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Peru
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s) La Blanquirroja
La Rojiblanca (The Red and White ones)
Association Federación Peruana
de Fútbol
Confederation CONMEBOL (South America)
Head coach Franco Navarro
Captain Juan Manuel Vargas
Most caps Roberto Palacios (122)
Top scorer Teófilo Cubillas (26)[1]
Home stadium Estadio Nacional
FIFA code PER
FIFA ranking 68
Highest FIFA ranking 34 (September 1997)
Lowest FIFA ranking 91 (September 2009)
Elo ranking T 61
Highest Elo ranking 12 (June 1978)
Lowest Elo ranking 75 (May 1994)
Home colours
Away colours
First international
Peru Peru 0 – 4 Uruguay 
(Lima, Peru; November 1, 1927)
Biggest win
Peru Peru 9 – 1 Ecuador 
(Bogotá, Colombia; August 11, 1938)
Biggest defeat
 Brazil 7 – 0 Peru Peru
(Santa Cruz, Bolivia; June 26, 1997)
World Cup
Appearances 4 (First in 1930)
Best result Quarterfinals, 1970
Copa América
Appearances 34 (First in 1927)
Best result Winners, 1939 and 1975

The Peru national football team represents Peru in international football competition and is managed by the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF). The team competes against the other nine members of FIFA's CONMEBOL conference, which encompasses the countries of South America. The traditional colors of the team are white and red, the colors of the Peruvian flag, and the team is commonly known as la Blanquirroja (Spanish for "the white-and-red").[2]

Founded in 1927, the team plays its home matches primarily at the Estadio Nacional in Lima. Peru has won the Copa América on two occasions, and qualified for four FIFA World Cups and two Olympic tournaments; it has gone as far as the quarterfinal stage in both tournaments. Peru's traditional footballing rival is Chile,[3] but the team also has a prominent rivalry with neighboring Ecuador.[4]

The Peruvian team's performance has been inconsistent. The side's early years saw World Cup participations and victories in the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 Copa América. Its 1950s side, which included Alberto Terry and Valeriano López, was considered to be among the top 20 strongest footballing nations of the decade, despite not winning any major tournaments.[5] The golden generation of Peruvian football in the 1970s brought Peru back into the world view, with players such as Héctor Chumpitaz, Hugo Sotil, and Teófilo Cubillas leading to the belief that a new footballing powerhouse had emerged.[6][7] This team qualified Peru for three FIFA World Cups, and won the Copa América in 1975.

Peru's 1982 World Cup participation was its last to date: the national team has not seen a major tournament victory or World Cup participation in over 27 years. The team was temporarily suspended from international participation by FIFA in late 2008 due to allegations of corruption between government sport authorities and the FPF. Peru was the first CONMEBOL team to be knocked out of the 2010 World Cup qualifiers.

Contents

History

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Beginnings

Football was brought to Peru by English sailors in the late 19th century during their frequent visits to the port of Callao, which was then an important port of the Pacific Ocean.[8] During their free time, the English sailors played football and invited the local Chalacos (people from Callao) to participate. Allegedly, it was during these early games that the creation of the popular move known as the chalaca (short for "Chalacan Strike"), or bicycle kick, took place.[9] Football in Peru grew thanks to its practice by British residents of Peru and its adoption by Peruvians returning from England.[10]

Soon, the sports rivalry that evolved between the foreign visitors and the local Chalacos began to gain the attention of Peruvians outside the port.[10] Although at first the sport was played outside of formal organization such as sport clubs or leagues, clubs were founded in the early 20th century in order to continue the sport's practice.[11][12] In the 1900s, due to the construction of the Panama Canal, the port of Callao was no longer flooded with the several foreign sailors and travelers that had at one point made the port a center of cultural diffusion.[13] By then, football clubs and leagues had sprouted in other Peruvian cities, including Lima, Cusco, and Arequipa.[14] However, the most important amateur league (the Peruvian Football League) remained in the capital province, where rivalries arose between the Callao clubs, and those from the nearby capital of Lima.[15] The lack of a centralized organization often led to conflicts between the teams, and one such conflict resulted in the creation of the Peruvian Football Federation in 1922, along with a new Peruvian Football League tournament under the regulation of said organization in 1926.[16]

The Peruvian Football Federation had joined CONMEBOL in 1925, but internal and economic problems prevented the creation of a national team that would officially represent the country internationally.[17] An unofficial national team was created in 1922, and it played against an Uruguayan team sponsored by the Uruguayan Football Association.[17] Subsequent years saw the appearance of several talented Peruvian football players, and international interest in their skills inspired a series of international tours across South America, to places such as Colombia, Venezuela, and Chile.[18]

In 1927, the Peruvian national football team was officially created.[17] The team hosted the 1927 South American Championship, and Peru reached third place after losing to Uruguay by 4–0 in their debut match, defeating Bolivia 3–2, and losing to Argentina 1–5.[19] Nevertheless, internal corruption and the commotion surrounding the Great Depression led the team that played in the 1929 edition to be selected by social favoritism rather than player skill.[20] A year later, la Blanquirroja was invited to participate in a new intercontinental competition, to be held in Uruguay: the first World Cup.[21]

1930s golden generation

1936 Berlin Summer Olympics team. Front: Adelfo Magallanes, Jorge Alcalde, Teodoro Fernández, José Morales, and Alejandro Villanueva. Back: Carlos Tovar, José María Lavalle, Juan Valdivieso, Arturo Fernández, Segundo Castillo, and Orestes Jordán.

