It's also illegal to "consider to maybe accept" an offer to buy drugs. If you are offered drugs, be careful: it might easily be a trap from police, and sentences are harsh for drugs. The best thing, if offered, is simply to just say no. Some police officers will tell you that it's legal to hold some amount of marijuana, but well, just don't trust them.
  • When taking a taxi, take a quick look in the backseat, and in the trunk, to make sure there is nobody hiding there. There've been reports of armed robberies/kidnappings taking place in taxis. Afterwards, tourists are blindfolded and driven outside the city and left behind by the highway.
  • At the border crossing from Ecuador (Huaquillas) to Peru people have tried to steal passports by acting like plainclothes police officers. They give you another form to fill in which is fake. This has taken place although police and customs personnel have been next to them.
  • When traveling on buses it is recommended to keep your backpack under your seat with the strap hooked around your leg.
  • Tourist police are dressed in white shirts, instead of the usual green ones, and normally speak English and are quite helpful to tourists. The common police officer does not speak other language but Spanish but normally will try to help. DO NOT get in an argument with police, since they may forget about your needs and feel insulted.
Dealing with the police can take a lot of time. In order to get a copy of a police report you need to go to a Banco de la Nación and pay 3 soles. Without this the police won't give you a copy, and obviously you can only arrange this during working days.
  • Check the address of your country's embassy or consulate before you go. If you're planning a lengthy stay it's also a good idea to register with your country's embassy.
    • British Embassy [5], Torre Parque Mar (Piso 22), Avenida Jose Larco, 1301, Miraflores, Lima. (51) (1) 617 3000
    • Canadian Embassy [6], Calle Libertad 130, Miraflores, Lima 18, Peru Tel.: (51) (1) 444-4015 Toll-Free (within the country): 0-800-50602 Fax: (51) (1) 242-4050
    • French Embassy [7], Av. Arequipa 3415 - San Isidro, Lima. (51) (1) 215 8400
    • German Embassy [8], Avda. Arequipa 4210, Miraflores, Lima. (51) (1) 212 5016
    • Italian Embassy [9], Av. Gregorio Escobedo 298 - Jesus Maria, Lima. (51) (1) 463 2727 - [night and holidays emergency ph#: (51) (1) 891 7557]
    • Spanish Embassy, Av. Jorge Basadre, 498 (San Isidro), Lima. (51) (1) 212 5155. embesppe@correo.mae.es
    • US Embassy [10], Avenida La Encalada cdra. 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33. (51) (1) 434 3000
Many of the aforementioned countries also have consulates in other major cities. See their websites for more details.
  • Finally, it's always a good idea to check your government's advice before you travel.
    • Foreign Office website [11] (Travel Advice: Peru)
    • US Department of State [12] (Consular Information Sheet: Peru)

Stay healthy

Vaccinations and Prophylaxis

Vaccine requirement The quantity and type of vaccines necessary to travel to Peru depend on several factors, like medical antecedents and locations included in the trip. The most habitual vaccines needed to travel to Peru are against tétanos, diphtheria, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and B, yellow fever (it is obligatory to present the certificate of vaccination against yellow fever to enter in some countries of Africa), rabies and meningitis. Some of these vaccines require more than a dose or a major time to be effective. For that reason, there is recommendable to inquire on necessary vaccines with an advance of 6 to 8 weeks before your trip.
Hepatitis A Recommended for all travelers.
Typhoid fever Recommended for all travelers.
[Yellow fever]Vaccination Center Perú [13] The government of Peru recommends the vaccine for all travelers who are going to visit forest areas (Amazonia) below 2300 meters (7546 ft). Travelers that only visit Lima, Cusco and Machu Picchu do not need vaccine for yellow fever. Vaccine for yellow fever is also required for all travelers who arrive from other countries infected with yellow fever in Africa and America. In recent years, there has been reported yellow fever in Cusco (Concepcion 2007), San Martin, Loreto, Pasco, Amazonas, Ancash, Ayacucho, Huánuco, Junín, Madre de Dios, Puno and Ucayali.
Hepatitis B For Travelers who could have sexual relations with local people, specially if the visit is by more than 6 months. Rabies For travelers who could have near contact with animals and have not get access to medical services.
Measles, Parotiditis, Rubella (SPR) If they have not been vaccinated before, two doses for all travelers are recommended.
Tétanos - diphtheria Recommended re-vaccination every 10 years.
What should I take in the suitcase? It is recommendable to travel with a small medical kit (Traveler Kit) that includes some basic medicines like antacid, analgesic pills, NSAIDs and antihistamine drugs. Also it is necessary to take some dehydrated solutions for oral hydratation in case of severe diarrhea. Also, It must include first aid articles as sterile strips, antiseptics and bandages. Do not forget to put some antibiotic against severe diarrhea or dysentery and other infections, as well as sterilized needles (because they are difficult to find in some isolated zones). Finally, you must put into your luggage scissors, clamps, a thermometer, labial protector, a suntan lotion, purifying water tablets and cleanliness equipment. If you use contact lenses or glasses, take an extra game. You must also carry a small lantern and a Swiss knife. The Traveler Kit must be prepared by your physician according to your health and destiny.
Malaria Malaria is a disease that can be fatal and is transmitted by mosquitoes. This mosquito specially pricks by night. If you are going to travel to Peru, it is very important to know what areas present a high prevalence of malaria.
The prevention of the disease is made through a medication against the malaria (prophylaxis) and the protection against the punctures of insects.
There are many antimalarial medicines. The optimal choice depends on the characteristics of the trip and the traveler. So, it is important to have some medical advice about the advantages and disadvantages of each medication. The more effective drugs are:
MEFLOQUINE (LARIAM): very extended use. Side effects include visions, and more serious neurological reactions. Those people with psychiatric and neurological problems must not take this medication.
DOXILICINE: Side effects include cutaneous reactions by contact with the sun or the risk of fungal vaginitis in the women.
MALARONE: highly effective, few side effects, expensive and difficult to obtain in Peru, only in specialized Travel Medicine CenterTravel Medicine Peru [14]
CLOROQUINE: low risk of side effects and the most useful until years ago. Nowadays, they only have 50/60% of effectiveness for malaria in Peru (specially for the south zone where malaria falciparum has not been reported).
Whatever your choice you need to take antimalarial medicine if you are going to travel to a zone affected by the disease, and continue with the medication beyond your return. The risk of malaria, or any other disease in Peru, is much greater for a tourist than for local people. Do not suspend your medication before the indicated period.
In Peru there is no risk of malaria in the big cities. No risk in Lima and surrounding areas or in areas above the 1500 meters. There is a risk: On the coast north of the country (Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque). In the Amazon region: Loreto department (Iquitos) with 97% of cases of falciparum country, San Martin, Ucayali, Just as Amazon (chachapoyas), Cajamarca (Jaen).It was also reported cases of vivax malaria (falciparum not) in Cuzco Department (Province of Concepción away from the tourist area of Machu Picchu) and Madre de Dios.
It is recommended that: The precautions to protect themselves from being bitten by mosquitoes are essential especially in the evening and night (especially when visiting rural or peripheral). Use a repellent (on exposed skin) containing DEET (N, N-diethylmetatoluamide to 30% -50% are effective for several hours) or Picaridina (7-15%).
Basic cares about hygiene and food It is difficult to guarantee the security of food and drink, specially in developing countries. Nevertheless you may continue enjoying local meals, this is part of the pleasures of an international trip. Be selective. The diseases that you could get go from a small diarrhea or dysentery, to one more serious disease (eg. Parasitic infection) that could ruin your trip. Therefore you should take certain precautions: Try to eat only cooked foods Avoid buffet or any other food that has been reheated and exposed to the contact with flies Avoid seafood in unknown places Crude fruits and vegetables are very difficult to sterilize: do not eat them unless you have the security that they have been washed in drinkable water or if they are possible to peel without touching the pulp. In the tropic the safest fruits are bananas and papayas. Be careful, you could reject any food you consider not safe, if it is necessary, ask for cooked food specially for you. Do not eat any food that offers few guarantees to you.
Precautions about of the water.
Drink water only when you have the certainty that it is safe. Do not drink water from the faucet or wash your teeth with it. Always use mineral water and check the bottles to make sure that it has not been opened yet and filled up (to avoid this, you can drink gasified mineral water).In restaurants, you should request to open the bottle in your presence and never take ice in your drinks (the ice cubes often are made with water from the faucet). And remember, alcohol does not make drinkable the water! Water from the faucet is made drinkable by boiling it during 5 minutes, or with chlorine or iodine drops or with special tablets/drops for it.
Punctures of insects Avoid punctures of insects reduces the risk of contracting diseases transmitted by mosquitos like the yellow fever, dengue, leishmaniosis and, by all means, malaria, in 90%. By night you should use long sleeves, long trousers, long socks and pijamas to sleep. Always use clear colors, since they attract, in less extent than dark colors, to the mosquitos. Use Insect Repellent that contains DEET. Directly apply it on your skin and clothes. Use a mosquito sleeping net impregnated of repellent, as well as other anti-mosquitos stuff in your room (spirals or electrical mosquito repellents). Use them all the nights.
Rabies In Peru there have been reported cases of rabies in animals even in small zoo parks, so you should avoid to touch or to play with any type of animal. Rabies is not only transmitted through biting, but also by scratches and licks. In case of wound, it is necessary to clean it with an antiseptic lotion. If the wound is deep it is recommendable to examine it by a doctor. Take some advice about antirabic vaccines before starting off, mainly if your trip is long.
Heat and sun Do not expect to become quickly aclimated to the heat (specially in Amazonia). It will take at least 3 weeks to obtain it. During this period, avoid physical fatigue, use fresh clothes, mainly during the warmest hours of the day. Avoid direct exhibition to the sun.Use a solar cream and a hat.
Thirst is a very poor indicator of the amount of water that human needs. It is very important to take a sufficient amount from liquid (not alcohol, coffee or tea, because they are diuretics and causes a greater loss of water). The best probe that you are well hydrated is when your body produces clear abundant urine.
AIDS and other diseases
As in any another country, please take the necessary precautions to avoid HIV infection and other sexual diseases.
Accidents and injuries Accidents and injuries produce more deaths of travellers than diseases. Please be in constant alert.
Do not drive in bad illuminated streets by night Do not drive a bicycle or a moto Do not drive in a drunk condition and moderate your speed. If you take a taxi, ask the driver to go slowly. Use the security belt and, if you travel with children, use an adaptable chair Take a small medicinal kit: small wounds can become infected very easily. If the wound is deep it is recommendable to examine it by a doctor.
Back to homeIf you have contracted malaria or another tropical disease, it is possible that the symptoms do not become evident until much after your return to home and you may not even associate them to your trip. Visit your physician and remember to tell him about your trip to Peru.

Pharmacies

Common medicines, like antibiotics, can be bought in pharmacies (farmacias or boticas) quite cheaply and without restrictions. However, make sure the expiration date has not been reached. Pharmacists are mostly very helpful and can be consulted if needed. For less serious illnesses, they may replace a doctor.

Diarrhea

Electrolytic drinks help guard against dehydration. You can get powders to dissolve in water in almost every pharmacy. If not, just dissolve sugar and salt in water. Bacterial diarrhea can be treated with antibiotics, if it doesn't vanish during a week. Usually, pharmacies are quite helpful.

Food and drink

If you stay in good hotels you may be able to avoid catching diarrhea, otherwise you might. Just don't worry too much about. There are some rules that could avoid the worst:
  • Avoid unboiled tap water, if possible. This can be difficult; If you eat a salad or drink some fruit juice, it will probably be prepared with tap water. Avoid ice in drinks if you can.
  • If you must drink tap water, use some purification like mikropur.
  • Don't eat food prepared in the street (if you can resist it).
  • When going to cheap restaurants, first have a smell and listen to what your nose says.
  • In some areas, refrigerators are rare. Just go to the meat section of a typical market hall and take a smell, you will understand. If you would rather eat vegetarian food, it can be hard to find. Chicken is worth a try, since they are mostly fresh.
  • Don't eat unpasteurized milk products.

Altitude

If you do not have experience with higher altitudes (above 3,500m), don't underestimate it! Collapses of unacclimatized tourists are not unusual, If coming from sea level, stay at medium height ca. 3000m for at least one week. Then, altitudes of around 4500m should not be a risk, although you still will strongly feel the height.

Sunburn

Since Peru is close to the equator, the sun can become dangerous for your skin and eyes. Especially in the Sierra, the strong UV radiation due to the height in combination with the rather cold air may burn your skin before you notice it. Sun-blockers are easy to get in drug stores (boticas). If your eyes are sensitive to light, better bring good sunglasses from home. Of course, you can buy sunglasses in Peru, too, but you should really be sure that they block the whole UV spectrum, otherwise, they might be worse than none.

Sanitary facilities

Outside of obviously well-set up restaurants and hotels in cities and towns, toilets are often quite primitive and sometimes really dirty. It's a good idea to bring your own paper with you,as peruvian toilet paper maybe too rough as well as being one ply. It's usual. Toilet doors are marked with "baño", "S.H." or "SS.HH.". The latter two are abbreviations for servicio higienico, which is the rather formal expression. Expect to pay no more than 20 centimos at public restrooms for paper. You will find it handy to keep a roll of toilet paper and a small bottle of hand sanitizer in your backpack.
In hostels or budget hotels, you cannot rely on having water all the time. In the Andean region, it also can easily happen that showers have more or less hot water only in the afternoon since the water is heated by solar energy only. Electrically heated showers are widely spread, but the electric installation is sometimes really adventurous, since the water heater is mostly situated at the shower head. Have a look on it before turning on the shower, especially if you are tall enough that you could touch the cables or other metal during showering which can electrocute you. Don't be too paranoid though, an electric shock is mostly painful.
As woman, if you use tampons during your period, you should bring them with you from home, because they are not very popular in Peru. In Lima, you'll be able to find them in supermarket chains like Santa Isabel or Wong or at drug stores / chemists, known as farmacias and boticas. When you find them, buy enough for the rest of the trip, they are virtually unknown in the rest of the country. Alternatively you could pack a menstrual cup because they are reuseable and compact.

Respect

Don't use the word "indio", although it's Spanish. For natives, it sounds like "nigger" since it was used by Spanish conquerors. The politically correct way of speaking is "el indígena" or "la indígena" - although, like "nigger", very close people inside a circle of friends can get away with it. Another word to be careful with is chola/cholo or cholita, meaning indígena. This may be used affectionately among indigenous people (it'a very common appellation for a child, for instance) but is offensive coming from an outsider.
Even if you have about 20 "No drugs" T-shirts at home, accept that especially people from the country side chew coca leaves. See it as a part of the culture with social and ritual components. And keep in mind: Coca leaves are not cocaine and they are legal. You can try them to experience the culture. If you don't like to chew them, try a mate de hojas de coca. Also quite effective against altitude sickness.
Officially, most of the Peruvians are Roman Catholic, but especially on the country-side, the ancient pre-Hispanic religiosity is still alive. Respect that when visiting temple ruins or other ritual places and behave as if it were a church.

Contact

In all towns and villages that are not too small, it is no problem to find public telephones for national and international calls. Usually, you find them in bars or stores. Some of them accept coins, but watch out for stuck coins or dodgy-looking coin receivers as these might make you lose your money. Don't worry if your 1 Nuevo Sol coins don't get through at first, just keep trying and it will eventually work. Many public phones can be expensive, and an attractive alternative is a Locutorio, or "call-center". Typical rates include .2 Nuevo Sol/minute for calls in the country, and .5 Nuevo Sol/minute for most international calls.
You also can buy phone cards with a 12 digit secret number on it. Using a phone card, first dial 147. When done so, you will be told how much your card is still valid and be asked (in Spanish, of course) for your secret number. After having typed it, you are asked for the phone number you want to connect to. Type it in. Then you get told how much time you can talk. After that, the connection is tried.
For international calls, it is often a good idea to go to an Internet cafe that offers Internet based phone calls. You find them in the cities. Internet cafes, called in Peru cabinas públicas, grow like mushrooms in Peru and if you are not really on the countryside, it should not be a problem at all to find one. Even in a smaller town like Mancora or Chivay you can still find Internet cafes with 512kbps ADSL. The connection is quite reliable and they are cheap (1.50 - 3.00 Soles, US$ 0.40 - 0.80 per hour). Just don't expect most of them to actually sell coffee - or anything at all but computer time or services like printing. It is not uncommon to find cabinas that burn CDs directly from SD, CF or Memory sticks. Many internet cafes have headphones and microphones, for free or for an extra fee. See also Online telephone service for travel.
  • iperú, (51 1) 574-8000 (). This government tourist office has a presence in most cities that are popular with tourists, and is helpful with information. They also keep tabs on businesses and log complaints, so you can check out tuor operators, etc before you confirm. Their services are free.  edit
This is a usable article. It has information about the country and for getting in, as well as links to several destinations. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.PERU (apparently from Biru, a small river on the west coast of Colombia, where Pizarro landed), a republic of the Pacific coast of South America, extending in a general N.N.W.-S.S.E. direction from lat.^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: Central and South America > Country: Peru .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3° 21' S. to about 18° S., with a sea-coast of 1240 m. and a width of 300 to 400 m., exclusive of territories in dispute. Its area in 1906, including Tacna and Arica, and other disputed territories occupied by neighbouring states, was officially estimated. at 1,752,422 sq. kilometers, or 676,638 sq. m.; exclusive of these territories, the area of Peru is variously estimated at 439,000 to 480,000 sq. m., the Gotha measurements being 1,137,000 sq. kilometers, or 439,014 sq. m.
.With the exception of parts of the Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia frontiers, all the boundary lines have been disputed and referred to arbitration - those with Colombia and Ecuador to the king of Spain, and that with Bolivia to the president of Argentina, on which a decision was rendered on the 9th of July 1909. There have been misunderstandings with Ecuador in regard to some small areas in the Chira valley, but it may be assumed that the line is fixed between Santa Rosa (3° 21' S.) on the Gulf of Guayaquil, and the Chinchipe river, a tributary of the Maranon.^ The climate in that sector has also some characteristics that are found all over the region; thus, only two well defined seasons are distinguished: the rainy season in the area goes between November to April, and the dry season from May to October.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ This valley is located in both sides of the river Vilcanota and their tributaries.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ In Lake Titikaka area there are some visits that involve walking: .
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

.At the junction of 2 D the Cauches with that river, that Ecuadorean line descends the Chinchipe to the Maranon, and the Peruvian ascends to a point where it is intersected by a line following the eastern Cordillera northward to the head-waters of the Caqueta, or Japura, which forms the northern boundary down to the Brazilian frontier.^ The Maraon River forms one of the deepest canyons, and you descend through different ecosystems from over 10,000 feet in altitude to the town of Balsas at 4,000 feet.

^ Afternoon excursion to a black water oxbow lake formed when water from the Napo River became separated from the main flow of the river.

This claim covers all eastern Ecuador and a large part of south-eastern is` Colombia. In 1903 there were encounters between small bodies of Peruvian and Ecuadorean troops on the disputed frontier. After arbitration by the king of Spain had been agreed upon, the question was considered by two Spanish commissions, and modifications favouring Peru were recommended. These became known prematurely, and in May 1910 war was threatened between Peru and Ecuador in spite of an offer of mediation by the United States, Brazil and Argentina under the Hague Convention.
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From the Japura southward to the Amazon, in 4° 13' 21" S., 69° 35' W., and thence up the Javary, or Yavari, to its source in 7° 8' 4" S., 73° 46' 30" W., as determined by a mixed commission, the line has been definitely settled. From near the source of the Javary, or lat. 7° I' 17" S., a line running 6 ° eastward to the Madeira in lat. .6° 52' 15" S., which is half the distance between the mouth of the Mamore and the mouth of the Madeira, divides the Spanish and Portuguese possessions in this part of South America, according to the provisions of the treaty of San Ildefonso of 1777. This line has been twice modified by treaties between Bolivia and Brazil, but without the consent of Peru, which claimed all the territory eastward to the Madeira between the above-mentioned line and the Beni-Madidi rivers, the line of demarcation following the Pablo-bamba, a small tributary of the Madidi, to its source, and thence in a straight line to the village of Conima, on Lake Titicaca.^ Prior to this, Puno had been a small stopping off place between the much larger silver mines at Potosi in Bolivia and to the way to Lima.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Peru lies along the western edge of South America, south of Ecuador.
  • Peru Tours, Peru Tour Operators, Peru Travel, Travel Peru, Peru Vacations 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: General]

The dispute with Brazil relates to the territory acquired by that republic from Bolivia in 1867 and 1903, and was to be settled, according to an agreement A so 4 16 5 Reference to Departments & Provinces 1. Tumbez (Province) 2. Piura 3. Lambayeque 4. Cajamarca 5. Amazonas 6. Loreto 7. San Martin 8. Libertad 9. Ancachs 10. ,Huanucc 11. Callao (Province) 12. Lima 13. Junin 14. Huancavelica 15. Ica 16. Ayacucho 17. Apurimac 18. Cuzco 19. Puno 20. Arequipa 21, Moquegua (Province) 11.
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of 1908, by direct negotiation if possible, or, failing this, by arbitration. .The decision of the president of Argentina of the 9th of July 1909, in regard to the remainder of this extensive territory, was a compromise, and divided it into two nearly equal parts.^ On July 28, Alan Garcia Perez assumed the presidency after two rounds of presidential elections that were free and fair.
  • Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tours below are divided into two groups.
  • Peru Tours, Peru Tour Operators, Peru Travel, Travel Peru, Peru Vacations 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: General]

.The line adopted starts from Lake Suches, the source of a small river of that name flowing into the north of Lake Titicaca, crosses the Cordillera by the Palomani to the Tambopata river, follows that stream to the mouth of the Lanza, thence crosses to the source of the Heath river, which forms the dividing line down to its junction with the Madre de Dios, descends that river to the mouth of the Torosmonas, thence in a straight line north-westerly to the intersection of the Tahu.amanu river by the 69th meridian, and thence north on that meridian to the Brazilian frontier.^ The Maraon River forms one of the deepest canyons, and you descend through different ecosystems from over 10,000 feet in altitude to the town of Balsas at 4,000 feet.

