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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Perumal (Tamil: பெருமாள்) also Thirumal (Tamil: திருமால்) is a Hindu deity popular amongst Tamils of Tamil Nadu state in India and in the Tamil diaspora. Perumal is also another name of the Hindu God Vishnu.


Early mention in Sangam literature

Tamil Sangam literature (200BCE to 500CE) mentions mAyOn, or the dark one, this deity also known as mAl ' a spirit worshipped in pasture land regions known as mullai. Tamil linguists have translated the word mAl as dark or black. Thus he became associated with Krishna the dark or black deity of Yadava cow-herders in North India.

Thirumal can be translated as the sacred mAl. Hence the name Thirumal is a continuation of the Sangam era deity mAl.

Popularity in the Tamil Nadu

Perumal has enjoyed somewhat continuous popularity with all classes of society right from the Sangam age. During the post-Sangam period, his worship was popularized by the Vaishnavite patriarch Ramanuja. Thirumal worship is accommodated as part of the daily worship of all deities across Tamil Nadu and in the Tamil speaking regions of Sri Lanka.

The term Perumal is also associated with Lord Murugan, specifically in Thiruppugazh, where all poems end addressing the Lord as Perumal. Murugan has other associations with Lord Vishnu, such as being called mAlmaRugan (son-in-law of mAl).

Perumal Temples

Prominent Perumal temples around the world are

  • Sri Varadaraja perumal temple in India
  • Perumal temple in Jaffna, Sri Lanka
  • Sri Venkatshwara perumal temple in the USA

See also


External links


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