At the inaugural 1930 FIFA World Cup, the Peruvian team failed to progress beyond the group stages; despite this performance, the Uruguayan audience was surprised by the level of skill demonstrated by the Peruvians.[22] Between 1933 and 1934, the national squad (composed mainly of players from Universitario de Deportes, Alianza Lima, and Atletico Chalaco) united with the Chilean squad (formed mainly by players from Colo Colo) to form the Combinado del Pacifico (known by the European press as the "Peru-Chile XI" and "All-Pacific," among other names),[23] which toured the European countries of England, Germany, France, and Spain until August 1935. Teodoro Fernandez became the team's top goal scorer with 48 goals in 39 games.[24]

Peru began the 1936 Berlin Olympics well, defeating Finland 7–3. Players for Peru included Teodoro Fernández, Alejandro Villanueva, Juan Valdivieso, and Adelfo Magallanes.[25] The Peruvians went on to upset Austria, who were favorites to win the tournament, by defeating them 4–2 after extra time. However, the International Olympic Committee controversially nullified the result and ordered a re-match, which drove the Peruvian and Colombian delegations to forfeit the games in protest.[26][27]

In 1938, Peru won its first international title at the first Bolivarian Games, defeating Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela.[28] In 1939, la Blanquirroja won Peru's first South American Championship (known later as the Copa América), a tournament remembered for the conspicuous absence of football powerhouses Brazil and Argentina. The Peruvians defeated the Uruguayan team by a close score of 2–1 in the final,[29] after eliminating Ecuador, Chile, and Paraguay. Peru became the fourth nation to become South American champions, after Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil.

Good games, few titles

By 1941, la Blanquirroja's star-studded squad was beginning to show its age.[30] In the same year, Peru and Argentina played a three-game series for the Copa Roque Saenz Peña in Lima, and a struggling Peru managed to draw twice before finally losing the third match 3–0.[31] The national squad's diminishing effectiveness was most apparent during the South American Championships of the 1940s,[32] and Peru would not win another international title until 1947, when the side won the Bolivarian Games.[28] Three years later, at the South American Championship held in Brazil, Peru gained third place after defeating Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay.[33]

By the 1950s, Peru had once again become a major protagonist in South American football, ranking among the top 20 strongest football nations of the decade.[5] In the Pan-American Championship of 1952 the Peruvians defeated Panama and Mexico, tied with Brazil, and lost to Chile and Uruguay in close matches.[32] Players such as Alberto Terry, Guillermo Barbadillo, Valeriano López, Félix Castillo, and Óscar Gómez Sánchez contributed to Peru's competitive play throughout the 1950s. During 1953 and 1954, Peru achieved its only two titles of the decade, twice winning the Copa del Pacífico (Pacific Cup), a trophy disputed between Chile and Peru every time the two sides play.[32] In the 1955 South American Championship, the national squad's campaign took them to a third place finish.[34] Nonetheless, the team fared poorly at the Pan-American Championship held in Mexico, and the South American Championship in Montevideo.[32] The team made a slight recovery as the decade closed, reaching fourth place at the 1957 and 1959 South American Championships, and defeating England 4–1 in an exhibition match.[32][35][36]

During the 1960s, Peru showed signs of improvement, winning the Bolivarian Games in Barranquilla and qualifying for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome.[28] However, these would be the only achievements of the decade, as Peru failed to place in the top four spots of the 1963 South American Championship, did not qualify for the Chile and England World Cups, and was unable to regain the Copa del Pacífico.

1970s golden generation

1970 World Cup squad. Top: Pedro Gonzales, Ramon Mifflin, Héctor Chumpitaz, Luis Rubiños, Nicolás Fuentes, Orlando de la Torre. Bottom: Julio Baylon, Roberto Challe, Pedro Pablo León, Teófilo Cubillas, Alberto Gallardo.