^ Arrive and transfer from Puerto Maldonado airport to the river port on the Madre de Dios River.

^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

This decision at first gave offence to the Bolivians, but friendly overtures from Peru led to its acceptance by both parties with the understanding that modifications would be made in locating the line wherever actual settlements had been made by either party on territory awarded to the other. With Chile the de jure line is that of the Camarones ravine which separated the old department of Moquegua (including the provinces of Tacna and Arica) from that of Tarapaca. .The de facto line is that of the Sama river (usually dry), which opens on the coast a little south of Sama point, near 18° S., Chile retaining possession of the two above-mentioned provinces in violation of the treaty of Ancon, which she forced upon her defeated antagonist.^ Afternoon open boat trip along the Amazon in search of the two species of freshwater dolphin found in the river, as well as chance for an afternoon swim.

Table of contents

Physical Geography

Peru is divided longitudinally into three well-defined regions, the coast, the sierra and the montana. .The coast, extending from the base of the Western or Maritime Cordillera to the Pacific Ocean, consists of a sandy desert crossed at intervals by rivers flowing through narrow, fertile valleys.^ After crossing the river you ascend back through the various habitats to nearly 10,000 feet above sea level (B, L, D).

The sierra is the region of the Andes, and is about 250 m. in width. It contains stupendous chains of mountains, elevated plains and table-lands, warm and fertile valleys and ravines. .The montana is the region of tropical forests within the valley of the Amazon, and skirts the eastern slopes of the Andes.^ The river then continues on into the tropical rain forest of the Amazon Basin.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The coast has been upraised from the ocean at no very distant geological epoch, and is nearly as destitute of vegetation as the Coast. African Sahara. It is watered, however, by fifty streams which cross the desert at intervals. .Half of these have their origin in the summits of the Andes, and run with a permanent supply of water into the ocean.^ That strange man went toward the coast and submerged into the ocean waters, disappearing forever.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

.The others, rising in the outer range, which does not reach the snow-line and receives less moisture, carry a volume of water to the sea during the rainy season, but for the rest of the year are nearly dry.^ Rain poncho or other rainwear (it may rain, even during dry season) -Gifts for children, such as boxes of crayolas, boxes of pencils, toys, or clothing.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Temperatures during the day in the dry season can get hot.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ The fishing is good year round, but is spectacular in the dry season.

.The absence of rain here is ascribed to the action of the lofty uplands of the Andes on the trade-wind, and to the influence of the cold Humboldt current sweeping northward along the west coast of the continent.^ With lofty snow-capped peaks along its far shores, the vast blue lake at 3,810m is one of the Andes' most enchanting scenes.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The south-east trade-wind blows obliquely across the Atlantic Ocean until it reaches Brazil. By this time it is heavily laden with vapour, which it continues to bear along across the continent, depositing it and supplying the sources of the Amazon and La Plata. .When the wind rises above the snow-capped Andes, the last particle of moisture is wrung from it that a very low temperature can extract.^ With lofty snow-capped peaks along its far shores, the vast blue lake at 3,810m is one of the Andes' most enchanting scenes.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

Passing the summit of that range, it rushes down as a cool and dry wind on the Pacific slopes beyond. Meeting with no evaporating surface, and with no temperature colder than that to which it is subjected on the mountain-tops, this wind reaches the ocean before it becomes charged with fresh moisture. The constantly prevailing wind on the Peruvian coast is from the south, which is a cold wind from the Humboldt current. As it moves north it becomes gradually warmed and takes up moisture instead of depositing it as rain. .From November to April there are usually constant dryness, a clear sky, and considerable, though by no means oppressive, heat.^ It's usually clear and dry most mornings with outbursts of heavy rain in the afternoons.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

From June to September the sky is obscured for weeks together by fog, which is often accompanied by drizzling rain called garua. At the time when it is hottest and driest on the coast it is raining heavily in the Andes, and the rivers are full. When the rivers are at their lowest, the garua prevails on the coast. The climate of various parts of the coast, however, is modified by local circumstances.
The Western Cordillera, overhanging the Peruvian coast, contains a long line of volcanic mountains, most of them inactive, but their presence is probably connected with the frequent and severe earthquakes, especially in the southern section of the coast. Since 1570 seventy violently destructive earthquakes have been recorded on the west coast of South America, but the register is incomplete in its earlier part. .The most terrible was that of 1746, which destroyed Callao, on the 28th of October, and there were 220 shocks in the following twenty-four hours.^ After boarding motorized canoes, we travel downriver to the mighty Madre de Dios, which we follow for approximately four hours to the Heath River.

The town was overwhelmed by a vast wave, which rose 80 ft.; and the shocks continued until the following February. On the 13th of August 1868 an earthquake nearly destroyed Arequipa, and great waves rolled in. upon the ports of Arica and Iquique. On the 9th of May 1877 nearly all the southern ports were overwhelmed.
.The deserts between the river-valleys vary in extent, the largest being more than 70 m.^ At Lima's San Juan de Lurigancho men's prison, the country's largest; more than 8,500 prisoners lived in a facility built for 1,500.
  • Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If prisoners are held more than 18 months without being sentenced--36 months in complex cases--under the law they must be released.
  • Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

across. On their western margin steep cliffs generally rise from the sea, above which is the tablazo or plateau, in some places slightly undulating, in others with ridges of considerable height rising out of it. The surface is generally hard, but in many places there are large accumulations of drifting sea-sand. The sand usually forms isolated hillocks, called medanos, of a half-moon shape, having their convex sides towards the tradewind. They are from io to 20 ft. high, with an acute crest, the inner side perpendicular, the outer with a steep slope. .Sometimes, especially at early dawn, there is a musical noise in the desert, like the sound of distant drums, which is caused by the eddying of grains of sand in the heated atmosphere, on the crests of the medanos. Apparently the deserts are destitute of all vegetation: yet three kinds of herbs exist, which bury themselves deep in the earth, and survive long periods of drought.^ We return for lunch, and then there is an optional rest for those who would like to escape the early afternoon heat.

.One is an amar- Coast Flora. anthaceous plant, whose stems ramify through the sandhills; the other two are a 1M M Iartynia and an Aniseia, which maintain a subterranean existence during many years, and only produce leafy stems in those rare seasons when sufficient moisture penetrates to the roots.^ I hope you and everyone have made it through the past two gruelling trek days OK, and you weren’t one of those to have a close encounter with a tarantula!
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

^ Fly over the mysterious 2000-year old Nasca Lines, whose strange patterns can only be viewed from an airplane!!
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ This case was the only trafficking trial or conviction reported during the year.
  • Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In a few hollows which are reached by moisture the trees of the desert find support, the algarrobo (Prosopis horrida), a low tree of very scraggy growth, the vichaya (Capparis crotonoides), and the zapote del perro (Colicodendrum scabridum), mere shrubs. Near the Cordillera and on its lower slopes a tall branched cactus is met with, and there are Salicornias and Salsolas near the coast. But, when the mists set in, the low hills near the coast bordering the deserts, which are called lomas, undergo a change as if by magic. .A blooming vegetation of wild flowers for a short time covers the barren hills.^ After a short break, they provided a boy as the guide for Bingham in order to have a first look of the Inkan buildings that were completely covered with entangled vegetation.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

.Near Lima one of the low ranges is brightened by the beautiful yellow lily called amancaes (Ismene Amancaes). The other flowers of the lonaas are the papita de San Juan (Begonia geranifolia), with red petals contrasting with the white inner sides, valerians, the beautiful Bomarea ovata, several species of Oxalis, Solanum and crucifers.^ Experience a land of natural and topographical contrasts, mountain passes, white snow peaks, wild rivers and one of the most beautiful places on earth - "Machu Picchu"- .

^ At Lima's San Juan de Lurigancho men's prison, the country's largest; more than 8,500 prisoners lived in a facility built for 1,500.
  • Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But this carpet of flowers is very partially distributed and lasts but a short time.
The valleys form a marvellous contrast to the surrounding desert. A great mass of pale-green foliage is usually composed of the algarrobo trees, while the course of the river is marked by lines or groups of palms, by fine old willows (Salix humboldtiana), fruit-gardens, and fields of cotton, Indian corn, sugar-cane and alfalfa (lucerne). .In some valleys there are expanses of sugar-cane, in others cotton, whilst in others vineyards and olive-yards predominate.^ Likewise, some other smaller buildings are located in outstanding spots or angles of the mountain that served as watchtowers for controlling movement of persons in the valley.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ So I’ll be enjoying music later whilst you’re enjoying the company of some wonderful musicians over there!
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

^ Even more, there are some other carved bulges that were broken.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The woods of algarrobo are used for pasture, cattle and horses enjoying the pendulous yellow pods.
.For purposes of description the coast-region of Peru may be divided into five sections, beginning from the north: (1) the Piura region; (2) the Lambayeque and Trujillo section; (3) the Santa valleys; (4) the section from Lima to Nasca; (5) the Arequipa and Tacna section.^ Transfer to airport for flight to Chiclayo, which is about 550 miles north of Lima, burgeoning commercial center and capital of the department of Lambayeque.

^ HOTELS: LIMA=Marriott; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= Libertador; CUZCO= Monasterio; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

^ Absolutely Peru: 21 days Visiting Lima, Chiclayo-Sipan, Trujillo-Chan-Chan, Arequipa-Colca, Puno-Lake Titicaca, Cuzco-Machu Picchu, The Amazon and Nazca Lines...

(1) The great desert-region of Piura extends for nearly 200 m. from the Gulf of Guayaquil to the borders of the Morrope Valley, and is traversed by three rivers - the Tumbes, Chira and Piura, the two former receiving their waters from the inner Cordillera and breaking through the outer range. It is here that the coast of South America extends farthest to the westward until it reaches Capes Blanco and Parifla, and then turns southward to the Bay of Paita. The climate of Piura is modified by the lower latitude, and also by the vicinity of the forests of Guayaquil. .Fog and garua are much less frequent than in the coast-region farther south, while rain sometimes falls.^ Blessed with an incredible topography from her desert fringed coast dotted with ancient cities, to the towering Andes running north to south in the central region, to the Amazon basin's rain forests covering more than half the Peruvian land mass and cruising ground for nature lovers and adventurers.

.At intervals of three or four years there are occasional heavy showers of rain from February to April.^ November to Mid April This is the wet season with most rain in January and February.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Machu Picchu is near the commencement of the Cusquenian Amazonian Jungle, so the chance of having rains or showers is possible any time of the year.
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^ There will be at least three or four places where we meet children from communities or little villages in the Lake Titikaka area.
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(2) The second section of the coast-region includes the valleys of the Morrope, the Chiclayo, and Lambayeque, the Sana, the Jequetepeque, the Chicama, Moche, Viru and Chao. With the intervening deserts this section extends over 200 m. All these valleys, except Morrope and Chao, are watered by rivers which have their sources far in the recesses of the mountains, and which furnish an abundant supply in the season when irrigation is needed. (3) The third section, also extending for 200 m., contains the valleys of Santa, Nepena, Casma, Huarmey, Fortaleza, Pativilca, Supe and Huaura. The river Santa, which rises in the lake of Conococha, 12,907 ft. above the sea, and has a length of 180 m., is remarkable for its long course between the outer and central ranges of the Andes, in a trough known as the " Callejon de Huaylas," 100 m. in length. It then breaks through in a deep gorge, and reaches the sea after a course of 35 m. over the coast-belt, and after fertilizing a rich valley. The Santa and Nepena valleys are separated by a desert 8 leagues in width, on the shores of which there is a good anchorage in the bay of Ferrol, where the port of Chimbote is the terminus of a railway. The Nepena, Casma, Huarmey, Fortaleza and Supe rivers rise on the slope of an outer range called the Cordillera Negra, and are consequently dry during the great part of the year. Wells are dug in their beds, and the fertility of the valleys is thus maintained. The Pativilca (or Barranca) river and the Huaura break xxi. 9 a through the outer range from their distant sources in the snowy Cordillera, and have a perennial supply of water. There are 9 leagues of desert between the Nepena and Casma, 16 between the Casma and Huarmey, and 18 between the Huarmey and Fortaleza. The latter desert, much of which is loose sand, is called the Pampa de Mata Cavallos, from the number of exhausted animals which die there. Between the Supe and Pativilca is the desert called the Pampa del Medio Mundo. (4) The next coast-section extends for over 300 m., from Chancay to Nasca, and includes the rivers of Chancay or Lacha, of Carabayllo, Rimac, Lurin, Mala, Canete, Chincha, Pisco or Chunchanga, Ica and Rio Grande. Here the maritime range approaches the ocean, leaving a narrower strip of coast, but the fertile valleys are closer and more numerous. Those of Carabayllo and Rimac are connected, and the view from the Bay of Callao extends over a vast expanse of fertile plain bounded by the Andes, with the white towers of Lima in a setting of verdure. Lurin and Mala are smaller valleys, but the great vale of Caflete is one green sheet of sugar-cane; and narrow strips of desert separate it from the fertile plain of Chincha, and Chincha from the famous vineyards of Pisco. The valleys of Ica, Palpa, San Xavier and Nasca are rich and fertile, though they do not extend to the sea; but between Nasca and Acari there is a desert 60 m. in width. (5) The Arequipa and Tacna section extends over 350 m. and comprises the valleys of Acari, Atequipa, Atico, Ocona, Majes or Camana, Quilca, with the interior valley of Arequipa, Tambo, Ilo or Moquegua, Ite or Locumba. Sama, Tacna, and Azapa or Arica. Here the Western Cordillera recedes, and the important valley of Arequipa, though on its western slope, is 7000 ft. above the sea and 90 m. from the coast. Most of the rivers here have their sources in the central range, and are well supplied with water. The coast-valleys through which they flow, especially those of Majes and Locumba, are famous for their vineyards, and in the valley of Tambo there are extensive olive plantations.
The coast of Peru has few protected anchorages, and the headlands are generally abrupt and lofty. These and the few islands are Islands. frequented by sea-birds, whence come the guano deposits, the retention of ammonia and other fertilizing properties being due to the absence of rain. The islets off the coast are all barren and rocky.
The most northern is Foca, in 5° 13' 30" S., near the coast to the south of Paita. .The islands of Lobos de Tierra and Lobos de Afuera (2) in 6° 27' 45" S. and 6° 56' 45" S. respectively, are off the desert of Sechura, and contain deposits of guano.^ The largest, Titikaka Island (Spanish: Isla de Titikaka, also called Isla del Sol), lies just off the tip of the Copacabana Peninsula in Bolivia.
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The two Afuera islands are 60 and 36 m. respectively from the coast at the port of San Jose. The islets of Macabi, in 7° 49' 20" S., also have guano deposits, now practically exhausted. The two islets of Guanape, surrounded by many rocks, in 8° 34' S., contain rich deposits. Chao rises 450 ft. above the sea, off the coast, in 8° 46' 30" S. Corcobadolis in 8° 57' S. La Viuda is off the port of Casma, in 9° 23' 30" S.; and Tortuga is 2 m. distant to the north. .Santa Islet lies off the bay of Cosca, in 9° I' 40", and the three high rocks of Ferrol in 9° 8' 30" S. Farther south there is the group of islets and rocks called Huaura, in I I ° 27' S., the chief of which are El Pelado, Tambillo, Chiquitana, Bravo, Quitacalzones and Mazorque.^ The largest, Titikaka Island (Spanish: Isla de Titikaka, also called Isla del Sol), lies just off the tip of the Copacabana Peninsula in Bolivia.
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^ There are call centers in all the towns where you can make international phone calls for about 30 to 50 cents per minute.
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^ From that station there are buses in order to get to South-America's most famous Archaeological Group that is found at an average altitude of 2,450 meters (8,038 feet).
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The Hormigas are in 11 ° 4' S. and 11 ° 58', and the Pescadores in II ° 47' S. The island of San Lorenzo, in 12° 4' S., is a lofty mass, 41 m. long by I broad, forming the Bay of Callao; its highest point is 1050 ft. .Off its south-east end lies a small but lofty islet called Fronton, and to the south-west are the Palomitas Rocks.^ After lunch and a brief rest to avoid the early afternoon heat, we once again board the catamaran and set off to explore the entire west end of the lake.

Horadada Islet, with a hole through it, is to the south of Callao Point. .Off the valley of Lurin are the Pachacamac Islands, the most northern and largest being half a mile long.^ The largest, Titikaka Island (Spanish: Isla de Titikaka, also called Isla del Sol), lies just off the tip of the Copacabana Peninsula in Bolivia.
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The next, called San Francisco, is like a sugar-loaf, perfectly rounded at the top. The others are mere rocks. Asia Island is farther south, 17 m. north-west of Cerro Azul, and about a mile in circuit. Pisco Bay contains San Gallan Island, high, with a bold cliff outline, 22 m. long by .I broad, the Ballista Islets, and farther north the three famous Chincha Islands, whose vast guano deposits are now exhausted.^ Farther North there are also many other fountains constituting a vast temple dedicated to the cult of "Unu" (water).
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South of the entrance to Pisco Bay is Zarate Island, and farther south the white level islet of Santa Rosa. The Infiernillo rock is quite black, about 50 ft. high, in the form of a sugar-loaf, a mile west of the point of Santa Maria, which is near the mouth of the Ica river. Alacran is a small islet off the lofty " morro " of Arica. All these rocks and islets are barren and uninhabitable. The more common sea-birds are the Sula variegate or guano-bird, a large gull called the Larus modestus, the Pelecanus thayus, and the Sterna Ynca, a beautiful tern with curved white feathers on each side of the head. .The rarest of all the gulls is also found on the Peruvian coast, namely, the Xema furcatum. Sea-lions (Otaria forsteri) are common on the rocky islands and promontories.^ The islands themselves are breeding grounds to healthy colonies of South American fur seals and South American sea lion as well as a small colony of Humboldt penguins.
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The region of the Cordilleras of the Andes is divided into Puna, or lofty uninhabited wilderness, and sierra, or inhabitable moun- Sierra. tain slopes and valleys. This great mountain-system, running south-east to north-west, consists of three chains or cordilleras. .The two chains, which run parallel and near each other on the western side, are of identical origin, and have been separated by the action of water during many centuries.^ Farther North there are also many other fountains constituting a vast temple dedicated to the cult of "Unu" (water).
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^ A narrow strait, Tiquina, separates the lake into two bodies of water.
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.On these chains are the volcanoes and many thermal springs.^ It has hot thermal springs (related to its name) where many tourists will stop after having done the Inka Trail.
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The narrow space between them is for the most part, but not always, a cold and lofty region known as the Puna containing alpine lakes - the sources of the coast-rivers. The great eastern chain, rising from the basin of the Amazon and forming the inner wall of the system, is of distinct origin. These three chains are called the Western or Maritime Cordillera, the Central Cordillera and the Andes. Paz Soldan and other Peruvian geographers give the name of Andes, par excellence, to the Eastern Cordillera.
.The Maritime Cordillera of Peru has no connexion with the coast ranges of Chile, but is a continuation of the Cordillera Occidental of Chile, which under various local names forms the eastern margin of the coastal desert belt from Atacama northward into Peru.^ In general, Peru has two seasons, wet and dry, but in a country as geographically diverse as Peru, local weather patterns vary greatly.
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^ Later we drive on the Panamerican Highway to Paracas will be our first encounter with the Atacama-Peruvian desert, part of the world's largest coastal desert.
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It contains a regular chain of volcanic peaks overlooking the coastregion of Tarapaca. Chief among them are the snowy peak of Lirima (19,128 ft.) over the ravine of Tarapaca, the volcano of Isluga overhanging Camilla, the Bolivian peak of Sajama, and Tocora (19,741 ft.) near the Bolivian frontier. In rear of Moquegua there is a group of volcanic peaks, clustering round those of Ubinas and Huaynaputina. A great eruption of Huaynaputina began on the 15th of February 1600 and continued until the 28th. But generally these volcanoes are quiescent. Farther north the Misti volcano rises over the city of Arequipa in a perfect cone to a height of over 20,013 ft., and near its base are the hot sulphur and iron springs of Yura. The peak of Sarasara, in Parinacochas (Ayacucho) is 19,500 ft. above the sea, and in the mountains above .Lima the passes attain a height of more than 15,000 ft.^ The highest point on the trek is a pass at 4,600 m (15,000 ft).

