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Peshawar
Pashto: پېښور Hindko: پِشور
Urdu: پشاور
Islamia College at the University of Peshawar
Peshawar is located in Pakistan
Peshawar
Location within Pakistan
Coordinates: 34°00′N 71°30′E / 34°N 71.5°E / 34; 71.5
Country  Pakistan
Province North-West Frontier Province
Union Councils 25
Government
 - Nazim (Mayor) Mr Muhammad Umar Khan (ANP)
Area
 - Total 2,257 km2 (871.4 sq mi)
Elevation 510 m (1,673 ft)
Population (2006)
 - Total 2,955,254
 Density 1,309.4/km2 (3,391.3/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Area code(s) 091
Website www.peshawar.gov.pk

About this sound Peshāwar ( Pashto: پېښور Pekhawar/Peshawar, Hindko: پِشور Pishor, Urdu: پشاور), is the capital of the North-West Frontier Province[1] and the administrative centre for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan but not the capital of the federal regional territory.[2] The Kushan king Kanishka, moved the capital from Pushkalavati (now called Charsadda in the Peshawar valley) to Purushapura in the 2nd century AD.[3] The current name "Peshawar" may derive from the Sanskrit Purushapura (meaning "city of men") and is known as Pekhawar or Peshawar in Pashto and Pishor in Hindko. The area originally belonged to Gandhara and the eastern Iranian tribes of Scythian origin and later became part of the Kushan Empire empire. It gave its name to the Peshwari naan bread, one of the diverse genres of naan common in the curry houses of Great Britain. Briefly it also witnessed some Greek influence after which it saw the Arab conquest and rise of Islam. It then became one of the centers of Afghan empire. Today it is one of the prime cities of Pakistan west of the river Indus.

Contents

History of Peshawar

Peshawar Museum

Peshawar is now officially recognised as being one of the Oldest Living Cities in Asia. Its history and culture has continued uninterrupted since several centuries. This fact was confirmed by the discovery of silver punch-marked coins from the Government House in 1906-07 and the ongoing excavation at Gor Khatri which is the deepest and widest in the world.[4] Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central, South, and West Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a centre of trade between Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. As an ancient center of learning, the 2nd century B.C.E. Bakhshali Manuscript used in the Bakhshali approximation was found nearby[5]. Peshawar is also the setting of the famous story Peshawar Nights, which was an exchange between a Shia scholar and a Sunni audience over the course of eleven nights, which presumably resulted in their acceptance of Shi'ism.

Peshawar was a major center of Buddhist learning until the 10th century.[6] As an indication of its importance, Peshawar was also the site of Kanishka's Great Stupa which housed relics of Gautama Buddha, and was widely considered to be the tallest building in the world at the time of its construction.[7] Ancient Chinese manuscripts tell of Buddhist pilgrims such as Faxian, Sung Yun, and Xuanzang reporting that the 7th century stupa, which was rediscovered in the south east of the city at a site called Shahji-ki-Dheri in 1907-08, had a height of 591–689 feet.[6][8][9][10][11]

Peshawar emerged as a centre of both Hindko and Pashtun intellectuals. Its dominant culture for much of British rule was that of the Hindko speakers, also referred to as "Khaarian" ('city dwellers' in Pashto).[12] Its unique culture, distinct from the surrounding Pashtun areas, led to the city being romanticised by Pashto singers, with songs like larsha Pekhwar tha (let us go to Peshawar) and more recently Pekhawar kho pekhawar dhay kana. This unique culture has gradually disappeared with the massive influx of Afghan refugees and the increasing migration of Pashtuns into the city. The demographics has changed quite dramatically and Pashto is now the dominant language of the city.

Lady Reading Hospital

Peshawar is located in an area that was dominated by various tribes of Indo-Iranian origin. The region was affiliated with the ancient kingdom of Gandhara and had links to the Harappan civilization of the Indus River Valley and to Bactria and other ancient kingdoms based in Afghanistan. According to the historian Tertius Chandler, Peshawar had a population of 120,000 in the year 100 BCE, making it the seventh most populous city in the world.[13]