The story of the 1970s golden generation started in late 1969, when la Blanquirroja qualified for the Mexico 1970 World Cup. Thanks to the goals of "Cachito" Ramírez, the squad tied Argentina at a game popularly known as "La Bombonera" (in reference to the Estadio Alberto J. Armando where the game was played).[37] The squad, managed by "Didi" Pereira, followed a 4-2-4 formation that typically comprised José Fernández, Orlando de la Torre, Héctor Chumpitaz, and Nicolás Fuentes as the defenders; Ramón Mifflin and Roberto Challe as the midfielders; Julio Baylón, Pedro Pablo León, Teófilo Cubillas, and Alberto Gallardo as the forwards; and Luis Rubiños as the goalkeeper.[38]

The participation of Peru in the 1970 FIFA World Cup was particularly memorable when the squad caused surprise as they advanced into the quarterfinals by defeating Bulgaria 3–2 and Morocco 3–0, and despite losing 3–1 to Germany.[7][32] Although Peru lost the quarterfinal game to Brazil by 4–2, la Blanquirroja would go on to win the Copa del Pacífico, were invited to participate in the Brazil Independence Cup, and won the Copa Mariscal Sucre.[32] Additionally, the squad won their second Copa America in 1975.[39]

In 1978, la Blanquirroja once again qualified for a World Cup. The squad, led by Marcos Calderón, had a different (4-4-2) formation from the early 70s structure. Jaime Duarte, Héctor Chumpitaz, Rubén Díaz, and Germán Leguía were on the defense; César Cueto, Percy Rojas, Teófilo Cubillas, and José Velásquez on the midfield; Juan José Muñante, Juan Carlos Oblitas, Guillermo La Rosa, and Hugo Sotil on the attack; and Ramón Quiroga as the goalkeeper.[40]

Prior to the World Cup, the national squad defeated varied opponents such as China and Hungary.[32] Once into the World Cup finals, Peru reached the top of their group after defeating Scotland (3–1), tying with the Netherlands (0–0), and defeating Iran (4–1).[40] However, in the second round, Peru ended last in the group after losing to Brazil (0–3), Poland (0–1), and to Argentina (0–6) in a controversial match that some claim was bought by Argentina's military junta.[40][41] After the tournament, the squad played some international friendlies to prepare for the Copa America of 1979; they would tie Scotland at Glasgow (1–1) and defeat Uruguay in Lima (2–0). Nonetheless, by the time this new tournament started, Peru was eliminated by Chile. This great era in Peruvian football ended with a 1–0 loss against Mexico at Monterrey.[32]

From glory to decline

The national team occasionally shone in the 1980s. La Blanquirroja successfully qualified for the 1982 FIFA World Cup at the expense of Colombia and Uruguay, the recent Mundialito winners.[42] Under the direction of Tim, the Peruvians won the Pacific Cup and led a European and African tour in which la Blanquirroja defeated Hungary (2–1), France (1–0), tied Algeria (1–1), and upon their return defeated Romania (2–0).[32] Tim's squad was composed of a 4-4-2 formation with Jaime Duarte, Ruben Díaz, Salvador Salguero, and Jorge Olaechea in defense; César Cueto, José Velásquez, Julio César Uribe, and Teófilo Cubillas in midfield; Gerónimo Barbadillo and Juan Carlos Oblitas as forwards; and Ramón Quiroga as goalkeeper.[43]

Once in the World Cup of Spain, the team did not perform well as they tied with Cameroon and Italy, and lost 5–1 against Poland.[43] Afterwards, Peru faced a string of bad results, but nearly qualified to the 1986 FIFA World Cup.[32] The Peruvians needed a victory against Argentina in order to directly qualify to the World Cup, but Diego Maradona pulled off a tie that led Peru to seek qualification through a play-off game against Chile. A loss against Chile put an end to Peruvian aspirations for this tournament.

The 1987 Alianza Lima air disaster further crushed hopes for the team as a series of good players ready to play for Peru and the national team's coach Marcos Calderón (among others) died.[44] The situation of Peru would not improve from that point as a series of ties and defeats came one after the other.[32] Nevertheless, in the late 1990s Peru reached fourth place at the 1997 Copa America and nearly qualified to the 1998 World Cup: they lost the chance to appear in the tournament only due to their goal difference with Chile.[45] Later, in 1999, the team won the Kirin Cup and reached the quarterfinals of the Copa America.[46] Players like Nolberto Solano, Andrés Mendoza, Flavio Maestri, Roberto Palacios, Claudio Pizarro, and José del Solar made a positive difference to the team's performance.[46]

21st Century

2007 Copa America team prior to the quarterfinals match against Argentina.

The 21st century began with the same Peruvian squad of the late 90s. In 2000, Peru was invited to compete in the CONCACAF Gold Cup, where the team reached the semifinals of the North American competition.[47] Peruvian football showed signs of improvement as time went on. Peruvian league teams had good performances in international competition, including Cienciano's 2003–04 conquest of the Copa Sudamericana and the Recopa Sudamericana.[48] Peru won another Kirin Cup in 2005, but was unable to get past the quarterfinal stage of three consecutive Copa Americas in 2001, 2004, and 2007;[32] and did not qualify for the 2002, 2006, or 2010 editions of the FIFA World Cup.