^ Sample air cost from Miami to Lima RT US$500 (see add-ons below from more than 100 USA cities) .

^ Airfare via American Airlines from Miami to Lima, Peru (see add-ons from more than 100 USA cities below).

.In latitude to° S. the maritime chain separates into two branches, which run parallel to each other for 100 m., enclosing the remarkable ravine of Callejon de Huaylas - the eastern or main branch being known as the Cordillera Nevada and the western as the Cordillera Negra.^ A narrow strait, Tiquina, separates the lake into two bodies of water.
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On the Nevada the peak of Huascan reaches a height of 22,051 ft. The Huandoy peak, above Carhuaz, rises to 21,088 ft.; the Hualcan peak, overhanging the town of Yungay, is 19,945 ft. high; and most of the peaks in this part of the chain reach a height of 19,000 ft. .During the rainy season, from October to May, the sky is generally clear at dawn, and the magnificent snowy peaks are clearly seen.^ The climate in that sector has also some characteristics that are found all over the region; thus, only two well defined seasons are distinguished: the rainy season in the area goes between November to April, and the dry season from May to October.
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^ Rain poncho or other rainwear (it may rain, even during dry season) -Gifts for children, such as boxes of crayolas, boxes of pencils, toys, or clothing.
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^ Between May to August the weather is beautiful because the skies are nearly always blue and clear.
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But as the day advances the clouds collect. .In most parts ofithe Peruvian Andes the line of perpetual snow is at 16,400 ft.; but on the Cordillera Nevada, above the Callejon de Huaylas, it sinks to 15,400 ft.^ In the snow-covered Cordillera Real on the Northeastern (Bolivian) shore of the lake, some of the highest peaks in the Andes rise to heights of more than 21,000 feet (6,400 m).
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^ With lofty snow-capped peaks along its far shores, the vast blue lake at 3,810m is one of the Andes' most enchanting scenes.
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This greater cold is caused by the intervention of the Cordillera Negra, which intercepts the warmth from the coast. .As this lower chain does not reach the snow-line, the streams rising from it are scanty, while the Santa, Pativilca and other coast-rivers which break through it from sources in the snowy chain have a greater volume from the melted snows.^ We climb steeply up through fields and forest, then emerge above the tree line and reach Warmiwanusqa Pass (13,776 ft.

.At the point where the river Santa breaks through the Cordillera Negra that range begins to subside, while the Maritime Cordillera continues as one chain to and beyond the frontier of Ecuador.^ We then begin our final descent to the Aobamba River through lush bamboo forests and more orchards and coffee plantations (2-3 hour descent).

^ The Maraon River forms one of the deepest canyons, and you descend through different ecosystems from over 10,000 feet in altitude to the town of Balsas at 4,000 feet.

^ After an early breakfast we head down the Santa Teresa River Valley, through more populated rural areas with coffee plantations (said to be one of the best organic coffees in the world!

The Central Cordillera is the true water-parting of the system. .No river, except the Maranon, breaks through it either to the east or west, while more than twenty coast streams rise on its slopes and force their way through the maritime chain.^ More than Forty islands rise from Titikaka's waters.
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.The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.^ There is a great quantity of dried lava (volcanic rock) around the area.
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.In 14° 30' S. the central chain is connected with the Eastern Andes by the transverse mountain-knot of Vilcanota, the peak of that name being 17,651 ft.^ Historians suggest that it was established in order to protect the great capital from possible attacks of the Antis nations (the name of the "Andes" Mountains derives from "Anti").
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above the sea. The great inland basin of Lake Titicaca is thus formed. The central chain continues to run parallel with the Maritime Cordillera until, at Cerro Pasco, another transverse knot connects it with the Andes in to° 30' S. lat. It then continues northward, separating the basins of the Maranon and Huallaga; and at the northern frontier of Peru it is at length broken through by the Maranon flowing eastward.
The Eastern Andes is a magnificent range in the southern part of Peru, of Silurian formation, with talcose and clay slates, many quartz veins and eruptions of granitic rocks. Mr Forbes says that the peaks of Illampu (21,709 ft.) and Illimani (21,014 ft.) in Bolivia are Silurian and fossiliferous to their summits. The eastern range is cut through by six rivers in Peru, namely, the Maranon and Huallaga, the Perene, Mantaro, Apurimac, Vilcamayu and Paucartambo, the last five being tributaries of the Ucayali. .The range of the Andes in south Peru has a high plateau to the west and the vast plains of the Amazonian basin to the east.^ It travels northwest from Arequipa towards Yura and then climbs to the "puna" or high plateau and desolate plains of Pampa Caahuas and Tocra.

.The whole range is highly auriferous, and the thickness of the strata is not less than 10,000 ft.^ Afternoon visit the famous Gold Museum with more than 10,000 pieces of Gold from Pre-Inca and Inca civilizations.

It is nowhere disturbed by volcanic eruptions, except at the very edge of the formation near Lake Titicaca, and in this respect it differs essentially from the Maritime Cordillera. To the eastward numerous spurs extend for varying distances into the great plain of the Amazons.
The Andes lose their majestic height to the northward; and beyond Cerro Pasco the eastern chain sinks into a lower range between the Huallaga and Ucayali. But throughout the length of Peru the three ranges are clearly defined.
For purposes of description the sierra of Peru may be divided into four sections, each embracing portions of all three ranges.
The first, from the north, comprises the upper basins Sec ti of the Maranon and the Huallaga, and is 350 m. long by ons too broad. The second extends from the Knot of Sierra. Cerro Pasco to Ayacucho, about 200 m., including the Lake of Chinchay-cocha and the basin of the river Xauxa. The third or Cuzco section extends 250 m. to the Knot of Vilcanota with the basins of the Pampas, Apurimac, Vilcamayu and Paucartambo. The fourth is the basin of Lake Titicaca.
Lake Junin, or Chinchay-cocha, in the second section, is 36 m. long by 7 m. broad, and 13,232 ft. above the sea. Its marshy banks are overgrown with reeds and inhabited by numerous waterfowl. .From this lake the river Xauxa flows southwards through a populous valley for 150 m.^ After an early breakfast we head down the Santa Teresa River Valley, through more populated rural areas with coffee plantations (said to be one of the best organic coffees in the world!

^ Afternoon excursion to a black water oxbow lake formed when water from the Napo River became separated from the main flow of the river.

before entering the forests. .Lake Titicaca (see Bolivia), in the fourth or most southern section, is divided between Peru and Bolivia.^ The smaller, in the Southeast, is called Lake Wiñay Marka which belongs to Bolivia; the larger, in the Northwest, is called Lake Chucuito and belongs to Peru.
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^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
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^ The chief site is at Tiwanaku, Bolivia, at the Southern end of the lake.
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.It receives a number of short streams from the ranges shutting in the upper end of the valley; the largest is the Ramiz, formed by the two streams of Pucara and Azangaro, both coming from the Knot of Vilcanota to the north.^ This valley is located in both sides of the river Vilcanota and their tributaries.
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.The Suches, which has its source in Lake Suches, falls into Lake Titicaca on the north-west side, as well as the Yllpa and Ylave.^ From there on you can have an excellent panoramic view of the lake, as well as a view of the oriental mountain range and the Bolivian side with its mountain range.
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.The principal islands are Titicaca and Coati (at the south end near the peninsula of Copacabana), Campanaria (9 m.^ The largest, Titikaka Island (Spanish: Isla de Titikaka, also called Isla del Sol), lies just off the tip of the Copacabana Peninsula in Bolivia.
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from the east shore), Soto and Esteves. .There are two other lakes in the Collao, as the elevated region round Titicaca is called.^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
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^ First, there is a list of tours that only visit Peru, then there is a list of tours that include a visit to Peru as well as other regions.
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.Lake Arapa, a few miles from the northern shore of Titicaca, is 30 m.^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
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^ Puno, on the shores of Lake Titicaca -the highest navigable lake in the world.

in circumference. Lake Umayo is on higher ground to the westward. The lake in Peru which is third in size is that of Parinacochas on the coast watershed, near the foot of the snowy peak of Sarasara. It is 12 m. long by 6 broad, but has never been visited and described by any modern traveller. .The smaller alpine lakes, often forming the sources of rivers, are numerous.^ Afternoon excursion to a black water oxbow lake formed when water from the Napo River became separated from the main flow of the river.

The great rivers of the sierra are the Maranon, rising in the lake of Lauricocha and flowing northward in a deep gorge between the Maritime and Central Cordilleras for 350 m., when it forces its way through the mountains at the famous Pongo de Manseriche and enters the Amazonian plain. .The Huallaga rises north of Cerro Pasco, and, passing Huanuco, flows northwards on the other side of the Central Cordillera for 300 m.^ Andy : Good luck Jules and Mike with the fundraising on the other side of the world, thanks for your support of our fundraiser back in North Wales.
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It breaks through the range at the Pongo de Chasuta and falls into the Maranon. The other great rivers are tributaries of the Ucayali. The Pozuzu, flowing eastward from the Knot of Cerro Pasco, joins the Pachitea, which is the most important northern affluent of the Ucayali. The Xauxa, becoming afterwards the Mantaro, received the drainage of Xauxa, Huancavelica and Ayacucho. .The southern valleys of this part of the sierra furnish streams which form the main rivers of Pampas, Pachachaca and Apurimac.^ Afternoon excursion to a black water oxbow lake formed when water from the Napo River became separated from the main flow of the river.

These, uniting with the Mantaro, form the Ene, and the Ene and Perene (which drains the province of Tambo) form the Tambo. The Vilcamayu rises on the Knot of Vilcanota, flows north through a lovely valley, received the Yanatilde and Paucartambo on its right hank, and, uniting with the Tambo, forms the Ucayali. .Most of these main streams flow through profound gorges in a tropical climate, while the upper slopes yield products of the temperate zone, and the plateaus above are cold and bleak, affording only pasture and the hardiest cereals.^ These very different but productive habitats harbor not only a large number of fish species but also huge quantities of most species, which feed the Reserve´s noteworthy seabird and mammal communities.
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The great variety of elevation within the sierra produces vegetation belonging to every zone. There is a tropical flora in the deep gorges, higher up a sub-tropical, then a temperate, then a sub-arctic flora. .In ascending from the coast-valleys there is first an arid range, where the great-branched cacti rear themselves up among the rocks.^ There is a spectacular view of the valley and beautiful Andean landscapes surround the town, outstanding the beauty of the snowy mountains Chicon and Veronica of the Mountain Range of Urubamba.
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Farther inland, where the rains are more plentiful, is the native home of the potato. .Here also are other plants with edible roots - the oca (Oxalis tuberosa), ulluca (Ullucus tuberosus), massua (Tropceolum tuberosum), and learc6 (Polymnia sonchifolia). Among the first wild shrubs and trees that are met with are the chilca (Baccharis Feuillei), with a pretty yellow flower, the Mutisia acuminata, with beautiful red and orange flowers, several species of Senecio, calceolarias, the Schinus molle, with its graceful branches and bunches of red berries, and at higher elevations the lambras (Alnus acuminata), the sauco (Sambucus peruviana), the quenuar (Buddleia incana), and the Polylepis racemosa. The Buddleia, locally called oliva silvestre, flourishes at a height of 12,000 ft.^ Manu boasts the highest bird, mammal, and plant diversity of any park on Earth, including 1,000 of the world's 9,700 bird species, 200 species of mammals, and 15,000 species of flowering plants.

^ The stone path to our room led past plantings of beautiful flowers and a waterfall.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

round the shores of Lake Titicaca. The most numerously represented family is the Compositae, the grasses being next in number. The temperate valleys of the sierra yield fruits of many kinds. Those indigenous to the country are the delicious chirimoyas, paltas or alligator pears, the paccay, a species of Inga, the lucma, and the granadilla or fruit of the passion-flower. Vineyards and sugar-cane yield crops in the warmer ravines; the sub-tropical valleys are famous for splendid crops of maize; wheat and barley thrive on the mountain slopes; arid at heights from 7000 to 13,000 ft. there are crops of quinua (Chenopodium quinua). In the loftiest regions the pasture chiefly consists of a coarse grass (Stipa ychu), of which the llamas eat the upper blades and the sheep browse on the tender shoots beneath. There are also two kinds of shrubby plants, a thorny Composita called " ccanlli " and another, called " tola," which is a resinous Baccharis and is used for fuel.
The animals which specially belong to the Peruvian Andes are the domestic llamas and alpacas and the wild vicunas. There are deer, called taruco (Cervus antisensis); the viscacha, a large rodent; a species of fox called atoc; and the puma (Felts concolor) and ucumari or black bear with a white muzzle, when driven by hunger, wander into the loftier regions. .The largest bird is the condor, and there is another bird of the vulture tribe, with a black and white wing feather formerly used by the Incas in their head-dress, called the coraquenque or alcamari. The pito is a brown speckled creeper which flutters about the rocks.^ There is a chance to admire the Andean Cock of the Rock, Peru's national bird.

There is a little bird, the size of a starling, with brown back striped with black, and white breast, which the Indians call yncahualpa; it utters a monotonous sound at each hour of the night. A partridge called yutu frequents the long grass. .On the lakes there is a very handsome goose, with white body and dark-green wings shading into violet, called huachua, two kinds of ibis, a large gull (Larus serranus) frequenting the alpine lakes in flocks, flamingoes called parihuana, ducks and water-hens.^ It is a very vast complex which central part is in the town and its surroundings; traveling from Cusco, from Pachar there is a large amount of farming terraces that are already part of the complex.
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Many pretty little finches fly about the maize-fields and fruit-gardens, and a little green parakeet is met with as l;.igh as 12,000 ft. above the sea.
.The third division of Peru is the region of the tropical forests, at the base of the Andes, and within the basin of the Amazon.^ The river then continues on into the tropical rain forest of the Amazon Basin.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Blessed with an incredible topography from her desert fringed coast dotted with ancient cities, to the towering Andes running north to south in the central region, to the Amazon basin's rain forests covering more than half the Peruvian land mass and cruising ground for nature lovers and adventurers.

^ Great Amazon Rain Forest: 8 days -Exploring the Amazon Jungles of Peru .

It is traversed by great navigable rivers. The Maranon, on having burst through the defile of the Pongo de Man seriche (575 ft. above sea level), and the Huallaga through that of Chasuta, enter the forests and unite after separate courses of about 600 and 400 m., the united flood then flowing eastward to the Brazilian frontier. After 150 m. it is joined by the Ucayali, a great navigable river with a course of 600 m. The country between the Huallaga and the Ucayali, traversed by the Eastern Cordillera, is called the Pampa del Sacramento, and is characterized by extensive grassy plains. The forests drained by the Maranon, Huallaga and Ucayali form the northern portion of the Peruvian montana. .The southern half of the montana is watered by streams flowing from the eastern Andes, which go to form the river Madre de Dios or Amaru mayu, the principal branch of the river Beni, which falls into the Madeira.^ Arrive and transfer from Puerto Maldonado airport to the river port on the Madre de Dios River.

^ A 25 minutes journey down the Madre de Dios River by motor canoe brings you to the end of the trail in to Sandoval Lake Lodge.

^ After boarding motorized canoes, we travel downriver to the mighty Madre de Dios, which we follow for approximately four hours to the Heath River.

The region of the Peruvian montana, which is 800 m. long from the .Maranon to the Bolivian frontier, is naturally divided into two sections, the sub-tropical forests in the ravines and on the eastern slopes of the Andes, and the dense tropical forests in the Amazonian plain.^ The river then continues on into the tropical rain forest of the Amazon Basin.
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The sub-tropical section is important from the value of its products and interesting from the grandeur and beauty of its scenery. Long spurs run off from the Andes, gradually decreasing in elevation, and it is sometimes a distance of 60 or 80 m. before they finally subside into the vast forest-covered plains of the Amazon basin. Numerous rivers flow through the valleys between these spurs, which are the native home of the quinine-yielding cinchona trees. .The most valuable species, called C. Calisaya, is found in the forests of Caravaya in south Peru and in those of Bolivia.^ The smaller, in the Southeast, is called Lake Wiñay Marka which belongs to Bolivia; the larger, in the Northwest, is called Lake Chucuito and belongs to Peru.
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^ From that station there are buses in order to get to South-America's most famous Archaeological Group that is found at an average altitude of 2,450 meters (8,038 feet).
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The species between Caravaya and the headwaters of the Huallaga yield very little of the febrifuge alkaloid. But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine. With the cinchona trees grow many kinds of melastomaceae, especially the Lasiandra, with masses of purple flowers, tree-ferns and palms. In the warm valleys there are large plantations of coca (Erythroxylon Coca), the annual produce of which is stated at 15,000,000 lb. The other products of these warm valleys are excellent coffee, cocoa, sugar, tropical fruits of all kinds, and gold in abundance. .In the vast untrodden forests farther east there are timber trees of many kinds, incense trees, a great wealth of rubber trees of the Hevea genus, numerous varieties of beautiful palms, sarsaparilla, vanilla, ipecacuanha and copaiba.^ Farther North there are also many other fountains constituting a vast temple dedicated to the cult of "Unu" (water).
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^ Afternoon hike in the beautiful primary rainforest reserve surrounding Ceiba Tops where many huge trees are festooned in epiphytes.

The abundant and varied fauna is the same as that of the Brazilian forests.
.Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.^ There is a great quantity of dried lava (volcanic rock) around the area.
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Thus the orographical features of the country correspond broadly with the geological divisions.
The constitution of the Mesozoic band varies. Above Lima the western chain of the Andes is composed of porphyritic tuffs and massive limestones, while the longitudinal valley of the Oroya is hollowed in carbonaceous sandstones. .From the analogy of the neighbouring countries it is possible that some of the tuffs may be Jurassic, but the other deposits probably belong for the most part to the Cretaceous system.^ What is left of the Sun Temple are some peripheral walls and the classical major wall that according to most historians is part of the High Altar.
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The carbonaceous sandstone contains Gault fossils. Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar. It is in this sandstone that the rich mercury mines of Huancavelica are worked.
Farther north, in the department of Ancachs, the Mesozoic belt is composed chiefly of sandstones and shales, and the limestones which form so prominent a feature above Lirna seem to have disappeared. .The Cordillera Negra in this region is in many places cut by numerous dikes of diorite, and it is near these dikes that silver ores are chiefly 1 See L. Crosnier, " Notice geologique sur les departements de Huancavelica et d'Ayacucho," Ann.^ In the last 20 years of studies, Mallku has discovered some of the most important astronomical phenomena that are still visible at many of these "power places."
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des mines,
5th series, vol. ii. pp. 1-43, Pl. I (1852); A. Raimondi, El Departamento de Ancachs y sus riquezas minerales (Lima, 1873); G. Steinmann, " Ueber Tithon and Kreide in den peruanischen Anden," Neues Jahrb. (1882), vol. ii. pp. 130-153, Pls. 6-8; K. Gerhardt, " Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Kreideformation in Venezuela and Peru," Neues Jahrb., Beil. - Bd. XI. (1897), pp. 65-117, Pls. 1, 2; J. Grzybowski, "Die Tertirablagerungen des nordlichen Peru and ihre Molluskenfauna," Neues Jahrb., Beil - Bd. XII. (1899), pp. 610-664, Pls. 15-20.
found. In the Cordillera Nevada the Mesozoic rocks which form the chain are often covered by masses of modern volcanic rock. Similar rocks are also found in the Cordillera Negra, but the volcanic centres appear to have been in the Sierra Nevada.