Vedic mythology refers to an ancient settlement called Pushkalavati in the area, after Pushkal, the son of King Bharata in the epic Ramayana.[14], but this settlement's existence remains speculative and unverifiable.[15] In recorded history, the earliest major city established in the general area of Peshawar was called Purushapura (Sanskrit for City of Men) and was founded by the Kushans, a Central Asian tribe of Tocharian origin, over 2,000 years ago.[16] Prior to this period the region was affiliated with Gandhara, an ancient Indo-Iranian kingdom, and was annexed first by the Persian Achaemenid empire and then by the Hellenic empire of Alexander the Great. The city passed into the rule of Alexander's successor, Seleucus I Nicator who ceded it to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire in 305 BCE. Buddhism was introduced into the region at this time and may have claimed the majority of Peshawar's inhabitants before the coming of Islam.[17]

Indo-Greek Peshawar

Sunehri Mosque

The area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king, Eucratides (170 - 159 BCE), and was controlled by a series of Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek kings who ruled an empire that spanned from present day Pakistan to North India. Later, the city came under the rule of several Parthian and Indo-Parthian kings, another group of Iranic invaders from Central Asia, the most famous of whom, Gondophares, ruled the city and its environs starting in circa 46 CE, and was briefly followed by two or three of his descendants before they were displaced by the first of the "Great Kushans", Kujula Kadphises, around the middle of the 1st century CE.

Gandharan Peshawar

Peshawar formed the eastern capital of the empire of Gandhara under the Kushan king Kanishka, who reigned from at least 127 CE. Peshawar became a great centre of Buddhist learning. Kanishka built what may have been the tallest building in the world at the time, a giant stupa, to house the Buddha's relics, just outside the Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar.

Ongoing excavation at Gor Khatri, said to be the world's 'biggest and deepest' which established Peshawar's chronological age as the 'Oldest Living City in South Asia'

The Kanishka stupa was said to be an imposing structure as one travelled down from the mountains of Afghanistan onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building is by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk, Faxian, who visited it in 400 and described it as being over 40 chang in height (probably about 120 m or 394 ft) and adorned "with all precious substances". "Of all the stûpas and temples seen by the travellers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength." It was destroyed by lightning and repaired several times. It was still in existence at the time of Xuanzang's visit in 634. From the ruined base of this giant stupa there existed a jewelled casket containing relics of the Buddha, and an inscription identifying Kanishka as the donor, and was excavated from a chamber under the very centre of the stupa's base, by a team under Dr. D.B. Spooner in 1909. The stupa was roughly cruciform in shape with a diameter of 286 feet (87 meters) and heavily decorated around the sides with stucco scenes.

Sometime in the 1st millennium BCE, the group that now dominates Peshawar began to arrive from the Suleiman Mountains of southern Afghanistan to the southwest, the Pashtuns. Over the centuries the Pashtuns would come to dominate the region and Peshawar has emerged as an important center of Pashtun culture along with Kandahar and Kabul as well as Quetta in more recent times. Muslim Arab and Turkic arrived and annexed the region before the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

Arrival of Islam

Government Higher Secondary School

The Pashtuns began to convert to Islam following early annexation by the Arab Empire from Khurasan (in what is today western Afghanistan and northeastern Iran).[18]

Sebuktagin dying in 997 was succeeded as governor of Khorasan by his son Mahmud, who throwing off all dependence on the Samani princes, assumed the title of Sultan in 999, and from this reign the Hindu religion in these parts may be said to have received a death blow. In the early reign of this celebrated invader of India the plains of Peshawar were again the scene of some great battles, the first of which was fought on the maira between Nowshera and the Indus, in the year 1001. Mahmud was opposed by Jaipal, who had been constantly endevouring to recover the country wrested from him by Sebuktagin, still aided by some Pathans whose allegiance to the Muslim governor of Peshawar was not of long continuance.

The battle took place on November 27 and the Hindus were one again routed, Jaipal himself being taken prisoner, who upon his subsequent release resigned the crown to his son Anandpal. On this occasion Mahmud punished the Pathans who had sided with the enemy, and as they were now converted entirely to the Islam, they stayed true to their new allegiance, and joined the Sultan in his wars against the infidels.[19]

Peshawar was taken by Turkic Muslims in 988 and was incorporated into the larger Pashtun domains by the 16th century. The founder of the Mughul dynasty that would conquer South Asia, Babur, who hailed from current Uzbekistan, came to Peshawar and founded a city called Bagram where he rebuilt the fort in 1530. His grandson, Akbar, formally named the city Peshawar, meaning "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian and expanded the bazaars and fortifications. The Muslim technocrat, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and many settled in the Peshawar region.[15]