In 2007, Peru's U-17 squad surprised the nation by qualifying for and reaching the quarterfinals of the 2007 FIFA U-17 World Cup. In contrast to this success, the main team succumbed at the bottom of the CONMEBOL qualifiers for the first time in its history during the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification. During this qualification season, a corruption and indiscipline scandal shook the national team as Peruvian journalists Jaime Bayly and Magaly Medina revealed that a series of Peru's most recognized players, including Claudio Pizarro, Andrés Mendoza, Santiago Acasiete, Paolo Guerrero, and Jefferson Farfán, were seen at nightclubs and parties only days before the team was scheduled to play qualifier matches. Several players were banned from playing for the national team while others were put under investigation.[49][50] Ironically, banned players such as Pizarro and Farfán ended up with successful 2009 seasons while the national team suffered shame in the bottom of the South American qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup.[51]

In a further blow to the team's reputation, in November 2008, FIFA suspended several Peruvian Football Federation authorities, as well as several Peruvian Football League authorities and referees; additionally, the national team was barred from participating in international competition, under allegations of irregularities between the FPF, the Peruvian Institute of Sports (IPD), and the Peruvian government.[52] The president of the IPD, Arturo Woodman, and the Peruvian government had made re-election of FPF President Manuel Burga illegal under allegations of corruption. With FIFA's approval, the FPF later reappointed Burga.[53] After the FPF and IPD agreed to discuss the matter and reach an agreement, FIFA President Sepp Blatter lifted the bans and restrictions.[54]

As a result of the controversy, Peru was stripped of its opportunity to host the 2009 South American Youth Championship; the tournament was held in Venezuela instead. Peru's hopes of qualifying for the 2010 World Cup were dashed early on, as the team was the first CONMEBOL squad to be eliminated from the finals. The Peruvian sports press dubbed the current squad "Los Hijos de Burga" (the "Sons of Burga"), in reference to the FPF's president, who was widely blamed for Peru's terrible qualifying campaign. The press went on to name the squad the worst in the national team's 82-year history, amidst calls for Burga's resignation.[55][56][57] Following the end of the qualifiers, Juan Manuel Vargas and Nolberto Solano, who officially retired from the team at this time, expressed their hopes to change the way things were going for the national squad.[58][59] Héctor Chumpitaz, Peru's former star defense, suggested that more renown coaches, such as Gustavo Costas and Luis Fernando Suárez, be given a chance at leading Peru based on their successes in the national football league.[60]

World Cup record

The southern stand of the Estadio Monumental raise a jersey-shaped banner before Peru plays Brazil in a 2010 FIFA World Cup Qualifier.

Peru has played at four FIFA World Cup finals, the first in 1930 and the last in 1982.[61] In the 1930 la Blanquirroja lost both of its matches. During the match against Romania, Peru's Placido Galindo became the first player to be sent off during a World Cup.[62] In 1970, the team led by "Didi" Pereira beat Bulgaria 3–2 after trailing 0–2 at half-time,[63] beat Morocco 3–0, lost to Germany 1–3, and were finally eliminated by Brazil 4–2 in the quarterfinal match.[64][65]

Peru qualified for the 1978 cup held in Argentina, where they beat Scotland 3–1[66][67] and infamously lost to Argentina in a game that is claimed to have been set-up by the military junta that governed Argentina during those times.[68] Peru qualified in first place from its group after also drawing with the Netherlands at 0–0 and beating Iran 4–1.[69][70] By the time the Spain 1982 World Cup came, the Peruvian squad made a successful practice tour in Europe and Africa,[32] but ties with Cameroon and Italy and defeat by Poland (5–1) saw them leave the tournament early.[71]

Year Result Matches Wins Draws Losses GF[32] GA[32]
1930 Round 1 2 0 0 2 1 4
1934 Withdrew
1938 Did not qualify
19501954 Withdrew
19581966 Did not qualify
1970 Quarterfinals 4 2 0 2 9 9
1974 Did not qualify
1978 Round 2 6 2 1 3 7 12
1982 Round 1 3 0 2 1 2 6
19862010 Did not qualify
Totals 15 4 3 8 19 31
*Denotes draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks.

Copa América record

La Blanquirroja in the Copa América Venezuela 2007.

After joining CONMEBOL in 1925, Peru has hosted the Copa América six times and won it twice. Peru has had two top goalscorers for the tournament, Teodoro Fernández (7 goals, 1939) and Eduardo Malasquez (3 goals, 1983).[72] The 1927 tournament was the first hosted by Peru, followed by the 1935, 1939, 1957 and the 2004 tournaments.