Population

The first trustworthy enumeration of the people of Peru was made in 1793, when there were 617,700 Indians, 241,225 mestizos (Indian and white inter-mixture), 136,311 Spaniards, 40,337 negro slaves and 41,404 mulattoes, making a total of 1,076,977, exclusive of the wild Indians of the montana. Viceroy Toledo's enumeration of the Indians in 1575 gave them a total of 8,000,000, the greater part of whom had been sacrificed by Spanish cruelty. Others had withdrawn into the mountains and forests, and in the native villages under Spanish administration the birth rate had dropped to a small part of what it had been because the great bulk of the male population had been segregated in the mines and on the estates of the conquerors. This tells a story of depopulation under Spanish rule, to which the abandoned terraces (andenes) on the mountain sides, once highly cultivated, bear testimony. Several diverse totals have been published as the result of the census taken in 1876, which is considered imperfect. .One estimate places the total at 2,660,881, comprising about 13.8% whites, 57.6% Indians, 1 .^ Santiago Agurto following relative population densities estimates about 126,000 persons for the urban zone and about 100,000 for the rural one, that is, a total population of about 225,000 inhabitants.
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9
% negroes, 1.9% Asiatics, chiefly Chinese, and 24.8% mixed races. .In 1906 estimates were made under official auspices (see A. Garland, Peru in 1906, Lima, 1907), which gave the population as 3,547,829, including Tacna (8000).^ Airfare via American Airlines from Miami to Lima, Peru (see add-ons from more than 100 USA cities below).

^ INTERNATIONAL AIRFARE via American Airlines or Lan Peru from Miami to Lima (RT) and local air Lima -Cuzco -P.Maldonado-Lima NOT INCLUDED: .

It is believed, however, that this and other larger estimates are excessive. There is no considerable immigration.
The population of Peru is mixed, including whites, Indians, Africans, Asiatics, and their mixtures and sub-mixtures. The dominant race is Of Spanish origin, to a considerable extent mixed with Indian blood. The Indians are in great part descendants of the various tribes organized under the rule of the Incas at the time of the Spanish conquest. There are two distinct general types - the coast tribes occupying the fertile river valleys, who are employed on the plantations, in domestic service in the cities, or in small industries of their own, no longer numerous; and the sierra tribes, who are agriculturists, miners, stock-breeders and packers, still comparatively numerous. In addition to these are the tribes of wild Indians of the montana region, or eastern forests, who were never under Inca rule and are still practically independent. Their number is estimated at 150,000 to 300,000, divided into 112 tribes, and differing widely in habits, customs and material condition. Some live in settled communities and roughly cultivate the soil. Others are hunters and fishermen and are nomadic in habit. Others are intractable forest tribes, having no relations with the whites. The sierra or upland Indians, the most numerous and strongest type, belong largely to the Quichua and Aymara. families, the former inhabiting the regions northward of Cuzo, and the latter occupying the Titicaca basin and the sierras of Bolivia. These Indians are generally described as Cholos, a name sometimes mistakenly applied to the mestizos, while the tribes of the eastern forests are called Chunchos, barbaros, or simply Indians. .The Cholos may be roughly estimated at about 1,800,000 and form by far the larger part of the sierra population.^ Santiago Agurto following relative population densities estimates about 126,000 persons for the urban zone and about 100,000 for the rural one, that is, a total population of about 225,000 inhabitants.
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^ "Tankanamarka" (tankay = to push, marka = spot; it may be translated as "hurling spot"), and according to some estimates it must have contained about 10,000 tombs.
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Practically all the industries and occupations of this extensive region depend upon them for labourers and servants.
The mestizos are of mixed Spanish and Indian blood. There are two general classes - the costenos or those of the coast, and the serranos or those of the sierras. The mestizos of the coast are usually traders, artisans, overseers, petty officers and clerks, and small politicians. In the sierras they have the same general occupations, but there are no social bars to their advancement, and they become lawyers, physicians, priests, merchants, officials and capitalists. The African and Asiatic elements furnish only about 2% each of the population. The Africans were introduced as slaves soon after the conquest, because the coast Indians were physically incapable of performing the work required of them on the sugar estates. All the heavy labour in the coast provinces was performed by them down to 1855, when African slavery was abolished. They have since preferred to live in the towns, although many continue on the plantations. The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty. The scandals that resulted led to investigations and severe restrictions, and their employment now has become a matter of voluntary contract, usually for two years, in which fair dealing and good treatment are the rule. Many Chinese are also settled in the coast cities. Commercial relations have also been opened with Japan, and a small Japanese colony has been added to the population. The Spanish and African cross is to be seen in the mulattoes, quadroons and octoroons that inhabit the warm coast cities. Other race mixtures consist of the zambos (the African-Indian cross), an Asiatic graft upon these various crosses, and an extremely confusing intermixture of the various crosses, for which the Spanish races have descriptive appellations. .The foreign population is chiefly concentrated in Lima and Callao, though mining and other industries have drawn small contingents to other places.^ Prior to this, Puno had been a small stopping off place between the much larger silver mines at Potosi in Bolivia and to the way to Lima.
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Education

Universities and colleges were founded in Peru soon after the conquest, and Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa and Chuquisaca (now the Bolivian town of Sucre) became centres of considerable intellectual activity. Something was done for the education of the sons of the Indian " nobility," schools being created at Lima and Cuzco. The university of San Marcos at Lima is the oldest collegiate institution in the New World, originating in a grant from Charles V. in 1551 to the Dominicans for the establishment of a college in their monastery at Lima. Its present name, however, was not adopted until 1574, two years after its first secular rector had been chosen. .The college of San Carlos was founded in 1770, and the school of medicine in 1792. At Cuzco the university of San Antonio Abad was founded in 1598, and the college of San Geronimo at Arequipa in 1616. The instruction given in these institutions was of the religious-scholastic character of that time, and was wholly under the supervision of the Church.^ The city, whose full name is San Carlos de Puno, was founded in 1668 following the discovery of nearby silver mines.
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Independence opened the way for a larger measure of intellectual and educational progress, especially for the lower classes. As organized under the law of the 5th of December 1905, primary instruction is free and nominally obligatory, and is under the control of the national government. .The primary schools are divided into two grades: a free elementary course of two years, and a higher course of three years, in a school called the " scholastic centre," in which learning a trade is included.^ Andean history is divided into segments of 1000 years, with a transformational era in the middle, every 500 years.
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^ My 33 year old friend Ruth has a grade 4 brain tumour and two three year old twin girls and a husband…Need I say more?
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^ This thousand year cycle was then divided into halves, each of which was referred to as a Pachakuti ("he who transform the earth").
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There were 1508 elementary schools and 862 scholastic centres in 1906. There are, besides these, a large number of private schools, which in 1906 carried about 22,000 pupils on their rolls, or three times the number in the public primary schools. To provide teachers six normal schools have been established, two of which (one for males and one for females) are in Lima. For intermediate or secondary instruction there are 23 national colleges for boys in the various departmental capitals, and three similar colleges for girls, in Ayacucho, Cuzco and Trujillo. In these the majority of pupils were under the direction of Belgian and German instructors. The private schools of this grade are still more numerous, and there are a number of special schools that belong to the same category. .For higher instruction there are four universities: the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos at Lima, and three provincial institutions at Arequipa, Cuzco and Trujillo.^ There will be at least three or four places where we meet children from communities or little villages in the Lake Titikaka area.
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^ HOTELS: LIMA=Marriott; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= Libertador; CUZCO= Monasterio; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

^ Hotels : LIMA=Faraona; CHICLAYO= Garza; TRUJILLO= Gran Marquez; CUZCO= Dorado; M.PICCHU=Machu Picchu Inn; PUNO= Casa Andina; AREQUIPA= La Grutta or Jerusalem .

.All these have faculties of letters and law, and San Marcos has in addition faculties of theology, medicine, mathematics and science, philosophy and administrative and political economy.^ I have read all these letters and they really give a message of hope and encouragement.
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.The professional schools include a school of civil and mining engineering at Lima (created 1876), a military school at Chorrillos under the direction of French instructors, a naval school at Callao, nine episcopal seminaries (one for each diocese), a national agricultural school in the vicinity of Lima (created 1902), and a few commercial schools.^ The reason is that today no one is preoccupied with keeping them and because we had almost five centuries in which the invaders were not interested in agriculture but only in mining gold and silver.
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There is also a correctional school at Lima devoted to the education and training of youthful delinquents.

Science and Literature

Towards the end of the 18th century scientific studies began tc receive attention in Peru. M. Godin, a member of the French commission for measuring an arc of the meridian near Quito, became professor of mathematics at San Marcos in 1750; and the botanical expeditions sent out from Spain gave further zest to scientific research. Dr Gabriel Moreno (d. 1809), a native of Huamantanga in the Maritime Cordillera, studied under Dr Jussieu, and became an eminent botanist. Don Hipolito Unanue, born at Arica in 1755, wrote an important work on the climate of Lima and contributed to the Mercurio pervano. This periodical was started in 1791 at Lima, the contributors forming a society called " amantes del pais," and it was completed in eleven volumes. It contains many valuable articles on history, topography, botany, mining, commerce and statistics. .An ephemeris and guide to Peru was begun by the learned geographer Dr Cosme Bueno, and continued by Dr Unanue, who brought out his guides at Lima from 1 793 to 1798. In 1794 a nautical school was founded at Lima, with Andres Baleato as instructor and Pedro Alvarez as teacher of the use of instruments.^ When we return to the lodge, the guide leads us on an ethno-botanical walk through the forest, pointing out flora used in the daily lives of rainforest people.

^ Your guide will point out many plants used in medicine today and many that we may use in the future.

^ Your guide will point out many examples of native plants used as remedies by local people.

Baleato also constructed a map of Peru.
A list of Peruvian authors in viceregal times occupies a long chapter in the life of St Toribio 1 by Montalvo; and the bibliographical labours of the Peruvian Leon Pinelo are still invaluable to Spanish students. .The most prolific author of colonial times was Dr Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevo, who wrote more than sixty works, including an epic poem entitled Lima fundada. The topographical labours of Cosme Bueno and Unanue were ably continued at Lima by Admiral Don Eduardo Carrasco, who compiled annual guides of Peru from 1826. But the most eminent Peruvian geographer is Dr Don Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan (1821-1886), whose Geografia del Peru appeared in 1861. His still more important work, the Diccionario geografico estadistico del Peru (1877), is a gazetteer on a most complete scale.^ Pedro Sancho de la Hoz, a Spanish soldier who acted as Pizarro's secretary, wrote in 1543 that in the city were found more than 100,000 houses.
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^ Enjoy Peru, enjoy the wonderful company, remember those in whose memory you are walking, don’t forget that music is life, and that YOU rock!
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^ Sample air cost from Miami to Lima RT US$500 (see add-ons below from more than 100 USA cities) .

In 1868 appeared his first volume of the Historia del Peru independiente, and two others have since been published. .His Historia de la guerra del Pacifico is the Peruvian version of that disastrous war.^ Tour of the ruins and visit to Huaca del Sol (Sun) and the Huaca de La Luna (Moon).

The earlier history of Peru has been written in three volumes by Sebastian Lorente (d. 1884); Mariano Rivero has discussed its antiquities; and Manuel Fuentes has edited six volumes of memoirs written by Spanish viceroys. .But the most valuable and important historical work by a modern Peruvian is General Mendiburu's (1805-1885) Diccionario historico-biografico del Peru, a monument of patient and conscientious research, combined with critical discernment of a high order.^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Morning sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

As laborious historical students, Don Jose Toribio Polo, the author of an ecclesiastical history of Peruvian dioceses, and Don Enrique Torres Saldamando, the historian of the Jesuits in Peru, have great merit. Among good local annalists may be mentioned Juan Gilberto Valdivia, who has written a history of Arequipa, and Pio Benigno Mesa, the author of the Annals of Cuzco.
.The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.^ Afternoon visit the museum of Leimebamba full with well preserved pre-Inka mummies recently discovered in the Laguna de Los Condores.

^ Subsequently, the Peruvian government in Lima facing Bingham's request in order to execute works in Machu Picchu, by means of law given on October 31th, 1912, authorized him to carry out his projected works.
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Manuel A. Fuentes, an able statistician and the author of the Estadistica de Linta, has also written a manual of parliamentary practice. .Perhaps the most important work on Peru of modern times is that of the Italian savant Antonio Raimondi (1825-1890), who spent the greater part of his life in studying the topography and natural resources of the country.^ Peru is one of the most fascinating countries in the world.

^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Morning sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

Only four volumes had been published at the time of his death, but he left a mass of papers and manuscripts which the government has put in the hands of the Geographical Society of Lima for publication. .His great work is entitled El Peru: estudios mineralogicos, &c.^ Congratulations on Peru Rocks and the great work.
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^ Hope you’re enjoying your time in Peru, and great work supporting such a worthwhile cause!
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(3 vols., Lima, 1890-1902), and one separate volume on the department of Ancachs. Peruvian literature since the independence has also attained high merit in the walks of poetry and romance. The Guayaquil author, Olmedo, who wrote the famous ode on the victory of Junin, and the Limenians Felipe Pardo and Manuel Segura are names well known wherever the Spanish language is spoken. Both died between 1860 and 1870. The comedies of Segura on the customs of Lima society, entitled Un Paseo a Amancaes and La Saya y Manto, have no equal in the dramatic literature of Spanish America and few in that of modern Spain. From 1848 date the first poetical efforts of Arnaldo Marquez, who is distinguished for his correct diction and rich imagination, as is Nicolas Corpancho for his dramas and a volume of poems entitled Brisas, Adolfo Garcia for a beautiful sonnet to Bolivar, which was published at Havre in 1870, in his one volume of poems, and Clemente Althaus for his productivity and style. Pedro Paz Soldan was a classical scholar who published three volumes of poems. Carlos Augusto Salaverry is known as one of Peru's best lyrical poets, and Luis Benjamin Cisneros for his two novels, Julia and Edgardo. Trinidad Fernandez and Constantino Carrasco were two poets of merit who died young, the principal work of the latter being his metrical version of the Quichua drama, 011antay. Jose Antonio Lavalle and Narciso Arestegui are chiefly known as novelists. In his youth Ricardo Palma published three books of poems, entitled Armonias, Verbos y Gerundios and Pasionarias, and then, since 1870, devoted his great literary talents to writing the historical traditions of Peru, of which six volumes were published. At the outbreak of the war with Chile he was vice-director of the national library at Lima, which was wantonly pillaged by the Chilean forces. After the evacuation of Lima by the Chileans Palma devoted his life to the recovery of his scattered books and the acquisition of new collections, and he had the satisfaction before his death of re-opening the library, which had obtained about 30,000 volumes, or three-fourths of the number on its shelves before the Chilean invasion.
Of the aboriginal inhabitants of Peru much has been written. .The important work of Mariano Eduardo Rivero, of Arequipa, 1 The city of Lima produced two saints, the archbishop St Toribio, who flourished from 1578 to 1606, and Santa Rosa, the patron saint of the city of the kings (1586-1616), whose festival is celebrated on the 26th of August.^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of Lima "City of Kings" and the most important city in all the Americas from 1,535 to early 1,800.

^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Morning sightseeing tour of Lima "City of Kings" and the most important city in all the Americas from 1,535 to early 1,800.

assisted by J. J. von Tschudi, on the antiquities of Peru (Antiguedades peruanas, Vienna, 1841; Eng. trans., .New York, 1853) has been followed by other investigators into the language, literature, customs and religion of the Incas.^ Depart Miami, New York or Los Angeles for Lima, Capital of Peru After going through customs and immigration, you will be met and taken to hotel selected.

The best known of these are Jose Sebastian Barranca, the naturalist and antiquary, Jose Fernandez Nodal, and Gavino Pacheco Zegarra of Cuzco, who published translations of the Inca drama of 011antay, and Leonardo Villar, of Cuzco.
.Among Peruvian naturalists since the advent of the republic, the most distinguished have been Mariano Eduardo Rivero, the geologist, mineralogist and archaeologist, and his friend and colleague Nicolas de: Pierola, authors of Memorial de ciencias naturales. The Lima Geographical Society (founded in 1888) is perhaps the best and most active scientific organization in the republic.^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Morning sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

.Its special work covers national geographical exploration and study, archaeology, statistics and climatology, and its quarterly bulletins contain invaluable information.^ Almost immediately after his first exploration, he went back to the USA looking for economic support that was granted to him by the Yale University and the National Geographic Society.
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The society receives a government subsidy, and its rooms in the national library in Lima are the principal centre of scientific study in Peru. It had an active membership of 163 in 1906, besides 172 honorary and corresponding members. .The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.^ Today it is a Historic National Sanctuary, protected by the Peruvian Government, that tries to conserve the geological formations and archaeological remains inside the Sanctuary, besides protecting its flora, fauna and landscape's beauty.
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^ Subsequently, the Peruvian government in Lima facing Bingham's request in order to execute works in Machu Picchu, by means of law given on October 31th, 1912, authorized him to carry out his projected works.
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Its museum, which is of great historical and artistic value and includes a collection of portraits of the Peruvian viceroys and presidents, is in the upper floors of the Exposition Palace. Another subsidized national society is the athen ae um, which was founded in 1877 as the " literary club," and reorganized in 1887 under its present title. Its purpose is to foster learning and literary effort, and it is a popular and prominent feature in the intellectual life of the country.

Religion

According to the constitution of 1860 "the nation professes the apostolic Roman Catholic religion; the state protects it, and does not permit the public exercise of any other." There is a certain degree of tolerance, however, and the Anglican and some of the evangelical churches are permitted to establish missions in the country, but not always without hostile demonstrations from the Catholic priesthood. There are Anglican churches in Lima and Cuzco, belonging to the diocese of the Bishop of the Falkland Islands; but their existence is illegal and is ignored rather than permitted. .In its ecclesiastical organization Peru is divided into nine dioceses: Lima, which is an archbishopric, Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho, Huanuco, Huaraz, Trujillo and Chachapoyas.^ Local airfare Lima - Arequipa-Cuzco -Lima- Iquitos -Lima.

^ HOTELS: LIMA=Marriott; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= Libertador; CUZCO= Monasterio; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

^ Hotels : LIMA=Faraona; CHICLAYO= Garza; TRUJILLO= Gran Marquez; CUZCO= Dorado; M.PICCHU=Machu Picchu Inn; PUNO= Casa Andina; AREQUIPA= La Grutta or Jerusalem .

These dioceses are subdivided into 613 curacies, presided over by curas, or curatevicars. Each diocese has its seminary for the education of the priesthood, that of Arequipa being distinguished for its influence in church affairs. Arequipa, like Cordoba and Chuquisaca, is a stronghold of clericalism and exercises a decisive influence in politics as well as in church matters. There are a number of fine churches in Lima and in the sees of the various dioceses. Monasteries and nunneries are numerous, dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries, but their influence is now less potent than in those days and the monastic population is not so large. In modern times many of the convents have been devoted to educational work especially for girls, which is an obstacle to the successful development of a public school system in the country.
Departments.
Area
sq. m.
Estimated
pop., 1906.
Capital.
Estimated
pop., 1906.
Coast:-
Piura.. .
14,849
154,080
Piura.. .
9,100
Lambayeque.
4,615
93,070
Chiclayo. .
10,000
Libertad. .
10,209
188,200
Trujillo. .
6,500
Ancachs. .
16,567
317,050
Huaraz. .
13,000
Lima. .
13,314
250,000
Lima (1903) .
140,000
Ica (or Yca)
8,721
68,220
Ica. .
6,000
Arequipa. .
21,953
171,750
Arequipa .
28,000
Sierra:-
Cajamarca.
12,542
333,3 10
Cajamarca .
9,000
Huanuco. .
14,028
108;980
Huanuco. .
6,000
Junin. .
23,354
305,700
Cerro de Pasco
10,000
Huancavelica
9,254
167,840
Huancavelica
6,000
Ayacucho .
18,190
226,850
Ayacucho. .
15,000
Apurimac .
8,189
133,000
Abancay. .
2,400
Cuzco.. .
156,317
328,980
Cuzco.. .
23,000
Puno.. .
41,211
403,000
Puno.. .
4,500
Montana:-
Amazonas.
13,947
53,000
Chachapoyas .
4,500
Loreto .
238,493
120,000
Iquitos .
6,000
San Martin .
30,745
33,000
Moyobamba
7,500
Littoral
Provinces:-
Tumbez. .
1,981
8,000
Tumbez
2,300
Callao. .
142
33, 8 79
Callao (1905).
31,128
Moquegua .
5,5502
31,920
Moquegua .
5,000

Political Divisions

.The empire of the Incas was divided into four main divisions, Chinchay-suyu to the north of Cuzco, Anti-suyu to the east, Colla-suyu to the south and Cunti-suyu to the west, the whole empire being called Ttahuantin-suyu, or the four governments.^ Visiting Lima, Cuzco "Capital of the Inca Empire" and the Lost City of the Inkas .

^ Visiting Lima, Cuzco "Capital of the Inca Empire" and the Lost City Of the Inkas "Machu Picchu" , .