Facades in Peshawar's Walled City

Reigns of the Pashtun Kings

The Pashtun conqueror Sher Shah Suri, turned Peshawar's renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road through the Khyber Pass and Peshawar. Thus the Mughals turned Peshawar into a "City of Flowers" by planting trees and laying out gardens similar to those found to the west in Iran. Khushal Khan Khattak, the Pashtun/Afghan warrior poet, was born near Peshawar and his life was intimately tied to the city. Khattak was an early Pashtun nationalist, who agitated for an independent Afghanistan including Peshawar. As such, he was an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, by the 18th century the city came under Persian control during the reign of Nadir Shah. In 1747, following a loya jirga, Peshawar would join the Afghan/Pashtun empire of Ahmad Shah Durrani as a Pakthun region. Pashtuns from Peshawar took part in the incursions of South Asia during the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his successors.

Peshawar under British Rule

In 1812, Peshawar was on the edge of Afghan controlled territory, but threatened by the Sikhs. The arrival of a party led by British explorer and former agent of the East India Company, William Moorcroft was seen as an advantage, both in dealings with Kabul and in protection against the Sikhs of Lahore. He was even offered the governership of Peshawar and invited to offer the area's allegiance to the East India Company, which he declined. Moorcroft continued to Kabul in the company of Peshwari forces and thence to the Hindu Kush.[20]

Western gateway of the Gor Khatri caravanserai

Sikh rule of the city was disastrous for the city, many of its gardens and monuments were destroyed. The city's population dwindled to half of what it was. With the collapse of the Sikh Empire, following the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Sikh defeat in the second Anglo-Sikh War, the British occupied Peshawar in 1849.

The mountainous areas outside of the city were mapped out in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, then foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who demarcated the boundary of his colony with the Afghan ruler at the time, Abdur Rahman Khan. It is now known as the Durand Line. The Kabul government has argued that the pact expired when British colonialists left the region - although claims to the region have not been a part of official Afghan policy.

Durand Line

In 1893, Mortimer Durand negotiated with Abdur Rahman Khan the Amir of Afghanistan , the frontier between Afghanistan, the FATA , North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan Provinces of Pakistan, the successor state of British India, and Afghanistan.

This line, the Durand Line, is named after Sir Mortimer Durand and remains the international boundary between Afghanistan and modern-day Pakistan, officially recognized by most nations but and ongoing point of contention between the two countries.

In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand was deputed to Kabul by the government of British India for this purpose of settling an exchange of territory required by the demarcation of the boundary between northeastern Afghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss with the Amir Abdur Rahman Khan other pending questions. The Amir showed his ability in diplomatic argument, his tenacity where his own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying insight into the real situation.

The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the British Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.

In 1893 during rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan a "Royal Commission for setting up of Boundary" the Durand Line between Afghanistan and the British-governed India was set up, to negotiate terms with the British, for the Agreeing to the Durand line , and the two parties camped at Parachinar, now part of FATA Pakistan, which is near Khost Afghanistan.

From the British side the camp was attended by Sir Mortimer Durand and Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, Political Agent Khyber.

The Afghanistan side was represented by Sahibzada Abdul Latif and the Governor KhostSardar Shireendil Khan representing the Amir.[21]

Independence and instability

In 1947, Peshawar became part of the newly independent state of Pakistan after politicians from the Frontier approved merger into the state that had just been carved from British India. While a large majority of people approved of this action, others believed in the unity of India, such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Still others believed that the province should have ascended to Afghanistan - a position which later evolved into a call for a state independent of both Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. Of the old city gates, the most famous was the Kabuli Gate but only the name remains to this date. Peshawar has not grown as much in size or capacity as the population has. As a result it has become a polluted and overcrowded city[22].

During the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan, Peshawar served as a political centre for the Inter-Services Intelligence-trained mujahideen groups, and housed Afghan refugees at the Jalozai refugee camp. There were a total of about 100,000 Afghan refugees reported in Peshawar during the 1988 election when Benazir Bhutto was running for Prime Minister of Pakistan.[23] Peshawar managed to assimilate many of the ethnic Pashtun Afghans with relative ease and many of them still remain in Pakistan.