In 1939 Peru achieved its first Copa América title by defeating Ecuador 5–2, Chile 3–1, and Paraguay 3–0 in order to reach the final. With skilled players like Teodoro Fernández and Jorge Alcalde, Peru defeated Uruguay in the final by the close score of 2–1.[73] With this result, Peru became the fourth nation, after Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil, to win the Copa América.

In 1975, the Peruvians won the first Copa América held without a fixed venue by defeating Chile and Bolivia in the group stages, Brazil at the Mineirão by a score of 3–1 with the goals of Enrique Casaretto and Teófilo Cubillas in the semifinals, and, after being randomly chosen in a CONMEBOL-sponsored lottery (which was ordered after Brazil defeated Peru in Lima by a score of 0–2, thus equalizing in the amount of points) between it and Brazil,[74] defeated Colombia in two out of three games played for the final. La Blanquirroja lost the first leg of the final played at Colombia, but won the second match at Lima and a final third match at Caracas thanks to the goals of Juan Carlos Oblitas, Oswaldo Ramírez, and Hugo Sotil.[74]

Aside from these two victories, Peru's best place in the tournament have been four third places, two in 1927 and 1935 in Peru, one in 1949 in Brazil, and the last in 1955 in Chile. When the tournaments once again began to be hosted by individual countries, Peru's best place was in 1997 when they gained fourth place after losing to Mexico for the third place match. In 2004, Peru once again hosted the tournament, but did not manage to get beyond the quarterfinals. This same story repeated itself in 2007, and the team looks forward to the 2011 tournament to be held in Argentina.

Copa America/South American Championship
Total: 2 Titles
Year Position Year Position Year Position
1916-1926 Absent 1949 Third Place 1987 Round 1
1927 Third Place 1953 Fifth Place 1989 Round 1
1929 Fourth Place 1955 Third Place 1991 Round 1
1935 Third Place 1956 Sixth Place 1993 Quarterfinals
1937 Sixth place 1957 Fourth Place 1995 Round 1
1939 Winners 1959 Fourth Place 1997 Fourth Place
1941 Fourth Place 1963 Fifth place 1999 Quarterfinals
1942 Fifth place 1967 Withdrew 2001 Quarterfinals
1945 Withdrew 1975 Winners 2004 Quarterfinals
1946 Withdrew 1979 Semifinals 2007 Quarterfinals
1947 Fifth Place 1983 Semifinals 2011 TBP

Stadium

The Estadio Nacional, the traditional home stadium of Peru.

The Estadio Nacional (National Stadium), also known as the Coloso de José Díaz, is a 45,574-spectator stadium located in Lima that acts as the traditional home of the Peruvian team and the National Stadium of Peru.[75] The stadium opened on July 18, 1897, as the Estadio Guadalupe. The Peruvian Football League (which later became the Peruvian Football Federation) used it for the first official football tournaments, which were held in Lima. In 1921, as part of President Augusto B. Leguía's embellecimiento (beautification) program, the stadium was renovated and renamed the Estadio Nacional de Peru.[76] Later, during the regime of General Manuel Odría, the stadium was reconstructed and officially re-inaugurated on October 27, 1952.[77]

In preparation for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship, artificial turf was installed as a means of improving the stadium's aesthetic appeal; the surface was left in place after the tournament. By 2005, Peru was home to four of the world's eight "Star II" (the highest certification granted to artificial pitches) stadiums.[78] Despite being one of the Star II-certified stadiums,[79] the surface has received heavy criticisms from Peruvian First Division clubs, due to player injuries for which it is allegedly responsible.[80]

The national team occasionally selects other stadiums as its home venue. The thin atmosphere at the high-altitude Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega in Cusco and the balmy Amazonic climate of the Estadio Max Augustín in Iquitos provide strategic advantages against certain rivals.[81] Other stadiums in Lima are sometimes used to bring the team closer to certain communities in the city, such as Alianza Lima's Estadio Alejandro Villanueva.[82] In recent times, Universitario's Estadio Monumental "U" is most often selected for home matches due to controversy over the National Stadium's playing surface.[80]

Uniform

Juan Manuel Vargas wears the national kit in 2007.

Peru's national colors are red and white.[83] The team's first uniform was made for the 1927 South American Championship, and it consisted of white shorts and a shirt with vertical stripes. Another uniform was made for the 1930 FIFA World Cup held in Uruguay, and was an all-white kit with a red collar. A third uniform was made for the 1935 South American Championship, with the only difference from its prior kit being a horizontal red stripe. Peru's current uniform was made for the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics, and it consists of a red stripe that crosses the chest diagonally from the left shoulder to the hip's right.[2] The simple design of the Peruvian jersey received international praise in 2010 when ESPN, a sports network, qualified Peru's 1978 FIFA World Cup jersey as the best World Cup jersey of all time.[84]