Each was ruled by a viceroy, under whom were the " huaranca-camayocs," or officers ruling over thousands, and inferior officers, in regular order, over Soo, 500, 50 and so men. All disorders and irregularities were checked by the periodical visits of the tucuyricocs or inspectors. The Spanish conquest destroyed this complicated system. In 1569 the governor, Lope Garcia de Castro, divided Peru into corregimientos under officers named corregidors, of whom there were 77 , each in direct communication with the government at Lima. .An important administrative reform was made in 1784, when Peru was divided into 7 intendencias, each under an officer called an intendente. These intendencias included about 6 of the old corregimientos, which were called partidos, under officers named subdelegados. Thus the number of officers reporting direct to Lima was reduced from 77 to 7, a great improvement.^ Mallku has made and uncovered significant discoveries about these geo-magnetic forces.
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The republic adopted the same system, calling the intendencias departments, under a prefect, and the partidos provinces, under a sub-prefect. Peru is divided into 18 departments, 2 littoral provinces, and what is called the constituticnal province of Callao. This is exclusive of Tacna and its 3 provinces. .The departments, which contain 9 8 provinces, with their areas, capitals and estimated populations of 1906, are as follow: the list being arranged to show the coast, sierra and montana divisions Apart from the departmental capitals there are few towns of size and importance.^ The town, capital of the province during colonial times, has a lovely main square and a colonial church, Nuestra Señora de La Asunción (built in 1601).
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.The so-called coast towns are commonly at some distance from the seashore, and their shipping ports are little more than a straggling collection of wretched habitations in the vicinity of the landing-stage and its offices and warehouses.^ There is internet service all over the main towns and some little ones.
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Callao (q.v.) is a noteworthy exception, and Paita and Pisco are something more than the average coast village. Near Lima, on the south, there are three bathing resorts, Chorrillos, Miraflores and Barranco, which have handsome residences and large populations in the bathing season. North of Lima is the port and bathing resort of Ancon, in an extremely arid locality but having a fine beach, a healthy climate and a considerable population in the season. The towns of the coast region are usually built on the same general plan, the streets crossing each other at right angles and enclosing squares, or quadras. In the sierra there is the same regular plan wherever the site is level enough. High-pitched red tiled roofs take the place of the flat roofs of the coast. The upper storey often recedes, leaving wide corridors under the overhanging eaves, and in the " plazas " there are frequently covered arcades. .In addition to the capitals of the departments, Tarma (about 4000) and Xauxa, or Jauj a (about 3000), are important towns of this region.^ Transfer to airport for flight to Chiclayo, which is about 550 miles north of Lima, burgeoning commercial center and capital of the department of Lambayeque.

.In the montana there are no towns of importance other than the capitals of the departments and the small river ports.^ Note: If you want to depart any other day (other than Thursdays)....just add $50 more per person.

^ Departs Monday, Tuesday, Thursday or Fridays Day 1 - Puerto Maldonado to Heath River Wildlife Center We meet at the Puerto Maldonado airport and drive through town to the Tambopata River port.

Communications.-The problem of easy and cheap transportation between the coast and the interior has been a vital one for Peru, for upon it depends the economic development of some of the richest parts of the republic. The arid character of the coastal zone, with an average width of about 80 m., permits cultivation of the soil only where water for irrigation is available. Only in the sierra and montana regions is it possible to maintain a large population and develop the industries upon which their success as a nation depends. .During colonial times and down to the middle of the 19th century pack animals were the only means of transportation across the desert and over the rough mountain trails.^ Visit the impressive Inka site of Winay-Wayna (only seeing when you do the Inka trail) The final part of the trail on the back on Machu Picchu mountain is stunningly beautiful.

^ The town, capital of the province during colonial times, has a lovely main square and a colonial church, Nuestra Señora de La Asunción (built in 1601).
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.Railway construction in Peru began in 1848 with a short line from Callao to Lima, but the building of railway lines across the desert to the inland towns of the fertile river valleys and the Andean foot-hills did not begin until twenty years later.^ Although our first impression of the coastal ecosystem will be inhospitable and barren, the fertile valleys that periodically interrupt the desert south of Lima will prove us partially incorrect.
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^ There is a spectacular view of the valley and beautiful Andean landscapes surround the town, outstanding the beauty of the snowy mountains Chicon and Veronica of the Mountain Range of Urubamba.
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^ It is said that its construction, begun by the Inca Tpac Yupanqui, took more than seventy years and required the labor of over twenty thousand men.

These roads added much to the productive resources of the country, but their extension to the sierra districts was still a vital necessity. Under the administration (1868-1872) of President Jose Balta the construction of two transandean and several coastal zone railways was begun, but their completion became impossible for want of funds. Balta's plans covered 1281 m. of state railways and 749 m. of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. .The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906. Surveys were completed in 1909 for an extension of the Oroya line from a point on its Cerro de Pasco branch eastward to the Ucayali, and another transandean line frequently discussed is projected from Paita across the Andes to Puerto Limon, on the Maranon-a distance of 410 m.^ Day 04 PUNO-CUZCO Transfer to the train station for a full day ride across the Altiplano as you pass through many villages.

^ This typical Andean village is located in one of the most spectacular high plateaus with tremendous views of the Cordillera Vilcabamba Mountain range as well as the majestic Salkantay Mountain that reaches almost 20,000 ft in elevation.
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^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
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The most important means of communication in the republic is that of its river system, comprising, as it does, the navigable channels of the Maranon, or upper Amazon, and its tributaries. It is officially estimated that this system comprises no less than 20,000 m. of connected riverways navigable at high water for all descriptions of boats, or 10,000 m. for steamers of 20 to 2 ft. draught, which is reduced to 5800 m. at low water. The rivers forming this system are the Maranon from Puerto Limon to Tabatinga on the Brazilian frontier (484 m.), the Japura, Putumayo, Javary, Napo, Tigre, Huallaga, Ucayali, Pachitea, Jurua, Purus, Acre, Curaray and Aguarico all navigable over parts of their courses for steamers of 4 to 8 f t. draught in periods of high water. As for the Maranon, it is claimed that steamers of 20 ft. draught can ascend to Puerto Limon at all seasons of the year. The inclusion of the upper waters of the Brazilian rivers Jurua, Purus and Acre is pro forma only, as they are wholly under Brazilian jurisdiction. Practically the whole of the region through which these rivers runthe montana of Peru-is undeveloped, and is inhabited by Indians, with a few settlements of whites on the river courses. Its chief port is Iquitos, on the Maranon, 335 m. above the Brazilian frontier and 2653 m. from the mouth of the Amazon. It is visited by ocean-going steamers, and is the centre of the Peruvian river transportation system. The second port in importance is Yuriinaguas, on the Huallaga, 143 m. from the mouth of that river and 528 m. from Iquitos, with which it is in regular communication. .There are small ports, or trading posts, on all the large rivers, and occasional steamers are sent to them with supplies and to bring away rubber and other forest products.^ About the gifts, we recommend to bring colors, crayons, pens, notebooks, pencils, toys, clothes, or others, but not candies or chemical products.
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.Of the rivers farther south, which discharge into the Amazon through the Madeira, the Madre de Dios alone offers an extended navigable channel, together with some of its larger tributaries, such as the Heath and Chandless.^ The river then continues on into the tropical rain forest of the Amazon Basin.
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^ Arrive and transfer from Puerto Maldonado airport to the river port on the Madre de Dios River.

^ After lunch and a short rest, we hike through the rainforest to the Pampas del Heath, the largest remaining undisturbed savanna in the Amazon.

.Of a widely different character is the navigation of Lake Titicaca, where steamers ply regularly between Puno and Guaqui, the latter on the south-east shore in railway connexion with La Paz, the capital of Bolivia.^ Puno, on the shores of Lake Titicaca -the highest navigable lake in the world.

^ Prior to this, Puno had been a small stopping off place between the much larger silver mines at Potosi in Bolivia and to the way to Lima.
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^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
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.This is one of the most remarkable steamer routes in the world, being 12,370 ft.^ Peru is one of the most fascinating countries in the world.

^ Be prepared to see one o the most fabulous sights in the world.

above sealevel. The lake is 165 m. long and from 70 to 80 m. wide and has a number of small Indian villages on its shores.
There are two submarine cable lines on the Peruvian coastthe (American) Central and South American Co. extending from Panama to Valparaiso, and the (British) West Coast Cable Co., subsidiary to the Eastern Telegraph Co., with a cable between Callao and Valparaiso. The inland telegraph service dates from 1864, when a short line from Callao to Lima was constructed, and state ownership from 1875, when the government assumed control of all lines within the republic, some of which were subsequently handed over to private administration. .They connect all the important cities, towns and ports, but cover only a small part of the republic.^ Raqchi: On the road from Cusco to Puno in the town of Raqchi lies an Inkan city-temple, dedicated to the most important entity Wiraqocha.
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^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of Lima "City of Kings" and the most important city in all the Americas from 1,535 to early 1,800.

^ The canyon Is reached via new paved roads that both leave from Arequipa city and lead to the small town of Chivay.

The cost of erecting and maintaining telegraph lines in the sierra and montana regions is too great to permit their extensive use, and the government is seeking to substitute wireless telegraphy. From Puerto Bermudez, on the Pachitea or Pichis river, the terminus of a government road and telegraph line, a wireless system connects with Massisea on the Ucayali, and thence with Iquitos, on the Maranon-a distance of 930 m. by steamer, which is much shortened by direct communication between the three radiographic stations. This service was opened to Iquitos on the 8th of July 1908, the first section between Puerto Bermudez and Massisea having been pronounced a success. The Peruvian telegraph system connects with those of Ecuador and Bolivia. The use of the telephone is general, 5236 m. being in operation in 1906. The postal service is unavoidably limited and defective, owing to the rugged character of the country, its sparse population, and the large percentage of illiterates. .On the coast, however, in and near the large cities and towns, it compares well with other South American countries.^ Besides, for the noble population dwelling in this city there was a very ample and well planned urban sector, a plaza surrounded by important buildings and toward the town's South an impressive "Kallanka"; that is, a building which dimensions are colossal and completely roofed.
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^ The islands themselves are breeding grounds to healthy colonies of South American fur seals and South American sea lion as well as a small colony of Humboldt penguins.
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^ At the Mirador de Lobos, we will look down upon a large congregation of noisy South American sea lions and South American fur seals.
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Peru belongs to the international postal union, and had in 1906 a money order and parcels exchange with seven foreign states. A noteworthy peculiarity in the foreign mail service is that an extra charge of 2 cents for each letter and 1 cent for each post-card is collected when they are sent across the isthmus of Panama. No charge is made for the transmission of newspapers within the republic. The letter rate is 5 cents silver for 15 grams, or 10 cents to foreign countries in the postal union.
Commerce.-Owing to political disorder, difficulty in land communications, and the inheritance of vicious fiscal methods from Spanish colonial administration, the commercial development of Peru has been slow and erratic. There are many ports on the coast, but only eight of them are rated as first class, viz. Paita, Eten, Pacasmayo, Salaverry, Callao, Pisco, Mollendo and Ilo, five of which are ports of call for foreign coasting steamers. The inland port of Iquitos, on the Maranon, is also rated as first class, and enjoys special privileges because of its distance from the national.
capital. .The second-class ports are Tumbez, Talara, Pimentel, Chimbote, Samanco, Casma, Huacho, Cerro-Azul, Tambo de Mora Lomas and Chala, on the coast, Puno on Lake Titicaca, and Leticia on the Amazon near the western mouth of the Javary, Callao (qv.^ Day 03 LA PAZ-LAKE TITICACA-PUNO Depart early mornig for Huatajata port on the shores of Lake Titicaca.Board the Hydrofoil to visit the colorful Andean town of Copacabana.

^ Puno, on the shores of Lake Titicaca -the highest navigable lake in the world.

^ Peru & Bolivia : 9 days -Visiting La Paz, Lake Titicaca, Puno, Cuzco, Machu Picchu and The Nasca Lines.

) is the chief port of the republic and monopolizes the greater part of its foreign trade. Its harbour, one of the best on the west coast of South America, has been greatly improved by the port works begun under the administration of President Balta. Paita and Chimbote have good natural harbours, but the others, for the most part, are open roadsteads or unsheltered bays. Mollendo is a shipping port for Bolivian exports sent over the railway from Puno. There were 12 foreign steamship lines trading at Peruvian ports in 1908, some of them making regular trips up and down the coast at frequent intervals and carrying much of its coastwise traffic. Foreign sailing vessels since 1886 have not been permitted to engage in this traffic, but permission is given to steamships on application and under certain conditions. The imports were valued in 1907 at 55,147,870 soles (to soles = £1 stg.) and the exports at .57,477,320 soles - the former showing a considerable increase and the latter a small decrease in comparison with 1906. The exports consist of cotton, sugar, cocaine, hides and skins, rubber and other forest products, wool, guano and mineral products.^ The offering may consist of nuts, seeds, petals, leaves, herbs, stones, corn, wool and other elements.
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The most important export is sugar, the products of the mines ranking second. The largest share in Peru's foreign trade is taken by Great Britain, Chile ranking second and the United States third.

Products

Although her mining industries have been the longest and most widely known, the principal source of Peru's wealth is agriculture. This seems incompatible with the arid character of the country and the peculiar conditions of its civilization, but irrigation has been successfully employed in the fertile valleys of the coast.

Agriculture

Sugar-cane is cultivated in most of the coast valleys, and with exceptional success in those of the Canete, Rimac, Chancay, Huaura, Supe, Santa, Chicama, Pacasmayo and Chiclayo. Some of the large estates are owned and worked by British subjects. The industry was nearly ruined by the Chileans in 1880, but its recovery soon followed the termination of the war and the output has been steadily increasing. At the outbreak of the war the production was about 80,000 tons; in 1905 the production of sugar and molasses amounted to 161,851 metric tons, of which 134,344 were exported. In 1906 the total production reached 169,418 metric tons. .Next in importance is cotton, which is grown along the greater part of the Peruvian coast, but chiefly in the departments of Piura, Lima and Ica.^ Day 1 -LIMA-ICA: Depart Lima by regular schedule bus to Ica.

.Four kinds are produced: rough cotton or " vegetable wool," sea island, brown or Mitafifi, and smooth or American.^ The islands themselves are breeding grounds to healthy colonies of South American fur seals and South American sea lion as well as a small colony of Humboldt penguins.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

Production is steadily increasing, the export having been 8000 metric tons in 1900, 17,386 in 1905 and 20,000 in 1906. Local consumption required about 2500 tons in 1905. Rice is an important crop in the inundated lands of Lambayeque and Libertad. It is a universal article of food in Peru, and the output is consumed in the country. Maize is another important food product which is generally cultivated along the coast and in the lower valleys of the sierra. .In some places two or three crops a year are obtained.^ My 33 year old friend Ruth has a grade 4 brain tumour and two three year old twin girls and a husband…Need I say more?
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

^ In the last 20 years of studies, Mallku has discovered some of the most important astronomical phenomena that are still visible at many of these "power places."
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

It is the staple food everywhere, and little is exported. It is largely used in the manufacture of chicha, a fermented drink popular among the lower classes. Tobacco is grown in the department of Piura, and in the montana departments of Loreto, Amazonas and Cajamarca. The local consumption is large and the export small. Another montana product is coffee, whose successful development is prevented by difficult transport. A superior quality of bean is produced in the eastern valleys of the Andes, especially in the Chanchamayo valley. Cacao is another montana product, although like coffee it is cultivated in the warm valleys of the sierra, but the export is small. With cheap transport to the coast the production of coffee and cacao must largely increase. Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a product peculiar to the eastern Andean slopes of Bolivia and Peru, where it has long been cultivated for its leaves. These are sun-dried, packed in bales, and distributed throughout the sierra region, where coca is used by the natives as a stimulant. The Cholos are never without it, and with it are able to perform incredible tasks with little food. The common manner of using it is to masticate the dried leaves with a little lime. Cocaine is also derived from coca leaves, and a considerably quantity of the drug is exported. The coca shrub is most successfully cultivated at an elevation of 5000 to 6000 ft. Fruits in great variety are grown everywhere in Peru, but beyond local market demands their commercial production is limited to grapes and olives. .Grapes are produced in many of the irrigated valleys of the coast, such as Chincha, Lunahuana, Ica, Vitor, Majes, Andaray, Moquegua and Locumba, and the fruit is manufactured into wines and brandies.^ Towns such as Cañete, Chincha and Pisco (the namesake of Peru´s national drink), nurtured by seasonal swells in rivers, coerce the parched drylands into producing Peru´s finest cotton, wine and, of course, Pisco.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

Excellent clarets and white wines are produced, and the industry is steadily increasing. .Olives were introduced early in colonial times and are cultivated in several coast valleys, especially in the provinces of Camanh (Arequipa) and Moquegua.^ The town, capital of the province during colonial times, has a lovely main square and a colonial church, Nuestra Señora de La Asunción (built in 1601).
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The fruit is commonly used for the manufacture of oil, which is consumed in the country, and only a small part is exported. Were large markets available, other fruits such as oranges, lemons, limes and bananas would undoubtedly be extensively cultivated. In the sierra region, wheat, barley, oats, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), alfalfa, Indian corn, oca (Oxalis tuberosa) and potatoes are the principal products. Wheat is widely grown but the output is not large. Barley and oats are grown for forage, but for this purpose alfalfa has become the staple, and without it the mountain packtrains could not be maintained. Quinua is an indigenous plant, growing at elevations of 13,500 ft. and more; its grain is an important food among the upland natives. Potatoes are grown everywhere in the sierras, and with quinua are the only crops that can be raised for human food above 13,000 ft. Yuca (Manihot utilissima), known as cassava in the West Indies and mandioca in Brazil, is also widely cultivated for food and for the manufacture of starch.
There are good pastures in the sierras, and cattle have been successfully reared in some of the departments since the early years of Spanish occupation, chiefly in Ancachs, Cajamarca, Junin, Ayacucho, Puno, and some parts of Cuzco. The development of alfalfa cultivation is extending the area of cattle-breeding somewhat and is improving the quality of the beef Livestock. The cattle are commonly small and hardy, and, like the Mexican cattle, are able to bear unfavourable conditions. Sheep are reared over a somewhat wider range, exclusively for their wool. The " natives," or descendants of the early importations, are small, long-legged animals whose wool is scanty and poor. Since the end of the 19th century efforts have been made to improve the stock through the importation of merinos, with good results. Sheep ranges under the care of Scottish shepherds have also been established in the department of Junin, the stock being imported from southern Patagonia, England and Australia. .Goats are raised in Piura and Lambayeque for their skins and fat, and swine-breeding for the production of lard has become important in some of the coast valleys immediately north of Lima.^ Transfer to airport for flight to Chiclayo, which is about 550 miles north of Lima, burgeoning commercial center and capital of the department of Lambayeque.

Horses are reared only to a limited extent, although there is a demand for them for military purposes. The government is seeking to promote the industry through the importation of breeding mares from Argentina. Mules are bred in Piura and Apurimac, and are highly esteemed for mountain travel. The chief breeding industry is that of the llama, alpaca and vicuiiaanimals of the Auchenia family domesticated by the Indians and bred, the first as a pack animal, and the other two for their wool, hides and meat. The llama was the only beast of burden known to the South American natives before the arrival of the Spaniards and is highly serviceable on the difficult trails of the Andes. The alpaca and vicuña are smaller and weaker and have never been used for this service, but their fine, glossy fleeces were used by the Indians in the manufacture of clothing and are still an important commercial asset of the elevated table-lands of Peru and Bolivia. The export of wool in 1905 exceeded 3,300,000 lb. The rearing of these animals requires much patience and skill, in which no one has been able to match the Indian breeders of the Andean plateaus.
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano. .There are two Forest kinds of rubber supplied by the Peruvian montana products. forests: jebe (also written hebe) or seringa, and caucho- the former being collected from the Hevea guayanensis, or H. brasiliensis, and the latter from the Castilloa elastica and some other varieties.^ For those still full of energy, there is an option to independently explore some of the forest trails.

.The Hevea product is obtained annually by tapping the trees and coagulating the sap over a smoky fire, but the caucho is procured by felling the tree and collecting the sap in a hollow in the ground where it is coagulated by stirring in a mixture of soap and the juice of a plant called vetilla. As the species from which Ceara rubber is obtained (Hancorina speciosa) is found in Bolivia, it is probable that this is also a source of the Peruvian caucho. The Hevea is found along the water-courses of the lowlands, which includes the large tributaries of the Maranon, while the caucho species flourish on higher ground, above 900 ft.^ Afternoon open boat trip along the Amazon in search of the two species of freshwater dolphin found in the river, as well as chance for an afternoon swim.

^ Morning walk along the "Bushmaster Trail", where scientific studies by the Missouri Botanical Gardens have found the world's highest biodiversity of trees per square hectare.

^ Afternoon canoe trip along the Amazon in search of either of the two species of freshwater dolphin found in the river.

elevation. Owing to the export tax on rubber (8 cents per kilogram on jebe and 5 cents on caucho) it is probable that the official statistics do not cover the total production, which was returned as 2539 metric tons in 1905, valued at £913,989. The export of cinchona, or Peruvian bark, is not important in itself, being only 64 tons, valued at £1406 in 1905. The best bark comes from the Carabaya district in southeastern Peru, but it is found in many localities on the eastern slopes of the Andes. The Peruvian supply is practically exhausted through the destructive methods employed in collecting the bark, and the world now depends chiefly on Bolivia and Ecuador. .The forests of eastern Peru are rich in fine cabinet woods, but their inaccessibility renders them of no great value.^ Great Amazon Rain Forest: 8 days -Exploring the Amazon Jungles of Peru .