Peshawar continues to be a city that links Pakistan with Afghanistan as well as Central Asia, and has emerged as an important regional city in Pakistan. It remains a focal point for Pashtun culture. Today, like the surrounding region, it is at the crossroads of the struggle between the extremist Taliban and moderates, liberals and Pashtun nationalists. As a demonstration of their determination to destroy Pashtun icons, the Taliban bombed the shrine of the most beloved Pashtun poet, Rahman Baba, in 2009.

Geography and climate

Peshawar
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
26
 
18
4
 
 
43
 
20
6
 
 
78
 
24
11
 
 
49
 
30
16
 
 
27
 
36
21
 
 
8
 
40
26
 
 
42
 
38
27
 
 
68
 
36
26
 
 
18
 
35
23
 
 
10
 
31
16
 
 
12
 
26
10
 
 
23
 
20
5
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: World Weather Information Service

Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau along with the rest of the NWFP. Peshawar is literally a frontier city of South-Central Asia and was historically part of the Silk Road.

The Peshawar valley is covered with consolidated deposits of silt, sands and gravel of recent geological times. The flood Plains/Zones are the areas between Kabul River and Budni Nala. The meander flood plain extends from Warsak in the Northwest towards Southeast in the upper Northern half of the district. The Kabul river enters the district in the Northwest. On entering the Peshawar Plain, the Kabul River is divided into several channels. Its two main channels are the Adizai River Eastward flows along the boundary with Charsadda District. Another channel branching from the right bank of the Naguman River is the Shah Alam, which again merges with Naguman River further in the East. In general the sub-soil strata is composed of gravels, boulders, and sands overlain by silts and clays. Sand, gravel and boulders are important aquifer extends to a depth of about 200 feet (61 m). As further confined water bearing aquifer occurs at depths greater than 400 feet (120 m).

Winter in Peshawar starts from mid November to the end of March. Summer months are May to September. The mean maximum temperature in summer is over 40 °C (104 °F) and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during winter is 4 °C (39 °F) and maximum is 18.35 °C (65.03 °F).

Peshawar is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistan. But still rainfall is received both in winter and in the summer. The winter rainfall due to western disturbances shows a higher record during the months of February and April. The highest winter rainfall has been recorded in March, while the highest summer rainfall in the month of August. The average winter rainfall is higher than that of the summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average 30-year annual precipitation has been recorded as 400 millimetres (16 in). Wind speeds vary during the year from 5 knots (5.8 mph; 9.3 km/h) in December to 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August.

Peshawar’s environment has suffered tremendously due to an ever increasing population, unplanned growth and a poor regulatory framework. Air and noise pollution is a significant issue in several parts of the city, and the water quality, once considered to be exceptionally good, is also fast deteriorating.[24]

In addition the city has lost 2,700 acres (1,100 ha) of agriculture land during the two decades (1965-85). This in the addition to 400 acres (160 ha) of vacant land that has been also eaten up by expending urban functions. In the same period, the land under parks and green space has shrunk from 163 to 75 acres (66–30 ha).[25]

Demographics

Interior of the Mahabat Khan Mosque. Although Islam is the majority religion in the city, it has a significant Sikh and Hindu population.

Peshawar is a rapidly growing city with a population of 2,982,816 in 1998. The current population growth rate is 3.29% per year, which is higher than the average of many other Pakistani cities. With an estimated 3.5 million ethnic Pashtuns, Karachi hosts one of the largest Pashtun populations in the world.


Peshawar's inhabitants consist mainly of Pashtun people with Hindkowans as the minority group. In addition, thousands of Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Persians, Panjabis, Chitralis and Gypsies can be found in the city. Languages such as Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Khowar, Dari, Hindko, and Punjabi are spoken in Peshawar.

  • Urban Population: 51.32% (1,036,000 persons)
  • Rural Population: 48.68% (983,000 persons)
  • Male/Female ratio: 1.1:1
  • Average annual growth rate 3.56%

In 2002, on the growth rate of 3.56% population doubled in 20 years from 1.1 million in 1981 to 2.242 million in 2002. Peshawar District covers a large area extending over 50 kilometres (31 mi) from north to south and over 30 kilometres (19 mi) from east to west. It is situated at an altitude of 347 m (1,138 ft) above sea level. The Peshawar valley is nearly circular, extending from the Indus to the Khyber Hills. It is bounded on the North and North East by hills, which separate it from the Swat Valley. In the Northwest are the rugged mountains of Khyber and to the South is the continuation of spur which branches off from Safed Koh (the famous white mountain on the Afghan border) and runs to Indus. The lower portion of this branch separates the district of Peshawar and Kohat.