Rivalries

The Peruvian team has major regional rivalries with Chile and Ecuador. Territorial, maritime, and cultural disputes have led to a large football rivalry between Chile and Peru since the ending of the War of the Pacific. Both nations dispute the origin of the football move known as the bicycle kick, which Chileans claim they invented in 1914 while Peruvians claim it was invented in Peru during the late 19th century.[9][85] Their games, considered by CNN (Cable News Network) to be among the top ten rivalries in the world,[85] have gained the nickname of Clásico del Pacífico, meaning the "Derby of the Pacific," and a trophy named the Copa del Pacífico (Cup of the Pacific) is awarded whenever both national teams play.[3][32] Peru's rivalry with Ecuador, derived from various historical border conflicts between the two countries, is not as great as with Chile, but is still of competitive importance to both nations.[4]

Players

Current squad

Head coach: Peru Franco Navarro

No. Pos. Player DoB (Age) Caps Goals Club
GK Leao Butrón February 9, 1976 (1976-02-09) (age 34) 35 0 Peru Universidad San Martín
GK Diego Penny April 22, 1984 (1984-04-22) (age 25) 6 0 England Burnley
GK Raúl Fernández October 6, 1985 (1985-10-06) (age 24) 2 0 Peru Universitario de Deportes
DF Aldo Corzo May 20, 1989 (1989-05-20) (age 20) 3 0 Peru Universidad San Martín
DF Walter Vílchez February 20, 1982 (1982-02-20) (age 28) 5 0 Mexico Atlante
DF Carlos Zambrano July 10, 1989 (1989-07-10) (age 20) 11 1 Germany Schalke 04
DF Santiago Acasiete November 22, 1977 (1977-11-22) (age 32) 27 2 Spain UD Almería
DF Alberto Rodríguez March 31, 1984 (1984-03-31) (age 25) 28 0 Portugal Sporting Braga
DF John Galliquio December 1, 1979 (1979-12-01) (age 30) 15 0 Peru Universitario de Deportes
MF Paolo de la Haza November 30, 1983 (1983-11-30) (age 26) 31 0 Israel Beitar Jerusalem
MF Marcio Valverde October 23, 1987 (1987-10-23) (age 22) 2 0 Peru Sporting Cristal
MF Junior Viza April 3, 1985 (1985-04-03) (age 24) 2 0 Israel Beitar Jerusalem
MF Rainer Torres September 21, 1984 (1984-09-21) (age 25) 20 0 Peru Universitario de Deportes
MF Carlos Lobatón February 6, 1980 (1980-02-06) (age 30) 4 0 Peru Sporting Cristal
MF Josepmir Ballón March 21, 1989 (1989-03-21) (age 20) 9 0 Peru Universidad San Martín
MF Rinaldo Cruzado September 11, 1984 (1984-09-11) (age 25) 11 0 Iran Esteghlal Cultural and Athletic Club
MF Jefferson Farfán October 26, 1984 (1984-10-26) (age 25) 36 12 Germany Schalke 04
MF Juan Carlos Mariño January 2, 1982 (1982-01-02) (age 28) 6 2 Colombia Deportivo Cali
MF Roberto Merino May 19, 1982 (1982-05-19) (age 27) 1 0 Italy Salernitana
MF Juan Vargas October 5, 1983 (1983-10-05) (age 26) 25 3 Italy Fiorentina
MF Anderson Cueto May 29, 1989 (1989-05-29) (age 20) 0 0 Poland Lech Poznań
FW Hernán Rengifo April 18, 1983 (1983-04-18) (age 26) 17 5 Cyprus AC Omonia
FW Johan Fano August 9, 1978 (1978-08-09) (age 31) 14 3 Mexico Atlante
FW Paolo Guerrero January 1, 1984 (1984-01-01) (age 26) 24 9 Germany Hamburg
FW Andrés Mendoza April 26, 1978 (1978-04-26) (age 31) 44 8 Turkey Diyarbakırspor
FW Daniel Chávez January 8, 1988 (1988-01-08) (age 22) 9 0 Belgium Club Brugge

Notable players

Ramón Quiroga, Peru's goalkeeper from 1977-1985

According to CONMEBOL, Peruvian teams are often said to play with much technique and elegance, generally making them one of the finest exponents of South American football.[88] Among the notable players of the team are center forwards Teodoro Fernández, Valeriano López, and Pedro Pablo León;[88][89] second strikers like Alejandro Villanueva, Jorge Alcalde, and Hugo Sotil;[88][89][90] wingers like Juan Carlos Oblitas, Juan Joya and Juan Seminario, among others.[91][92][93] Recently, strikers such as Jefferson Farfán and Paolo Guerrero have attained international fame.[89] Peru has also had a series of creative and effective midfielders such as Alberto Terry, Teófilo Cubillas, César Cueto, Roberto Challe, Julio César Uribe, and Nolberto Solano.[88][89][94][95] In the defense, the Blanquirroja has had players such as Héctor Chumpitaz, Julio Meléndez, and current star Juan Manuel Vargas.[88][96][97] In terms of historic goalkeepers, popular figures are Juan Valdivieso, José Soriano, and Ramón Quiroga.[89][98][99]