Among the best known of them are cedar, walnut, ironwood and caoba, a kind of mahogany. .Many of the forest 'trees of the upper Amazon valley of Brazil are likewise found in Peru.^ Visiting Lima "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro, Cuzco "Capital of the Inka Empire" and exploring the mighty Amazon Rain Forest.

^ Great Amazon Rain Forest: 8 days -Exploring the Amazon Jungles of Peru .

The palm family is numerous and includes the species producing vegetable ivory (Phytelephas), straw for plaiting Panama hats (Carludovica palmata), and the peach palm (Guilielma speciosa). From guano an immense revenue was derived during the third quarter of the 19th century and it is still one of the largest exports. The guano beds are found on the barren islands of the Guano. Pacific coast. They were developed commercially during the administration (1845-1851) of President Ramon Castilla, at the same time that the nitrate deposits of Tarapaca became a commercial asset of the republic. The large revenues derived from these sources undoubtedly became a cause ofweakness and demoralization and eventually resulted in bankruptcy and the loss of Tarapaca. The deposits have been partially exhausted by the large shipments of over a half-century, but the export in 1905 was 73,369 tons, valued at £285,729.

Mining

Mining was the chief industry of Peru under Spanish rule. .The Inca tribes were an agricultural and pastoral people, but the abundance of gold and silver in their possession at the time of the conquest shows that mining must have received considerable attention.^ The reason is that today no one is preoccupied with keeping them and because we had almost five centuries in which the invaders were not interested in agriculture but only in mining gold and silver.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ The Aimara people living in the Titikaka Basin and on the islands still practice their ancient methods of agriculture on stepped terraces that predate Inka times.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

They used these precious metals in decorations and as ornaments, but apparently attached no great value to them. .The use of bronze also shows that they must have worked, perhaps superficially, some of the great copper deposits.^ Some of its narrow streets still keep their water channels where very clean water flowed for the population use; they are by the middle or at one side.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

Immediately following the Spanish invasion the Andean region was thoroughly explored, and with the assistance of Indian slaves thousands of mines were opened, many of them failures, some of them becoming famous. There was a decline in mining enterprise after the revolt of the colonists against Spanish rule, owing to the unsettled state of the country, and this decline continued in some measure to the end of the century. The mining laws of the colonial regime and political disorder together raised a barrier to the employment of the large amount of capital needed, while the frequent outbreaks of civil war made it impossible to work any large enterprise because of its interference with labour and the free use of ports and roads. The Peruvians were impoverished, and under such conditions foreign capital could not be secured. In 1876 new mining laws were enacted which gave better titles to mining properties and better regulations for their operation, but the outbreak of the war with Chile at the end of the decade and the succeeding years of disorganization and partisan strife defeated their purpose. Another new mining code was adopted in 1901, and this, with an improvement in political and economic conditions, has led to a renewal of mining enterprise.
Practically the whole Andean region of Peru is mineral-bearinga region 1500 m. long by zoo to 300 m. wide. Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum. Gold is found in lodes and alluvial deposit; the former on the Pacific slope at Salpo, Otuzco, Huaylas, Yungay, Ocros, Chorrillos, Canete, Ica, Nasca, Andaray and Arequipa, and on the table-lands and Amazon slope at. Pataz, Huanuco, Chuquitambo, Huancavelica, Cuzco, Cotabambas, Aymares, Paucartambo, Santo Domingo and Sandia; the latter wholly on the Amazon slope, in the country about the Pongo de Manseriche and at Chuquibamba, both on the upper Maranon, in the districts of Pataz, Huanuco, Aymares and Antabamba (Apurimac), Paucartambo and Quippicauchi (Cuzco), and Sandia and Carabaya (Puno). The last two are most important and, it is believed, were the sources from which the Incas derived the greater part of their store. The alluvial deposits are found both in the beds of the small streams and in the soil of the small plains or pampas. The Aporoma deposit, in the district of Sandia, is the best known. Long ditches with stone-paved sluices for washing this mineral-bearing material have long been used by the Indians, who also construct stone bars across the beds of the streams to make riffles and hold the deposited grains of gold. Modern methods of hydraulic mining have been introduced to work the auriferous banks of Poto; elsewhere antiquated methods only are employed. The upper valley of the Maranon has undeveloped gold-bearing lodes. The number of mines worked is small and there is not much foreign capital invested in them. The gold ores of Peru are usually found in ferruginous quartz. The production in 1906 was valued at £170,355.
Peru has been known chiefly for its silver mines, some of which have been marvellously productive. The Cerro de Pasco district, with its 342 mines, is credited with a production, in value, of £40,000,000 between 1784 and 1889, and is still productive, the output for 1906 being valued at £972,958.. The principal silverproducing districts, the greater part on the high table-lands and slopes of the Andes, are those of Salpo, Hualgayoc, Huari, Huallanca, Huaylas, Huaraz, Recuay, Cajatambo, Yauli, Cerro de Pasco, Morococha, Huarochiri, Huancavelica, Quespisisa, Castrovirreyna, Lucanas, Lampa, Caylloma and Puno, but there are hundreds of others outside their limits. Silver is generally found as red oxides (locally called rosicler), sulphides and argentiferous galena. Modern machinery is little used and many mines are practically unworkable for want of pumps. In,the vicinity of some of the deposits of argentiferous galena are large coal beds, but timber is scarce on the table-lands. The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft. The methods formerly employed in reducing ores were lixiviation and amalgamation with quicksilver, but modern methods are gradually coming into use. Quicksilver is found at Huancavelica, Chonta (Ancachs), and in the department of Puno. The mine first named has been worked since 1566 and its total production is estimated at 60,000 tons, the annual product being about 670 tons for a long period. The metal generally occurs as sulphide of mercury (cinnabar), but the ores vary greatly in richness - from 21 to 20%. The annual production has fallen to a small fraction of the former output, its value in 1905 being only £340, and in 1906 £495.
The copper deposits of Peru long remained undeveloped through want of cheap transport and failure to appreciate their true value. The principal copper-bearing districts are Chimbote, Cajamarca, Huancayo, Huaraz, Huallanca, Junin, Huancavelica, Ica, Arequipa, Andahuaylas and Cuzco - chiefly situated in the high, bleak regions of the Andes. The Junin district is the best known and includes the Cerro de Pasco, Yauli, Morococha and Huallay groups of mines, all finding an outlet to the coast over the Oroya railway. These mines are of recent development, the. Cerro de Pasco mines having been purchased by American capitalists. A smelting plant was erected in the vicinity of Cerro de Pasco designed to treat moo tons of ore daily, a railway was built to Oroya to connect with the state line terminating at that point, and a branch line 62 m. long was built to the coal-mines of Goillarisquisga. The Cerro de Pasco mines are supposed by some authorities to be the largest copper deposit in the world. In addition to the smelting works at Cerro de Pasco there are other large works at Casapalca, between Oroya and Lima, which belong to a British company, and smaller plants at Huallanca and Huinac. The production of copper is steadily increasing, the returns for 1903 being 9497 tons and for 1906 13,474 tons, valued respectively at £476,824 and £996,055. Of other metals, lead is widely distributed, its chief source being a high grade galena accompanied by silver. .Iron ores are found in Piura, the Huaylas valley, Aya, and some other places, but the deposits have not been worked through lack of fuel.^ Likewise, some other smaller buildings are located in outstanding spots or angles of the mountain that served as watchtowers for controlling movement of persons in the valley.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ I’ve also snooped through some of the other messages and it sounds like you’re with a fun group!
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

Sulphur deposits exist in the Sechura desert region, on the coast, and extensive borax deposits have been developed in the department of Arequipa. Coal has been found in extensive beds near Piura, Salaverry, Chimbote, Huarmey and Pisco on the coast, and at Goillarisquisga, Huarochiri and other places in the interior. Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found. Most of the deposits are isolated and have not been developed for want of transport. Petroleum has been found at several points on the coast in the department of Piura, and near Lake Titicaca in the department of Puno. The most productive of the Piura wells are at Talara and Zorritos, where refineries have been established. The crude oil is used on some of the Peruvian railways.
.The number of mining claims (pertenencias) registered in 1907 was 12,858, according to official returns, each subject to a tax of 30 soles, or £3, per annum, the payment of which secures complete ownership of the property.^ USA departure tax/security/fuel surcharges of $88 (changes daily...please call) Lima and Cuzco $5.00 each and upon leaving Peru $30.00.

^ USA departure tax/security/fuel surcharges of $88 (changes daily...please call) Lima and Cuzco $5.00 each and upon leaving Peru $30.00 .

^ USA departure tax of $88 (subject to change at any time) Lima and Cuzco $5.00 each and upon leaving Peru $30.00.

The claims measure 100 X200 metres (about 5 acres) in the case of mineral veins or lodes, and 200 X 200 metres (about 10 acres) for coal, alluvial gold and other deposits. The labourers are commonly obtained from the Cholos, or Indian inhabitants of the sierras, who are accustomed to high altitudes, and are generally efficient and trustworthy.

Manufactures

The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores. .Many of the manufacturing industries are carried on with difficulty and maintained only by protective duties on competing goods.^ It has many doorways and openings that allowed ventilation, and surely they were built up there to enable protection of the stored goods.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The Incas had made much progress in weaving, and specimens of their fabrics, both plain and coloured, are to be found in many museums. The Spanish introduced their own methods, and their primitive looms are still to be found among the Indians of the interior who weave the coarse material from which their own garments are made. Modern looms for the manufacture of woollens were introduced in 1861 and of cotton goods in 1874. There are large woollen factories at Cuzco and Lima, the Santa Catalina factory at the latter place turning out cloth and cashmere for the army, blankets, counterpanes and underclothing. .There are cotton factories about Lima, at Ica and at Arequipa.^ (B) Day 08 CUZCO-LIMA-NAZCA Transfer to the airport for flight to Lima to connect with flight to Ica.Then for about 45 minutes, fly over the Nazca plains in light aircraft.

Besides the wine industry, an irregular though important industry is the manufacture of artificial or counterfeit spirits and liqueurs in Callao and Lima. .There are breweries in Arequipa, Callao, Cuzco and Lima, and the consumption of beer is increasing.^ Local airfare Lima - Arequipa-Cuzco -Lima- Iquitos -Lima.

^ HOTELS: LIMA=Marriott; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= Libertador; CUZCO= Monasterio; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

^ Hotels: LIMA=Suites Las Palmeras; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= El Golf; CUZCO= Novotel; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

.There are large cigarette factories in Lima, and others in Arequipa, Callao, Piura and Trujillo.^ HOTELS: LIMA=Marriott; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= Libertador; CUZCO= Monasterio; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

^ Hotels: LIMA=Suites Las Palmeras; CHICLAYO= Gran Hotel; TRUJILLO= El Golf; CUZCO= Novotel; M.PICCHU=El Pueblo; PUNO= Esteves; AREQUIPA= Libertador .

The plaiting of Panama hats from the specially prepared fibre of the " toquilla " palm is a domestic industry among the Indians at Catacoas (Piura) and Eten (Lambayeque). Coarser straw hats are made at other places, as well as hammocks, baskets, &c.

Government

.Peru is a centralized republic, whose supreme law is the constitution of 1860. Like the other states of South America its constitution provides for popular control of legislation and the execution of the laws through free elections and comparatively short terms of office, but in practice these safeguards are often set aside and dictatorial methods supersede all others.^ I’ve also snooped through some of the other messages and it sounds like you’re with a fun group!
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

^ HOME HOT DEALS CENTRAL AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA FAM TRIPS ABOUT US INFORMATION .

Nominally the people are free and exercise sovereign rights in the choice of their representatives, but the ignorance of the masses, their apathy, poverty and dependence upon the great land proprietors and industrial corporations practically defeat these fundamental constitutional provisions. .Citizenship is accorded to all Peruvians over the age of 21 and to all married men under that age, and the right of suffrage to all citizens who can read and write, or possess real estate or workshops, or pay taxes.^ I have read all these letters and they really give a message of hope and encouragement.
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

^ On a lighter note, I’m in CA all week for my real estate investment thing with Armando.
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

In all cases the exercise of citizenship is regulated by law.
The government is divided into three independent branches, legislative, executive and judicial, of which through force of circumstances the executive has become the dominating power. The executive branch consists of a president and two vicepresidents elected for terms of four years, a cabinet of six ministers of state appointed by the president, and various subordinate officials who are under the direct orders of the president. The president is chosen by a direct popular election and cannot be re-elected to succeed himself. He must be not less than 35 years of age, a Peruvian by birth, in the enjoyment of all his civil rights, and domiciled in the republic ten years preceding the election. .The immediate supervision and despatch of public administrative affairs is in the hands of the cabinet ministers - interior, foreign affairs, war and marine, finance and commerce, justice and public instruction, and public works and promotion (fomento). The execution of the laws in the departments and provinces, as well as the maintenance of public order, is entrusted to prefects and sub-prefects, who are appointees of the president.^ Subsequently, the Peruvian government in Lima facing Bingham's request in order to execute works in Machu Picchu, by means of law given on October 31th, 1912, authorized him to carry out his projected works.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

A vacancy in the office of president is filled by one of the two vice-presidents elected at the same time and under the same conditions. Inability of the first vice-president to assume the office opens the way for the second vice-president, who becomes acting president until a successor is chosen. The vice-presidents cannot be candidates for the presidency during their occupancy of the supreme executive office, nor can the ministers of state, nor the generalin-chief of the army, while in the exercise of their official duties.
.The legislative power is exercised by a national Congress - senate and chamber of deputies - meeting annually on the 28th of July in ordinary session for a period of 90 days.^ This period is the dry season, with hot, dry days and cold, dry nights, often hovering just above freezing, particularly in June and July.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

Senators and deputies are inviolable in the exercise of their duties, and cannot be arrested or imprisoned during a session of Congress, including the month preceding and following the session, except in flagrante delicto. Members of Congress are forbidden to accept any employment or benefit from the executive. Senators and deputies are elected by direct vote - the former by departments, and the latter in proportion to the population. With both are elected an equal number of substitutes, who assume office in case of vacancy.
.Departments with eight and more provinces are entitled to four senators, those of four to seven provinces three senators, those of two to three provinces two senators, and those of one province one senator.^ I hope you and everyone have made it through the past two gruelling trek days OK, and you weren’t one of those to have a close encounter with a tarantula!
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

^ My 33 year old friend Ruth has a grade 4 brain tumour and two three year old twin girls and a husband…Need I say more?
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

The deputies are chosen to represent 15,000 to 30,000 population each, but every province must have at least one deputy. Both senators and deputies are elected for terms of six years, and both must be native-born Peruvian citizens in the full enjoyment of their civil rights. A senator must be 35 years of age, and have a yearly income of $1000. The age limit of a deputy is 25 years, and his income must be not less than $500. In both chambers the exercise of some scientific profession is accepted in lieu of the pecuniary income. No member of the executive branch of the government (president, cabinet minister, prefect, sub-prefect, or governor) can be elected to either chamber, nor can any judge or " fiscal " of the supreme court, nor any member of the ecclesiastical hierarchy from his diocese, province or parish, nor any judge or " fiscal " of superior and first-instance courts from their judicial districts, nor any military officer from the district where he holds a military appointment at the time of election. .No country is provided with more and better safeguards against electoral and official abuses than is Peru, and yet few countries suffered more from political disorder during the 19th century.^ Airfare via American Airlines from Miami to Lima, Peru (see add-ons from more than 100 USA cities below).

^ For more programs to Peru in combination with other countries visit section Combine Countries .

^ MORE COMBINE PERU-BOLIVIA, ECUADOR-PERU-BOLIVIA.....and others....see left side (scroll up) COMBINE COUNTRIES. .

The president has no veto power, but has the right to return a law to Congress with comments within a period of ten days. Should the act be again passed without amendments it becomes law; if, however, the suggested amendments are accepted the act must go over to the next session. Congress may also sit as a court of impeachment - the senate hearing and deciding the case, and the chamber acting as prosecutor. The president, ministers of state and judges of the supreme court may be brought before this court.

Justice

The judiciary is composed of a supreme court, superior courts and courts of first instance, and justices of the peace. .The supreme court is established at the national capital and consists of I 1 judges and 2 " fiscals " or prosecutors.^ Historians suggest that it was established in order to protect the great capital from possible attacks of the Antis nations (the name of the "Andes" Mountains derives from "Anti").
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The judges are selected by Congress from lists of nominees submitted by the executive. The judges of the superior courts are chosen by the president from the list of nominees submitted by the supreme court. Questions of jurisdiction between the superior and supreme courts, as well as questions of like character between the supreme court and the executive, are decided by the senate sitting as a court. .The courts of first instance are established in the capitals of provinces and their judges are chosen by the superior courts of the districts in which they are located.^ Ollantaytambo: A National Archaeological Park is located in the Ollantaytambo district, province of Urubamba.
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The independence of the Peruvian courts has not been scrupulously maintained, and there has been much criticism of their character and decisions.
The national executive appoints and removes the prefects of the departments and the sub-prefects of the provinces, and the prefects appoint the gobiernadores of the districts. The police officials throughout the republic are also appointees of the president and are under his orders.

Army

After the Chilean War the disorders fomented by the rival military officers led to a desire to place the administration of public affairs under civilian control. This led to a material reduction in the army, which, as reorganized, consists of 4000 officers and men, divided into seven battalions of infantry of 300 men each, seven squadrons of cavalry of 125 men each, and one regiment of mountain artillery of 590 men, with six batteries of mountain guns. The reorganization of the army was carried out by 10 officers and 4 non-corns. of the French army, known as the French military mission, who are also charged with the direction of the military school at Chorrillos and all branches of military instruction. There are a military high school, preparatory school, and " school of application " in connexion with the training of young officers for the army. The head of the mission is chief of staff. Formerly the Indians were forcibly pressed into the service and the whites filled the positions of officers, in great part untrained. .Now military service is obligatory for all Peruvians between the ages of 19 and 50, who are divided into four classes, first and second reserves (19 to 30, and 30 to 35 years), supernumeraries (those who have purchased exemption from service in the regular army), and the national guard (35 to 50 years).^ There are call centers in all the towns where you can make international phone calls for about 30 to 50 cents per minute.
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^ Andean history is divided into segments of 1000 years, with a transformational era in the middle, every 500 years.
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^ This thousand year cycle was then divided into halves, each of which was referred to as a Pachakuti ("he who transform the earth").
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.The regular force is maintained by annual drawings from the lists of young men 19 years of age in the first reserves, who are required to serve four years.^ It is said that its construction, begun by the Inca Tpac Yupanqui, took more than seventy years and required the labor of over twenty thousand men.

The direction of military affairs is entrusted to a general staff, which was reorganized in 1904 on the lines adopted by the great military powers of Europe. .The republic is divided into four military districts with headquarters at Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos, and these into eleven circumscriptions.^ Local airfare Lima - Arequipa-Cuzco -Lima- Iquitos -Lima.

The mounted police force of the republic is also organized on a military basis.

Navy

The Peruvian navy was practically annihilated in the war with Chile, and the poverty of the country prevented for many years the adoption of any measure for its rebuilding. In 1908 it consisted of only five vessels. The naval school at Callao is under the direction of an officer of the French navy. In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
1904.
1906.
1908.
Revenue. ... .
Expenditure
£1,990,568
£1,884,949
£2,527,766
£ 2,178,252
£2,997,433
£3,043,032

Finance

The financial record of Peru, notwithstanding her enormous natural resources, has been one of disaster and discredit. Internal strife at first prevented the development of her resources, and then when the export of guano and nitrates supplied her treasury with an abundance of funds the money was squandered on extravagant enterprises and in corrupt practices. This was followed by the loss of these resources, bankruptcy, and eventually the surrender of her principal assets to her foreign creditors. The government then had to readjust expenditures to largely diminished resources; but the obligation has been met intelligently and courageously, and since 1895 there has been an improvement in the financial state of the country. The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. .The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.^ All transfers by car & by boat from/to Iquitos; room taxes and service charges.

^ USA departure tax/security/fuel surcharges of $88 (changes daily...please call your Travel Agent or Tara Tours for an update on this charges) .

^ TOUR PACKAGE INCLUDES: Hotel accommodations for 7 nights including room taxes and service charges.