Over 99% of the city's population is Muslim, mostly Sunnis with Twelver Shias as the minority. Despite the overwhelmingly Islamic nature of modern Peshawar, the city was previously home to other smaller communities such as Bukharan Jews, Zorastrians, Bahá'ís, Hindus and Sikhs. The Partition of British India and the creation of Israel resulted in the virtual elimination of some of these groups, particularly Hindus from Peshawar, but there are still small Christian, Zorastrian, Sikh, and Bahá'í communities that remain in the city.[26]

Culture

Peshawar is the centre of Pashtun culture and arts in Pakistan. With the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s and the influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan, Peshawar became home for many Afghan musicians and artists.[27] The city has become the centre for Pashto music and cinema as well Persian music for the Tajiks. There is also a thriving book publishing activity in the Persian language in Peshawar, concentrated primarily on Islamic Shia literature and located in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar where it is operated by Shia Hindkowaan.[citation needed]

However, the election of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) Islamic coalition in 2002 resulted in restrictions on public musical performances, as well as a ban on playing recorded music on public transports. Peshawar has become host to a thriving underground scene[28]. In 2008, the secular Awami National Party (ANP) swept elections and won power from the Islamic coalition. Since then, some restrictions have been lifted, but there has not been a full restoration of the liberties guaranteed before the MMA victory in 2002.

The historic old city of Peshawar was once a heavily guarded citadel with high walls. Today, not much remains of the walls, but the houses and havelis have an essence of days gone by. Most of the houses are made of unbaked bricks with wooden structures for protection against earthquakes. Many of them have beautifully carved wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Areas such as Sethi Mohallah still contain many fine examples of the old architecture of Peshawar. There are many historic monuments and bazaars in the Old city, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque and Kotla Mohsin Khan, Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar.

The walled city was surrounded by several main gates which severed as the main entry points into the city, some of which still survive today. They include: Lahori Gate, Sarasia Gate, Ganj Gate, Sirki Gate, Sard Chah Gate, Kohati Gate Former Gates which were demolished during wars were Kabuli Gate, Berikian Gate, Bajori Gate, Yakatut Gate, Dabgari Gate, Kachahri Gate, and Hasht Nagri Gate.

Government

Peshawar's local government consists of 25 Union Councils.

Key villages

  • Palosi Peeran
  • Palosi Atozai
  • Palosi Maghdarzai
  • Palosi Talarzai
  • Panj So Baara (512)
  • Lakarhai Kaneza
  • Mollazai
  • Pottwar
  • Shahi Bala
  • Garhi Zahir
  • Garhi Bacha Gul
  • Regi
  • Badizai
  • Nasir Bagh
  • Sakhi Pul
  • Gul Abad
  • Hayatabad Town
  • Regi lalma Town
  • Sheikh Yaseen Town
  • Malakandair
  • Khalidabad
  • Achini Bala
  • Haji Banda
  • Sarbandh
  • Sangu
  • Sufaid Dheri (Navi Killi)
  • Abdhara
  • Custom, Nawi Killi
  • Landi Arbab
  • Manakro
  • Landi Akhun Muhammad
  • Sheikh Muhammadi
  • Sorhizai
  • Skeem
  • Chamkani
  • Latifabad
  • NiamiNaguan * Pasanni پاسنى
  • Mattani متنی
  • Adezai
  • Badaber
  • Bahadar Kaly [Da Rahman BABA Kaly]
  • Mathra
  • Sardaryab
  • Gulbela
  • Tekhal
  • PAWAKKA
  • Danish Abad
  • chargano chowk
  • mohmand colony
  • urmar payan
  • hazar khawni
  • Momin town dalazak road peshawar
  • Shahinda
  • Chaghar Matti
  • Pajaggi
  • Kaniza
  • Pushta Khara پشتخره

Peshawar Development Authority

Peshawar Development Authority (PDA) is the department in charge of construction in Peshawar. This includes roads, parks, and plant life.

The department (CD&MD) was renewed because of the immense corruption which had taken place before.Its first Director General was Malik Saad.The then governor Lt. Gen Iftikhar Hussain Shah specifically requested Malik Saad to help tackle the corruption and bring the department back up to its former success again.This decision proved successful, because not only was the corruption tackled, but also the city`s development was in full gear and the city`s only fully functional flyover,also named after Malik Saad, was built along with many other projects and developments in the city.