Managers

Peru's first manager, Uruguayan Pedro Olivieri, was assigned for the 1927 South American Championship and ended up with a record of one win and two losses. Following Francisco Bru's failed 1930 World Cup participation with Peru, which ended in the first round with two consecutive losses, Telmo Carbajo became the team's first Peruvian coach in 1934. From 1938 to 1939, Englishman Jack Greenwell did not lose a single game with Peru and led it to its first titles in the Bolivarian Games (1938) and Copa América (1939).[32][100] Nearly three decades later, Brazilian Valdir Pereira qualified Peru for its second World Cup appearance and led the team to the quarterfinals in the 1970 FIFA World Cup. Four years later, Uruguayan Roberto Scarone would be largely blamed for not having qualified Peru to the 1974 FIFA World Cup. However, during the next qualification campaign, Peruvian Marcos Calderón won Peru's second Copa América in 1975 and took Peru to the second round of the 1978 FIFA World Cup; for these and many other successess Calderón is considered the best Peruvian-born manager to have led the Blanquirroja. Elba de Pádua Lima led Peru in the 1982 competition, and it ended in the first round. José Macia holds Peru's worst victory record, winning only two out of forty-three matches. Francisco Maturana and Freddy Ternero led the team to its 1999 and 2005 Kirin Cup titles, respectively. Between 2007-2009, manager, José del Solar, had one of the worst victory records with the Peruvian national football team, and failed to qualify them to the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Beginning in December 2009, the current manager is Franco Navarro.

José Del Solar

Name Peru career Played Won Drawn Lost Win % # Titles
Peru José del Solar 2007– 2009 28 6 6 16 21 0

Records

Nolberto Solano, former captain and third top scorer.

Roberto Palacios holds Peru's records for most appearances with the national team, having played 122 times between 1992 and 2007. Héctor Chumpitaz, with 105 appearances, and Jorge Soto, with 101 appearances, follow in second and third respectively. For goalkeepers, Oscar Ibañez holds the most appearances with 50 caps, followed by Miguel Miranda (47 caps) and Ramón Quiroga (40 caps).[101] Teófilo Cubillas holds the team's record of top goalscorer with 26 goals in 81 appearances. Teodoro Fernández is in second, but holds a better goal per appearance average with 24 goals in 32 appearances. In third place is Nolberto Solano, who has 20 goals in 89 appearances.[101]

Hugo Sotil, Héctor Chumpitaz, and Teófilo Cubillas were selected from the Peruvian football team to be part of the starting line-up of the South America football team that played against the Europe XI in 1973 at the Nou Camp of FC Barcelona. Sotil scored South America's second goal, and Chumpitaz scored the tying goal (4–4); South America beat Europe 7–6 in the penalty rounds.[102]

The largest margin of victory achieved by Peru is a 9–1 score against Ecuador in the inaugural Bolivarian Games. The team's record defeat took place in the 1997 Copa América, when Brazil defeated Peru by a score of 7–0.[32] Peru is the first team that received a FIFA Fair Play Trophy. The Peruvians received the award in the 1970 FIFA World Cup because they were the only team that received no yellow or red cards in their games.[103]

Other tournaments and records

Medal record
Bolivarian Games
Gold 1938 Bogotá NA
Gold 1947–48 Lima NA
Bronze 1951 Caracas NA
Gold 1961 Barranquilla NA
Gold 1973 Panama City NA
Bronze 1977 La Paz NA
Gold 1981 Barquisimeto NA
CONCACAF Gold Cup
Bronze 2000 Gold Cup NA
Copa Centenario de Armenia
Bronze 1989 Armenia NA
Kirin Cup
Gold 1999 Japan NA
Gold 2005 Japan NA
Marlboro Cup
Silver 1989 New York NA
Men’s Pre-Olympic Football
Silver 1960 Peru NA
Bronze 1964 Peru NA
Bronze 1980 Colombia NA
Nike United States Cup
Bronze 1997 U.S. Cup NA

Aside from FIFA or CONMEBOL sponsored tournaments, Peru has been invited to join a variety of tournaments throughout the world. In 1938, the team participated and won at the inaugural Bolivarian Games, and won it four more times before the tournament was officially restricted to players under the age of 20.[104] In 1986, Peru was invited to participate in its first Asian tournament, the Nehru Cup of India. In 1989, Peru gained third place in the Copa Centenario de Armenia 1989, which took place in the city of Armenia, Colombia.[105] That same year Peru won second place in the Marlboro Cup.[106] Eight years later, Peru was invited to join the 1997 U.S. Cup in which they beat the United States 1–0, lost to Denmark 1–2, and tied with Mexico (the eventual champions of the competition) 0–0.[107]