In 1905 a loan of £600,000 was floated in Germany for additions to the navy. The growth of receipts and expenditures is shown in the following table: - The revenues of 1896 were only £1,128,714. The foreign debt began with a small loan of £1,200,000 in London in 1822, and another of £1,500,000 in 1825 of which only £716,516 was placed. At the end of the war, these loans, and sums owing to Chile and Colombia, raised the foreign debt to £4,000,000. In 1830 the debt and accumulated interest owing in London amounted to £2,310,767, in addition to which there was a home debt of 17,183,397 dollars. In 1848 the two London loans and accumulated interest were covered by a new loan of £3,736,400, and the home debt was partially liquidated, the sale of guano giving the treasury ample resources. Lavish expenditure followed and the government was soon anticipating its revenues by obtaining advances from guano consignees, usually on unfavourable terms, and then floating loans. There was another conversion loan in 1862 in the sum of £5,5 00, 000 and in 1864 still another loan of this character was issued, nominally for £10,000,000, of which £7,000,000 only were issued. .Then followed the ambitious schemes of President Balta, which with the loans of 5870 and 1872 raised the total foreign debt to £49,000,000, on which the annual interest charge was about £ 2 ,5 ©0, 000, a sum wholly beyond the resources of the treasury.^ Santiago Agurto following relative population densities estimates about 126,000 persons for the urban zone and about 100,000 for the rural one, that is, a total population of about 225,000 inhabitants.
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In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates. .In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.^ Puno, on the shores of Lake Titicaca -the highest navigable lake in the world.

^ In the morning, depart for Lake Titicaca " the highest navigable lake in the world", at 12,000 feet high- to visit one of the oldest races of man -The Uros- You will see them standing on their floating islands made of reeds.

Some modifications were later made in the contract, owing to the government's failure to meet the annual subsidies and the corporation's failure to extend the railways agreed upon. This contract relieved Peru of its crushing burden of foreign indebtedness, and turned an apparently heavy loss to the bondholders into a possible profit. In 1910 the foreign debt stood at £3,140,000, composed of (1) Peruvian Corporation £2,160,000; (2) wharves and docks, £80,000; (3) loan of 1905, £500,000; (4) loan of 1906, £400,000.

Currency

The single gold standard has been in force in Peru since 1897 and 1898, silver and copper being used for subsidiary coinage. The monetary unit is the Peruvian pound (libra) which is uniform in weight and fineness with the British pound sterling. Half and fifth pounds are also coined. The silver coinage consists of the sol (100 cents), half sol (50 cents), and pieces of 20 (peseta), so and 5 cents; and the copper coinage of 1 and 2 cents. The single standard has worked well, and has contributed much toward the recovery of Peruvian commerce and finance. The change from the double standard was effected without any noticeable disturbance in commercial affairs, but this was in part due to the precaution of making the British pound sterling legal tender in the republic and establishing the legal equivalent between gold and silver at 10 soles to the pound. .The coinage in1906-1907was about £150,000 gold and £65,000 silver, and the total circulation in that year was estimated at £1,400,000 in gold coin and £600,000 in silver coin.^ Santiago Agurto following relative population densities estimates about 126,000 persons for the urban zone and about 100,000 for the rural one, that is, a total population of about 225,000 inhabitants.
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^ Today Cusco is considered the oldest living city in the American Continent with a continuous occupation of about 3,000 years until today.
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^ "Tankanamarka" (tankay = to push, marka = spot; it may be translated as "hurling spot"), and according to some estimates it must have contained about 10,000 tombs.
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Previous to the adoption of the single gold standard in 1897 the monetary history of Peru had been unfortunate. The first national coinage was begun in 1822, and the decimal system was adopted in 1863. Although the double standard was in force, gold was practically demonetized by the monetary reform of 1872 because of the failure to fix a legal ratio between the two metals. Experience with paper currency has been even more disastrous. During the administration (1872-1876) of President Pardo the government borrowed heavily from the banks to avoid the suspension of work on the railways and port improvements. These banks enjoyed the privilege of issuing currency notes to the amount of three times the cash in hand without regard to their commercial liabilities. A large increase in imports, caused by fictitious prosperity and inability to obtain drafts against guano shipments, led to the exportation of coin to meet commercial obligations, and this soon reduced the currency circulation to a paper basis. The government being unable to repay its loans from the banks compelled the latter to suspend the conversion of their notes, which began to depreciate in value. In 1875 the banks were granted a moratorium, to enable them to obtain coin, but without result. The government in 1877 contracted a new loan with the banks and assumed responsibility for their outstanding emissions, which are said to have aggregated about 100,000,000 soles, and were worth barely ro % of their nominal value. At last their depreciation reached a point where their acceptance was generally refused and silver was imported for commercial needs, when the government suspended their legal tender quality and allowed them to disappear.
275 ?

Weights and Measures

The French metric system is the official standard of weights and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people. These are the ounce, 1.104 oz. avoirdupois; the libra, 1.014 lb avoirdupois; the quintal, 101.44 lb avoirdupois; the arroba, 25.36 lb avoirdupois; ditto of wine, 6.70 imperial gallons; the gallon, 74 of an imperial gallon; the vara, 927 yard; and the square vara, 859 square yard. (A. J. L.) History. - .Cyclopean ruins of vast edifices, apparently never completed, exist at Tiahuanaco near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca.^ With lofty snow-capped peaks along its far shores, the vast blue lake at 3,810m is one of the Andes' most enchanting scenes.
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^ Chucuito Fertility Temple: On a small promontory on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, Chucuito, a small Aymara town, is one of the oldest in the altiplano region.
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^ Puno, on the shores of Lake Titicaca -the highest navigable lake in the world.

.Remains of a similar character are found at Huaraz in the north of Peru, and at Cuzco, 011antay-tambo and Huinaque between Huaraz and Tiahuanaco.^ Local airfare Lima-Cuzco-Lima via Lan Peru or similar.

These works appear to have been erected by powerful sovereigns with unlimited command of labour, possibly with the object of giving employment to subjugated people, while feeding the vanity or pleasing the taste of the conqueror. Of their origin nothing is historically known. .It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.^ It is said that its construction, begun by the Inca Tpac Yupanqui, took more than seventy years and required the labor of over twenty thousand men.

^ Egad, I guess you all saw the crash at last year’s site (Luklau, or something like that) which killed all but the pilot, some 19 people .
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^ In the last 20 years of studies, Mallku has discovered some of the most important astronomical phenomena that are still visible at many of these "power places."
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.The conquering tribe or tribes had made their way to the sierra from the plains, and found themselves a new land sheltered from attack amidst the lofty mountains that hem in the valley of Cuzco and the vast lake basin of Titicaca, situated 12,000 ft.^ Inkas & Kings 12 days visiting The Colca Canyon, Lake Titicaca, Machu Picchu and the city of Kings "Lima".

^ In the morning, depart for Lake Titicaca " the highest navigable lake in the world", at 12,000 feet high- to visit one of the oldest races of man -The Uros- You will see them standing on their floating islands made of reeds.

^ Peru & Bolivia : 9 days -Visiting La Paz, Lake Titicaca, Puno, Cuzco, Machu Picchu and The Nasca Lines.

above the sea level. The first historical records show us these people already possessed of a considerable civilization, and speaking two allied languages, Aymara and Quichua. .The expansion of the Inca rule and the formation of the Peruvian Empire was of modern growth at the time of the Spanish conquest, and dated from the victories of Pachacutic Inca who lived about a century before Huayna Capac, the Great Inca, whose death took place in 1526, the year before Pizarro first appeared on the coast.^ As you visit the sacred sites, an expert shaman, who lives, talks, and breathes the Way of the ageless Inkas, will be your guide to ancient rituals and ceremonies, whose secrets have been guarded from time immemorial.
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^ One of the Solar Discs in the Inka time that was at Cusco, and placed in the Qorikancha, the main Temple of the Sun, stayed there until the coming of the Spanish.
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^ This was a time of light when the Inka Empire flourished and there was expansion and good fortune.
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His consolidated empire extended from the river Ancasmayu north of Quito to the river Maule in the south of Chile. The Incas had an elaborate system of state-worship, with a ritual, and frequently recurring festivals. History and tradition were preserved by the bards, and dramas were enacted before the sovereign and his court. Roads with post-houses at intervals were made over the wildest mountain-ranges and the bleakest deserts for hundreds of miles. A well-considered system of land-tenure and of colonization provided for the wants of all classes of the people. The administrative details of government were minutely and carefully organized, and accurate statistics were kept by means of the " quipus " or system of knots. The edifices displayed marvellous building skill, and their workmanship is unsurpassed. The world has nothing to show, in the way of stone-cutting and fitting, to equal the skill and accuracy displayed in the Inca structures of Cuzco. As workers in metals and as potters they displayed infinite variety of design, while as cultivators and engineers they excelled their European conquerors. (For illustrations see America, Plate V.) The story of the conquest has been told by Prescott and Helps, who give ample references to original authorities; it will be sufficient here to enumerate the dates of the conquest by leading events. On the 10th of March 1526 the Pizarro. contract for the conquest of Peru was signed by Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque, Gaspar de Espinosa supplying the funds. In 1527 Pizarro, after enduring fearful hardships, first reached the coast of Peru at Tumbez. In the following year he went to Spain, and on the 26th of July 1529 the capitulation with the Crown for the conquest of Peru was executed. .Pizarro sailed from San Lucar with his brothers in January 1530, and landed at Tumbes in 1531. The civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa, the sons of Huayna Capac, had been fought out in the meanwhile, and the victorious Atahualpa was at Cajamarca on his way from Quito to Cuzco.^ Pizarro's men looted the temple as part of Inka Atahualpa royal ransom who was held prisoner in Cajamarca by the Spaniards and later killed.
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On the 15th of November 1532 Pizarro with his little army, made his way to Cajamarca, where he received a friendly welcome from the Inca, whom he treacherously seized and made prisoner. He had with him only 183 men. In February 1533 his colleague Almagro arrived with reinforcements. .The murder of the Inca Atahualpa was perpetrated on the 29th of August 1533, and on the 15th of November Pizarro entered Cuzco.^ November 15th 1533, Francisco Pizarro refounded it for the Spanish King following the Christian tradition on March 23rd 1534; with the name and title of: THE VERY NOBLE AND GREAT CITY OF Cusco.
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.He allowed the rightful heir to the empire, Manco, the legitimate son of Huayna Capac, to be solemnly crowned on the 24th of March 1534. Almagro then undertook an expedition to Chile, and Pizarro founded the city of Lima on the 18th of January 1535. In the following year the Incas made a brave attempt to expel the invaders, and closely besieged the Spaniards in Cuzco during February and March.^ November 15th 1533, Francisco Pizarro refounded it for the Spanish King following the Christian tradition on March 23rd 1534; with the name and title of: THE VERY NOBLE AND GREAT CITY OF Cusco.
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^ The city, whose full name is San Carlos de Puno, was founded in 1668 following the discovery of nearby silver mines.
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^ It was here that Manco Inka fought the troops of Hernando Pizarro in 1537, leading a fierce resistance against the Spanish at command of a "General" Ollantay who continued for many years from Inca hideouts in the jungles of Vilcabamba.

But Almagro, returning from Chile, raised the siege on the 18th of April 1537. Immediately afterwards a dispute arose between the brothers, Francisco, Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro and Almagro as to the limits of their respective jurisdictions. An interview took place at Mala, on the sea-coast, on the 13th of November 1537, which led to no result, and Almagro was finally defeated in the battle of Las Salinas near Cuzco on the 26th of April 1538. His execution followed. His adherents recognized his young half-caste son, a gallant and noble youth generally known as Almagro the Lad, as his successor. .Bitterly discontented, they conspired at Lima and assassinated Francisco Pizarro on the 26th of June 1541. Meanwhile Vaca de Castro had been sent out as governor of Peru by Charles V., and on hearing of the murder of Pizarro he assumed the government of the country.^ She just found out her uncle in Peru has Cancer and they said that it’s “generalized” and that they can’t do anything, and want him to leave the hospital.
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^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Morning sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

On the ,6th of September 1542 he defeated the army of Almagro the Lad in the battle of Chupas near Guamanga, and the boy was beheaded at Cuzco.
Charles V. enacted the code known as the " New Laws " in 1542. " Encomiendas," or grants of estates on which the Wars. inhabitants were bound to pay tribute and give personal service to the grantee, were to pass to the Crown on the death of the actual holder; a fixed sum was to be assessed as tribute; and forced personal service was forbidden. Blasco Nunez de Vela was sent out, as first viceroy of Peru, to enforce the " New Laws." Their promulgation aroused a storm among the conquerors. .Gonzalo Pizarro rose in rebellion, and entered Lima on the 28th of October 1544. The viceroy fled to Quito, but was followed, defeated and killed at the battle of Anaquito on the 18th of January 1546. The " New Laws " were weakly revoked, and Pedro de la Gasca, as first president of the Audiencia (court of justice) of Peru, was sent out to restore order.^ It is most famous for being the place of first contact between Pizarro (the Spanish Conqueror) and the Inka army, which he defeated in one-sided battle shortly thereafter and captured Atahualpa, the last of the independent Inka monarchs.

He arrived in 1547, and on the 8th of April 1548 he routed the followers of Gonzalo Pizarro on the plain of Sacsahuaman near Cuzco. Gonzalo was executed on the field. .La Gasca made a redistribution of " encomiendas " to the loyal conquerors, which caused great discontent, and left Peru before his scheme was made public in January 1550. On the 23rd of September 1551 Don Antonio de Mendoza arrived as second viceroy, but he died at Lima in the following July.^ Hope you’re enjoying your time in Peru, and great work supporting such a worthwhile cause!
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The country was then ruled by the judges of the Audiencia, and a formidable insurrection broke out, headed by Francisco Hernandez Giron, with the object of maintaining the right of the conquerors to exact forced service from the Indians. In May 1 554 Giron defeated the army of the judges at Chuquinga, but he was hopelessly routed at Fucara on the 11th of October 1 554, captured, and on the 7th of December executed at Lima. Don Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquis of Canete, entered Lima as third viceroy of Peru on the 6th of July 1555, and ruled with an iron hand for six years. All the leaders in former disturbances were sent to Spain. Corregidors, or governors of districts, were ordered to try summarily and execute every turbulent person within their jurisdictions. All unemployed persons were sent on distant expeditions, and moderate " encomiendes " were granted to a few deserving officers. At the same time the viceroy wisely came to an agreement with Sayri Tupac, the son and successor of the Inca Manco, and granted him a pension. He took great care to supply the natives with priests of good conduct, and promoted measures for the establishment of schools and the foundation of towns in the different provinces. The cultivation of wheat, vines and olives, and European domestic animals were introduced. The next viceroy was the Conde de Nieva (1561-1564). .His successor, the licentiate Lope Garcia de Castro, who only had the title of governor, ruled from 1564 to 1569. From this time there was a succession of viceroys until 1824. The viceroys were chief magistrates, but in legal matters they had to consult the Audiencia of judges, in finance the Tribunal de Cuentas, in other branches of administration the Juntas de Gobierno and de Guerra.^ One of the Solar Discs in the Inka time that was at Cusco, and placed in the Qorikancha, the main Temple of the Sun, stayed there until the coming of the Spanish.
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.Don Francisco de Toledo, the second son of the count of Oropesa, entered Lima as viceroy on the 26th of November 1569. Fearing that the little court of the Inca Tupac Amaru -(who had succeeded his brother Sayri Tupac) might become a focus of rebellion, he seized the young prince, and unjustly beheaded the last of the Incas in the square of Cuzco in the year 1571. After a minute personal inspection of every province in Peru, he, with the experienced aid of the learned Polo de Ondegardo and the judge of Matienza, established the system under which the native population of Peru was ruled for the two succeeding centuries.^ Garcilaso de la Vega wrote the following: "It was determined that the son, as most of the court decided, would be the head of the kingdom; and to avoid riots and civil wars, they accepted everything the prince wanted.
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^ Emailed it to your brother who noted, “thats your son.” Needless to say I reminded him of his bungee jumping escapade in Mexico.
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^ CUZCO: Dorado, Don Carlos, Libertador ....about 3-4 blocks from main square in downtown Cuzco...both near the Koricancha-Sun Temple.

His Libro de Tasos fixed the tribute to be paid by the Indians, exempting all men under eighteen and over fifty. He found it necessary, in order to secure efficient government, to revert in some measure to the system of the Incas. The people were to be directly governed by their native chiefs, whose duty was to collect the tribute and exercise magisterial functions. The chiefs or " curacas " had subordinate native officials under them called " pichca-pachacas " over Soo men, and " pachacas " over Ioo men. The office of curaca or cacique was made hereditary, and its possessor enjoyed several privileges. Many curacas were descended from the imperial family of the Incas, or from great nobles of the Incarial court. In addition to the tribute, which was in accordance with native usage, there was the " mita," or forced labour in mines, farms and manufactories. .Toledo enacted that one-seventh of the male population of a village should be subject to conscription for this service, but they were to be paid, and were not to be taken beyond a specified distance from their homes.^ Some of its narrow streets still keep their water channels where very clean water flowed for the population use; they are by the middle or at one side.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The Spanish kings and viceroys desired to protect the people from tyranny, but they were unable to prevent the rapacity and lawlessness of distant officials and the country was depopulated by the illegal methods of enforcing the mita. Toledo was succeeded in 1581 by Don Martin Henriquez, who died at Lima two years afterwards. .The Spanish colonies suffered from the strict system of monopoly and protection, which was only slightly relaxed by the later Bourbon kings, and from the arbitrary proceedings of the Inquisition.^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Morning sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

Between 1581 and 1776 as many as fifty-nine heretics were burned at Lima, and there were twenty-nine " autos "; but the Inquisition affected Europeans rather than natives, for the Indians, as catechumens, were exempted from its terrors. The curacas sorrowfully watched the gradual extinction of their people by the operation of the mita, protesting from time to time against the exactions and cruelty of the Spaniards. At length a descendant of the Incas, who assumed the name of Tupac Amaru, rose in rebellion in 1780. The insurrection lasted until July 1783, and cruel executions followed its suppression. This was the last effort of the Indians to throw off the Spanish yoke and the rising was by no means general. The army which overthrew Tupac Amaru consisted chiefly of loyal Indians, and the rebellion was purely anti-Spanish, and had no support from the Spanish population. The movement for independence, which slowly gained force during the opening decade of the 19th century, did not actually become serious until the conquest of Spain by the French in 1807-1808. The Creoles (Criallos) or American-born Spaniards had for long been aggrieved at being shut out from all important official positions, and at the restrictions placed upon their trade, but the bulk of the Creole population was not disloyal.
Peru was the centre of Spanish power, and the viceroy had his military strength concentrated at Lima. Consequently the insurrections in the more distant provinces, such as Chile and Buenos Aires, were the first to declare Peru Inpende themselves independent, in 18x6 and 1817. But the destruction of the viceroy's power was essential to their continued independent existence. The conquest of the Peruvian coast must always depend on the command of the sea. A fleet of armed ships was fitted out at Valparaiso in Chile, under the command of Lord Cochrane (afterwards earl of Dundonald) and officered by Englishmen. .It convoyed an army of Argentine troops, with some Chileans, under the command of the Argentine general, San Martin, which landed on the coast of Peru in September 1820. San Martin was enthusiastically received, and the independence of Peru was proclaimed at Lima after the viceroy had withdrawn (July 28, 1821).^ USA departure tax/security/fuel surcharges of $88 (changes daily...please call) Lima and Cuzco $5.00 each and upon leaving Peru $28.00.

^ USA departure tax/security/fuel surcharges of $88 (changes daily...please call) and Lima and Iquitos $5.00 each and upon leaving Peru $28.00 .

^ Airport departure taxes in Lima and Cuzco $5.00 each and upon departing Peru $28.00 and USA departure tax/fuel surcharges/security of US$88 to 140...