Nimak Mandai is the central selling point for cooked meat and is famous throughout Pakistan.

Educational Institutions

With the level of higher education on the rise, there has been a surge[citation needed] of prestigious educational institutions in Peshawar. The prestigious University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan in Peshawar. Edwardes College which was founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes is the oldest and one of the finest colleges in the province. The Islamia College was founded in 1913 and is also a well known institution.

Tourism

Peshawar is one of the oldest cities of the world[citation needed]. It is a conservative Islamic city with a rich history. It offers everything from goldsmiths and silversmiths, traditional carpets (one of the big exports of Pakistan today), pottery, and clothing to artwork in wood, brass or semi-precious stones. The old walled city was known for its 16 gates — Bijouri, Kabuli, Aasamai, Kutcheri, Rampura, Hasht Nagri, Toot, Kohati, Sirki, Thandi Khoi, Barzaqan, Ganj, Ramdas, Dabgari, and Lahore Gate. The names given to these gates are significant. It was Sikh General Avitabile who built a mud wall surrounding the city.[29] Under the British nearly the whole of the enclosure wall had been built of pucca brick.[30] There are many bazaars with different goods and souvenirs for travellers. The main ones include the historic Qissa Khawani Bazaar, the Copper market, Chowk Yadgar and Andarsheher Bazaar. In addition because of its access to the Khyber pass, the Khyber train safari starts from here.

  • General
    • Governor's House
    • Mattani
    • Deans Trade Center
    • Peshawar Garrison Club
    • Aviator's Station - The site where freedom fighters of the 1857 independence movement were blown from guns.
    • Danish Abad and Board Bazaar
    • Hayatabad
    • Kotla Mohsin Khan - The residence of Mazullah Khan, seventeenth century Pashtu poet.
    • Durrani Graveyard
    • Sethi Mohallah
    • Garhi Qamardin
    • Palosi - A famous village situated on the back of Agricultural University Peshawar. It is subdivided into four parts called as Piran, Attozai, Maghdarzai, and Turlazai.
  • Colonial monuments
    • Bara Bridge built by Mughal rulers in 1629.
    • Chowk Yadgar - Formerly Hastings memorial
    • Cunningham clock tower built in 1900. Called Ghanta Ghar
    • Avitabile's Pavilion
    • Edwardes School - The residence of Yar Mohammad Khan, the last Durrani Governor of Peshawar
  • Buddhist
    • Gor Khuttree - An ancient site of Buddha's alms or begging bowl. Headquarter of Syed Ahmad Shaheed, Governor Avitabile
    • Pashto Academy - The site of an ancient Buddhist University
    • Shah Ji Ki Dheri - The site of Kanishka's famous Buddhist monastery.
  • Hindu
    • Panch Tirath - An ancient Hindu site now converted into a park
  • Sikh
    • Sikh Gurudwara at Jogan Shah
  • Mausoleums
    • Tomb of Sheikh Imamuddin (d.1650) at Palosi Piran.
    • Tomb of Rahman Baba (d.1706)
    • Tomb of Akhund Darweza (d.1638)
    • Tomb of Sheikh Sultan Baba
    • Mausoleum of Nawab Sayed Khan
    • Ziarat of Ashab Baba
    • Burj-e-Roshnai
  • Parks
    • Army Stadium - Amusement Park for children and families with restaurants, banks, play pans and shopping arcade.
    • Cunningham Park/Jinnah Park- Situated opposite Historic Bala Hisar Fort, close to Asamai Gate and Lady Reading Hospital.
    • Wazir Bagh - Laid in 1802, by Fatteh Khan, Prime Minister of Shah Mahmud Khan.
    • Ali Mardan Khan Gardens - Formerly Company Bagh now Khalid bin Waleed Park.
    • Shahi Bagh - A small portion of which constitutes the current site of Arbab Niaz Stadium.
    • Garrison Park - Located at Prime Location of Shami Road under Army Control.
    • Tatara Park - Located in Hayatabad for children and families.
  • Mosques
    • Mohabbat Khan Mosque
    • Ganj Ali Khan Mosque
    • Qasim Ali Khan Mosque
    • Sonehri Masjid
    • Zarghooni MOsque
    • Bilal Masjid Shami Road
  • Shopping
    • Gul Haji Plaza
    • Qissa Khawani Bazaar
    • Karkhano Market
    • Deans Trade Centre
    • Jans Arcade
    • Imperial Stores
    • City Towers
    • Jawad Towers
    • Town Towers
    • Saddar Bazar
    • Mall Towers
    • University road
  • Coffee bars, cafes and restaurants
    • Masooms Cafe
    • Cafe De'Viento
    • Cafe De'Milan
    • Namak Mandi
    • Charsi Tikka Shop
    • Potato Plus
    • SS Club
    • Chief Pizzas and Burgers
    • KFC
    • Pizza Hut
    • Four Seasons
    • Shiraz Restaurants