In 2000, the team was invited to join the CONCACAF Gold Cup tournament along with Colombia and South Korea.[108] Positioned in Group B of the tournament, Peru started bad with a 1–1 tie with Haiti, and a 1-0 loss to the United States.[108] Surprisingly, this was enough for Peru to advance and face Honduras, which had ended first in their group.[108] Peru won this quarterfinals match with an unexpected 5–3 result.[109] In the semifinals, Peruvian defenders made a series of mistakes, including an own goal, and the only goal of Peru against Colombia came thanks to Roberto Palacios; Colombia defeated Peru 2–1.[110]

In 1999 and 2005, Peru was invited to join an event hosted in Japan known as the Kirin Cup. This event would become the third international tournament, after the Copa America and the Bolivarian Games, in which Peru would emerge victorious. In 1999, la Blanquirroja achieved a shared first place with Belgium after tying 1–1 with them, and 0-0 with Japan.[111] In 2005, Peru gained another shared first place, this time with the United Arab Emirates, after defeating Japan 1–0 and drawing 0-0 with the United Arab Emirates.[112]

Fixtures

Memorable games

Juan Seminario scores one of his three goals against England in the match Peru won by 4–1.

There have been numerous memorable matches throughout the history of the Blanquirroja. Among the earliest was a match against Austria during the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. In the quarter finals of the tournament, the Peruvians came from behind against the European side, overturning a two-goal deficit at the half to take the game, tied, into extra time. Peru scored twice to win the game 4–2. After the game, the Austrian team alleged that the Peruvian players had manhandled them, and that spectators, one brandishing a revolver, had swarmed down on the field. FIFA ordered the game replayed behind closed doors; upon hearing the news, the Peruvian Olympic team's entire contingent of 50 athletes withdrew from the games in protest. The game was awarded to Austria by default. The story was told differently by European and South American media; to this day, the exact details of what occurred are not known.[25]

Memorable FIFA World Cup qualifying games include the infamous 1–2 loss to Bolivia in 1969, after which match referee Sergio Chechelev admitted to having been paid by Argentina to fix the game in Bolivia's favor.[113] Peru qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup in a historic 2–2 match against Argentina.[114]

Although Peru has only had four World Cup appearances, they played in several notable matches. During the group stage of the 1970 World Cup, the national squad overcame Bulgaria by 3–2 after trailing by 0–2.[115] After making it to the quarter finals despite a 3–1 defeat at the hands of West Germany, Peru was knocked out of the tournament by Brazil's four goals to the Blanquirroja's two.

Peru is remembered for knocking Ally MacLeod's Scottish squad out of the group stage of the 1978 FIFA World Cup, with a score of 3–1.[116] Despite an initial good performance, Peru went on to be defeated by Brazil, Poland, and controversially, Argentina. In the last game of the second group stage, in order to go through to the final Argentina had to defeat Peru by at least four goals to surpass Brazil's five points and five goal difference. Trailing by only two goals at the half, the Peruvian team collapsed in the second period, allowing Argentina to win by 6–0. It was rumored that Peru had been paid by the Argentine military government to play poorly in order to concede the goals Argentina needed; fueling the rumors was the fact that the Peruvian goalkeeper, Ramón Quiroga, was born in Argentina. None of the allegations could be proven, and Argentina went on to win the tournament.[117]

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Bibliography

External links

Achievements
Preceded by
Inaugural Champions
Bolivarian Champions
1938 (First title)
1947–48 (Second title)
Succeeded by
1951 Colombia 
Preceded by
1937 Argentina 
South American Champions
1939 (First title)
Succeeded by
1941 Argentina 
Preceded by
1951 Colombia 
Bolivarian Champions
1961 (Third title)
Succeeded by
1965 Ecuador 
Preceded by
1970 Bolivia 
Bolivarian Champions
1973 (Fourth title)
Succeeded by
1977 Bolivia 
Preceded by
Inaugural Champions
Mariscal Sucre Champions
1973 (First title)
Succeeded by
1973 Bolivia 
Preceded by
1967 Uruguay 
South American Champions
1975 (Second title)
Succeeded by
1979 Paraguay 
Preceded by
1977 Bolivia 
Bolivarian Champions
1981 (Fifth title)
Succeeded by
U-20 Tournaments
Preceded by
1998 Japan 
Kirin Cup Champions
1999 (First title)
Succeeded by
2000 Slovakia 
Preceded by
2004 Japan 
Kirin Cup Champions
2005 (Second title)
Succeeded by
2006 Scotland 

Simple English

Peru
Association Federación Peruana de Fútbol
Confederation CONMEBOL
Coach José del Solar
Most caps Roberto Palacios (122)
Top scorer Teófilo Cubillas (26)
World Cup
Appearances 4
First Apps 1930
Best result Quarterfinals (1970)

Peru national football team is the national football team of Peru.


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