On the 10th of September 1822 San Martin resigned the protectorate, with which he had been invested, and on the same day the first Viceroyalty. congress of Peru became the sovereign power of the state. After a short period of government by a committee of three, the congress elected Don Jose de la Riva Aguero to be first president of Peru on the 28th of February 1823. He displayed great energy in facing the difficulties of a turbulent situation, but was unsuccessful. The aid of the Colombians under Simon Bolivar was sought, and Aguero was deposed.
Bolivar arrived at Lima on the 1st of September 1823, and began to organize an army to attack the Spanish viceroy in the interior. On the 6th of August 1824 the cavalry action of Junin was fought with the Spanish forces under the command of a French adventurer, General Canterac, near the shores of the lake of Chinchay-cocha. It was won by a gallant charge of the Peruvians under Captain Suarez at the critical moment. Soon afterwards Bolivar left the army to proceed to the coast, and the final battle of Ayacucho (Dec. 9, 1824) was fought by his second in command, General Sucre. The viceroy and all his officers were taken prisoners, and the Spanish power in Peru came to an end.
.General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.^ TESTIMONIALS from our recent Peru tours: "Everything on the Peru tour was far more than I imagined.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ The anatomically correct stones, which until a few years ago were kept in a sterile museum, leave little doubt as to what their creators were getting at.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ The second time is far more powerful than the first.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

He was summoned back to Colombia when he had been absent for five years and, in spite of protests left the country on the 3rd of September 1826, followed by all. the Colombian troops in March 1827.
General Jose de Lamar, who commanded the Peruvians at Ayacucho, was elected president of Peru on the 24th of August 1827, but was deposed, after waging a brief but Early disastrous war with Colombia on the 7th of June Presidents. 7 J 1829. General Agustin Gamarra, who had been in the Spanish service, and was chief of the staff in the patriot army at Ayacucho, was elected third president on the 31st of August 1829.
For fifteen years, from 1829 to 1844, Peru was painfully feeling her way to a right use of independence. .The officers who fought at Ayacucho, and to whom the country felt natural gratitude, were all-powerful, and they had not learned to settle political differences in any other way than by the sword.^ We all learned to look after each other when during day one a fellow got left behind at a pit stop.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ After it was agreed, they obtained a Royal House, between Muyna and Quepicancha, in a pleasant place with all the gifts, fields, gardens and other royal amusements for hunting and fishing.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

.Three men, during that period of probation, won a prominent place in their country's history, Generals Agustin Gamarra, Felipe Santiago Salaverry, and Andres Santa Cruz.^ "During the tour, I learned how to better balance the energy generated by each power place.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

.Gamarra, born at Cuzco in 1785, never accommodated himself to constitutional usages; but he attached to himself many loyal and devoted friends, and, with all his faults he loved his country and sought its welfare according to his lights.^ Much love and RESPECT to you and all your friends on the mountain.
  • Peru Rocks Daily Journal » Home 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perurocks.org [Source type: General]

Salaverry was a very different character. Born at Lima in 1806, of pure Basque descent, he joined the patriot army before he was fifteen and displayed his audacious valour in many a hard-fought battle. Feeling strongly the necessity that Peru had for repose, and the guilt of civil dissension, he wrote patriotic poems which became very popular. Yet he too seized the supreme power, and perished by an iniquitous sentence on the 18th of February 1836.1 Andres Santa Cruz was an Indian statesman. His mother was a lady of high rank, of the family of the Incas, and he was very proud of his descent. Unsuccessful as a general in the field, he nevertheless possessed remarkable administrative ability and for nearly three years (1836-1839) realized his lifelong dream of a Peru-Bolivian confederation? But the strong-handed intervention of Chile on the ground of assistance rendered to rebels, but really through jealousy of the confederation, ended in the defeat and overthrow of Santa Cruz, and the separation of Bolivia from Peru. But Peruvian history is not confined to the hostilities of these military rulers. Three constitutions were framed - in 1828, 1833 and 1839. Lawyers and orators are never wanting in Spanish-American states, and revolution succeeded revolution in one continuous struggle for the spoils 1 The romance of his life has been admirably written by Manuel Bilbao (1st ed., Lima, 1853; 2nd ed., Buenos Aires, 1867).
2 The succession of presidents and supreme chiefs of Peru from 1829 to 1844 was as follows: 1829-1833, Agustin Gamarra; 1834-1835, Luis Jose Orbegoso; 1835-1836, Felipe Santiago Salaverry; 1836-1839, Andres Santa Cruz; 1839-1841, Agustin Gamarra; 1841-1844, Manuel Menendez.
of office. An exception must be made of the administration of General Ramon Castilla, who restored peace to Peru, and showed himself to be an honest and very capable ruler. He was elected constitutional president on the 10th of April 1845. Ten years of peace and increasing prosperity followed. In 1849 the regular payment of the interest of the public debt was commenced, steam communication was established along the Pacific coast, and a railroad was made from Lima to Callao. After a regular term of office of six years of peace and moral and material progress Castilla resigned, and General Jose Echenique was elected president. .But the proceedings of Echenique's government in connexion with the consolidation of the internal debt were disapproved by the nation, and, after hostilities which lasted for six months, Castilla returned to power in January 1855. From December 1856 to March 1858 he had to contend with and subdue a local insurrection headed by General Agostino Vivanco, but, with these two exceptions, there was peace in Peru from 1844 to 1879, a period of thirty-five years.^ In general, Peru has two seasons, wet and dry, but in a country as geographically diverse as Peru, local weather patterns vary greatly.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Temperatures on average range from 25 to 35°C. There is little or no rain during these months.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ There is a chance to admire the Andean Cock of the Rock, Peru's national bird.

Castilla retired at the end of his term of office in 1862, and died in 1868. On the 2nd of August 1868 Colonel Juan Balta was elected president. With the vast sum raised front guano and nitrate deposits President Balta commenced the execution of public works, principally railroads on a gigantic scale. His period of office was signalized by the opening of an international exhibition at Lima. He was succeeded (Aug. 2, 1872) by Don Manuel Pardo (d. 1878), an honest and enlightened statesman, who did all in his power to retrieve the country from the financial difficulty into which it had been brought by the reckless policy of his predecessor, but the conditions were not capable of solution. He regulated the Chinese immigration to the coast-valleys, which from 1860 to 1872 had amounted to 58,606. He promoted education, and encouraged literature. On the 2nd of August 1876 General Mariano-Ignacio Prado was elected. .(C. R. M.; X.) On the 5th of April 1879 the republic of Chile declared war upon Peru, the alleged pretext being that Peru had made an offensive treaty, directed against Chile, with Bolivia, War with a country with which Chile had a dispute; but the Chile, 1879- publication of the text of this treaty made known 1882. the fact that it was strictly defensive and contained no just cause of war.^ MORE COMBINE PERU-BOLIVIA, ECUADOR-PERU-BOLIVIA.....and others....see left side (scroll up) COMBINE COUNTRIES. .

The true object of Chile was the conquest of the rich Peruvian province of Tarapaca, the appropriation of its valuable guano and nitrate deposits, and the spoliation of the rest of the Peruvian coast. The military events of the war, calamitous for Peru, are dealt with in the article Chile Peruvian War. Suffice it here to note that, after the crushing defeat of the Peruvian forces at Arica (June 7, 1880) Senor Nicolas de Pierola assumed dictatorial powers, with General Andres Caceres as commander-in-chief, but the defeats at Chorrillos (Jan. 13, 1881) and Miraflores (Jan. 15) proved the Chilean superiority, and put Lima at their mercy though desultory fighting was maintained by the remnants of the Peruvian army in the interior, under direction of General Caceres. An attempt was made to constitute a government with Senor Calderon as president of the republic and General Caceres as first vice-president. .The negotiations between this nominal administration and the Chilean authorities for a treaty of peace proved futile, the Chilean occupation of Lima and the Peruvian seaboard continuing uninterruptedly until 1883. In that year Admiral Lynch, who had replaced General Baquedano in command of the Chilean forces after the taking of Lima, sent an expedition against the Peruvians under General Caceres, and defeated the latter in the month of August.^ It was here that Manco Inca fought the troops of Hernando Pizarro in 1537, leading a fierce resistance against the Spanish at command of a "General" Ollantay who continued for many years from Inca hideouts in the jungles of Vilcabamba.

^ It was here that Manco Inka fought the troops of Hernando Pizarro in 1537, leading a fierce resistance against the Spanish at command of a "General" Ollantay who continued for many years from Inca hideouts in the jungles of Vilcabamba.

^ Today Cusco is considered the oldest living city in the American Continent with a continuous occupation of about 3,000 years until today.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The Chilean authorities now began preparations for the evacuation of Lima, and to enable this measure to be effected a Peruvian administration was organized with the support of the Chileans. General Iglesias was nominated to the office of president of the republic, and in October 1883 a treaty of peace, known as the treaty of Ancon, between Peru and Chile was signed. The Chilean army of occupation was withdrawn from Lima on the 22nd of October 1883, but a strong force was maintained at Chorrillos until July 1884, when the terms of the treaty were finally approved. The principal conditions imposed by Chile were the absolute cession by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, and the occupation for a period of ten years of the territories of Tacna and Arica, the ownership of these districts to be decided by a popular vote of the inhabitants of Tacna and Arica at the expiration of the period named. .A further condition was enacted that an indemnity of 10,000,000 soles was to be paid by the country finally remaining in possession - a sum equal to about L1,000,000 to-day.^ "Tankanamarka" (tankay = to push, marka = spot; it may be translated as "hurling spot"), and according to some estimates it must have contained about 10,000 tombs.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

The Peruvians in the interior refused to recognize President Iglesias, and at once began active operations to overthrow his authority on the final departure of the Chilean troops. Affairs continued in this unsettled state until the middle of 1885, Caceres meanwhile steadily gaining many adherents to his side of the quarrel. In the latter part of 1885 President Iglesias abdicated.
Under the guidance of General Caceres a junta was then formed to carry on the government until an election for the presidency should be held and the senate and cham- Ch o eres in ber of deputies constituted. In the following year Power. p g y (1886) General Caceres was elected president of the republic for the usual term of four years. The task assumed by the new president was no sinecure. The country had been thrown into absolute confusion from a political and administrative point of view, but gradually order was restored, and peaceful conditions were reconstituted throughout the republic. The four years of office for which General Caceres was elected passed in uneventful fashion, and in 1890 Senor Morales Bermudez was nominated to the presidency, with Senor Solar and Senor Borgono as first and second vice-presidents. .Matters continued without alteration from the normal course until 1894, and in that year Bermudez died suddenly a few months before the expiration of the period for which he had been chosen as president.^ The anatomically correct stones, which until a few years ago were kept in a sterile museum, leave little doubt as to what their creators were getting at.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ Today Cusco is considered the oldest living city in the American Continent with a continuous occupation of about 3,000 years until today.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

General Caceres secured the nomination of the vicepresident Borgono as chief of the executive for the unexpired portion of the term of the late president Bermudez. This action was unconstitutional, and was bitterly resented by the vice-president Solar, who by right should have succeeded to the office. Armed resistance to the authority of Borgono was immediately organized in the south of Peru, the movement being supported by Senores Nicolas de Pierola, Billinghurst, Durand and a number of influential Peruvians. In the month of August 1894 General Caceres was again elected to fill the office of president, but the revolutionary movement rapidly gained ground. President Caceres adopted energetic measures to suppress the outbreak: his efforts, however, proved unavailing, the close of 1894 find the country districts in the power of the rebels and the authority of the legal government confined to Lima and other cities held by strong garrisons. Early in March 1895 the insurgents encamped near the outskirts of Lima, and on the 17th, 18th and 19th of March severe fighting took place, ending in the defeat of the troops under General Caceres. A suspension of hostilities was then brought about by the efforts of H.B.M. consul. The loss on both sides to the struggle during these two days was 2800 killed and wounded. President Caceres, finding his cause was lost, left the country, a provisional government under Senor Candamo assuming the direction of public affairs.
On the 8th of September 1895 Senor Pierola was declared president of the republic for the following four years. The Peruvians were now heartily tired of revolutionary Pierola disturbances, and an insurrectionary outbreak in President. y the district of Iquitos met with small sympathy, and was speedily crushed. In 1896 a reform of the electoral law was sanctioned. By the provisions of this act an electoral committee was constituted, composed of nine members, two of these nominated by the senate, two by the chamber of deputies, four by the supreme court, and one by the president with the consent of his ministers. To this committee was entrusted the task of the examination of all election returns, and of the proclamation of the names of successful candidates for seats in congress. Another reform brought about by Pierola was a measure introduced and sanctioned in 1897 for a modification of the marriage laws. Under the new act marriages of non Catholics solemnized by diplomatic or consular officers or by ministers of dissenting churches, if properly registered, are valid, and those solemnized before the passing of this act were to be valid if registered before the end of 1899. Revolutionary troubles again disturbed the country in 1899, when the presidency of Senor Pierola was drawing to a close. In consequence of dissensions amongst the members of the election committee constituted by the act of 1896, the president ordered the suppression of this body. .A group of malcontents under the leadership of one Durand, a man who had been prominent in the revolution against General Caceres in 1894-95, conspired against the authorities and raised several armed bands, known locally as montaneras. Some skirmishes occurred between these insurgents and the government troops, the latter generally obtaining the advantage in these encounters.^ It was here that Manco Inka fought the troops of Hernando Pizarro in 1537, leading a fierce resistance against the Spanish at command of a "General" Ollantay who continued for many years from Inca hideouts in the jungles of Vilcabamba.

^ History: It is known that Hiram Bingham, a descendant of missionaries, was the man who rediscovered Machu Picchu for the contemporary world and modern science.
  • Peru Tour | Machu Picchu Travel | Spiritual Travel | Spiritual Tour | Peru Spiritual Travel | Peru Shaman Tour 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.perutour.org [Source type: General]

^ It was here that Manco Inca fought the troops of Hernando Pizarro in 1537, leading a fierce resistance against the Spanish at command of a "General" Ollantay who continued for many years from Inca hideouts in the jungles of Vilcabamba.

In September 1899 President Pierola vacated the presidency in favour of Senor Romana, who had been elected to the office as a popular condidate and without the exercise of any undue official influence. President Romana was educated at Stonyhurst in England, and was a civil engineer by profession. The principal political problem before the government of Peru was the ownership of the territories of Tacna and Arica. The period of ten years originally agreed upon for the Chilean occupation of these provinces expired in 1894. At that date the peace of Peru was so seriously disturbed by internal troubles that the government was quite unable to take active steps to bring about any solution of the matter. After 1894 negotiations between the two governments were attempted from time to time, but without any satisfactory results. The question hinged to a great extent on the qualification necessary for the inhabitants to vote, in the event of a plebiscite being called to decide whether Chilean ownership was to be finally established or the provinces were to revert to Peruvian sovereignty. Peru proposed that only Peruvian residents should be entitled to take part in a popular vote; Chile rejected this proposition, on the ground that all residents in the territories in q uestion should have a voice in the final decision. The agreement between Chile and Bolivia, by which the disputed provinces were to be handed over to the latter country if Chilean possession was recognized, was also a stumbling-block, a strong feeling existed among Peruvians against this proceeding. It was not so much the value of Tacna and Arica that put difficulties in the way of a settlement as the fact that the national pride of the Peruvians ill brooked the idea of permanently losing all claim to this section of country. The money, about L13000,000, could probably have been obtained to indemnify Chile if occasion for it arose.
The question of the delimitation of the frontier between Peru and the neighbouring republics of Ecuador, Colombia,. and Brazil also cropped up at intervals. A treaty was signed with Brazil 1876, by which certain physical features were accepted by both countries as the basis for the boundary. In the case of Ecuador and Colombia a dispute arose in 1894 concerning the ownership of large tracts of uninhabited country in the vicinity of the headwaters of the Amazon and its tributaries. An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia. The latter state claimed sovereignty over the Napo and Maranon rivers on the grounds of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised over this section of territory during the period of Spanish dominion, the government of Colombia asserting that these ecclesiastical rights to which Colombia became entitled after her separation from the Spanish crown carried also the right of absolute ownership. In a treaty signed by the three interested states in 1895 a compromise was effected by which Colombia withdrew a part of the claim advanced, and it was agreed that any further differences arising out of this frontier question should be submitted to the arbitration of the Spanish crown. The later development of the boundary question is dealt with at the outset of this article.
Romana President. Senor Manuel Candamo succeeded Senor Romana as president in 5903. In the following year he died, and on the 24th of September 1904 Senor Jose Pardo was installed in the presidential chair. In 5908 there were some insurrectionary movements at Lima and an attempt was made to assassinate President Pardo, but they were, however, suppressed without a serious outbreak. Senor Augusto Leguiva became president on the 24th of September 1908. (C. E. A.; G. E.) Bibliography. - Among the principal publications relating to Peru are: C. E. Akers, A History of South America (London, 1904); L. E. Albertini, Perou en 1878 (Paris, 1878); C. B. Cisneros and R. E. Garcia, El Peru en Europa (Lima, 1900); the same authors, Geografia comercial de la America del Sud (3 vols., ibid. 1898); E. B. Clark, Twelve Months in Peru (London, 1891); Geo. R. Fitzroy Cole, The Peruvians at Home, (ibid. 1884); A. J. Duffield, Peru in the Guano Age (ibid. 1877); C. R. Enock, The Andes and the Amazon (ibid. 1907); idem, Peru: its Former and Present Civilization, &c. (ibid. 5908); P. F. Evans, From Peru to the Plate (ibid. 1889); M. A. Fuentes, Lima, or Sketches of the Capital of Peru (ibid. 1866); Calderon F. Garcia, Le Peron contemporain (Paris, 1907); Garcilasso de la Vega, Royal commentaries of the Incas, 5609 (Hakluyt Society's Publications); A. Garland, La Industria azucarera en el Peru, 1550-1895 (Lima, 1895); idem, Peru in 1906 (official; ibid. 5907); E. Grandidier, Voyage dans l'Amerique du Sud, Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1863); T. Haenke, Description del Peru (Lima, 1901); E. Higginson, Mines and Mining in Peru (ibid. 1903).; S. S. Hill, Travels in Peru and Mexico (2 vols., London, 1860); T. J. Hutchinson, Two Years in Peru (2 vols.; ibid. 1874); R. Laos, A Handbook of Peru for Investors and Immigrants (Baltimore, 1903); C. R. Markham, Cuzco and Lima (London, 1858); idem, Travels in Peru and India (ibid. 1862); idem, The War between Peru and Chile (ibid. 1883); idem, History of Peru (Chicago, 1892); V. M. Maurtua, The Question of the Pacific (Philadelphia, 1901); M. de Mendiburu, Diccionario historicobiogrdfico del Peru (8 vols., Callao, 1874-1890); E. W. Middendorf, Peru: Beobachtungen and Studien 'fiber das Land and seine Bewohner, &c. (Berlin, 1893); Federico Moreno, Petroleum in Peru (Lima, 1891); Dr M. Neveu-Lemaire, Les Lacs des hauts plateaux de l'Amerique du Sud (Paris, 1906); M. F. Paz-Soldan, Historia del Peru independiente (3 vols., 1868 et seq.); idem, Diccionario geogrdfico-estadistico del Peru (Lima, 1879); A. Plane, A travers l'Amerique equatoriale (Paris, 1903); W. H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Peru (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1868); A. Raimondi, El Peru: Estudios mineralogicos, &c. (4 vols., Lima, 1890-1902); M. Ch. Renoz, Le Perou (Bruxelles, 1897): G. Rene-Moreno, Ultimos dias coloniales en el Alto Peru 1807-1808 (Santiago de Chile, 1896-1898); F. Seebee, Travelling Impressions in and Notes on Peru (2nd ed., London, 1903); E. G. Squier, Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (ibid. 1877); Edmond Temple, Travels in Various Parts of Peru (2 vols., ibid. 1830); J. J. Von Tschudi, Reisen durch Seidamerika (5 vols., Leipzig, 1866-1868); idem, Travels in Peru (London, 1847); Charles Wiener, Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1880); Frank Vincent, Around and about South America (New York, 1890); Marie Robinson Wright, The Old and New Peru (Philadelphia, 1909); the Consular and Diplomatic Reports of Great Britain and the United States; Handbook of Peru and Bulletins of the Bureau of American Republics; and the departmental publications of the Peruvian Government.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also peru, Perú, and Perù

Contents

English

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Etymology

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Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Peru
Plural
-
Peru
.
  1. A country in South America.^ Ministries in the Central and South America section only possibly minister in this country.
    • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: Central and South America > Country: Peru .
    • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Peru 28 January 2010 0:39 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Official name: Republic of Peru.

Derived terms

  • apple of Peru
  • apple-peru
  • balsam of Peru
  • marvel of Peru
  • Peru Current

Related terms

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Czech

Proper noun

Peru n.
  1. Peru

Dutch

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Peru n.
  1. Peru

Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Peru
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Peru
  1. Peru

Declension

Derived terms


German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Peru
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Peru n.
  1. Peru

Derived terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Peru
  1. Peru

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈpɛru/

Proper noun

Peru n.
  1. Peru

Derived terms

  • Peruwiańczyk m., Peruwianka f.
  • adjective: peruwiański

Portuguese

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /peˈru/
  • Hyphenation: Pe‧ru

Proper noun

Peru m.
  1. Peru

Swedish

Proper noun

Peru
  1. Peru

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Meleagris gallopavo article)

From Wikispecies

Meleagris gallopavo subsp. intermedia

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Galliformes
Familia: Phasianidae
Subfamilia: Meleagridinae
Genus: Meleagris
Species: Meleagris gallopavo
Subspecies: M. g. gallopavo - M. g. intermedia - M. g. merriami - M. g. mexicana - M. g. onusta - M. g. osceola - M. g. silvestris

Name

Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758

Reference

Systema Naturae ed.10 p.156

Vernacular names

Català: Gall dindi o titot
Deutsch: Truthuhn
English: Wild Turkey
Italiano: Tacchino comune
Polski: Indyk
Português: Peru
Română: Curcanul Salbatic
Svenska: kalkon
Vèneto: Pito

Simple English

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this name.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Peru, which are similar to those in the above article.








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