health

    • life care clinic nothia road etefaq plaza peshawar cantt

Transportation

The Peshawar International Airport serves the city and the province of the North-West Frontier as the main international airport in the region. It is served by all airlines of Pakistan as well as many major airlines including Emirates and Qatar Airways who have regular flights to the Persian Gulf and forward connections to Europe. The city is linked to the main motorway as well as the Karakorum Highway from which it is connected to all of the major cities of Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Multan. The roads are also linked to Afghanistan and China. Afghanistan is linked through the Khyber Pass, which is the main gateway for both cargo and passenger travel. In the city, there are all sorts of methods to travel around, from coaches, buses, rickshaws, auto rickshaws, yellow and black taxis, to traditional methods such as horse and carts. Peshawar Railway Station is run by Pakistan Railways, the largest operator of rail companies in Pakistan, with connections to all parts of Pakistan as well as Afghanistan.

Media

Being the capital city for the Pashto and Paktuns, Peshawar is a focal point for various literature, political and media related personalities. Aaj Daily is one of many newspapers published from the city. The city also hosts its own film industry, Pollywood, where countless Pashto films have been made.

Men of Letters include, Farigh Bukhari, Raza Hamadani, Mohsin Ihsan, Khatir Ghaznavi, Taaha Khan, Zahoor Awan, Taj Saeed, Zaitoon Bano, Sajjad Babar, Nazeer Tabassum, Malik Nasir Ali Nasir, Qasim Hasrat, Majid Sarhadi, Younus Qiasi, Nasir Ali Sayed, Amjad Hussain Muhammad Hashim Babar

Notable people

Sister cities

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "NWFP Introduction". Government of the North West Frontier Province. http://www.nwfp.gov.pk/AIS-page.php?pageName=Introduction&DistId=1&DeptId=1&LangId=1. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  2. ^ "Administrative System". Government of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. http://www.fata.gov.pk/index.php?link=3. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  3. ^ "Pushpapura to Peshawar". The Khyber Watch. http://khyberwatch.com/nandara/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  4. ^ Current World Archaeology - Durrani, N., Andrew & Wendy Sikirk; 2006; 16.
  5. ^ Ian Pearce (May 2002). "The Bakhshali manuscript". The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Bakhshali_manuscript.html. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  6. ^ a b http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/index_01_08.html
  7. ^ http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V20_130.gif
  8. ^ http://www.reference.com/browse/Kanishka?jss=1
  9. ^ http://coinsencyclopedia.org/?p=46
  10. ^ http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/mar.htm
  11. ^ http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7882.pdf
  12. ^ The Frontier Town of Peshawar A Brief History by Sayed Amjad Hussain.
  13. ^ 10 Cities of the Year 100, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census by Tertius Chandler. 1987, St. David's University Press.
  14. ^ Peshawar - History
  15. ^ a b The Pathans – 550 BC - AD 1957 by Sir Olaf Caroe, 1958, Macmillan Company, Reprinted Oxford University Press, 2003
  16. ^ "Provincial Capital". Government of the North West Frontier Province. http://www.nwfp.gov.pk/AIS-page.php?DistId=1&DeptId=1&LanId=1&pageName=ProvincailCapital001. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  17. ^ Buddhist Past By Fidaullah Sehrai
  18. ^ History of Peshawar by Asghar Javed
  19. ^ Gazetteer of the Peshawar District 1897-98
  20. ^ Keay, John (1996). Explorers of the Western Himalayas: 1820 - 1895. London: John Murray. p. 41. ISBN 0-7195-5576-0. 
  21. ^ http://www.aaiil.org/aaiil/ra/jalsa/2003/sahibzadaabdullatifshaheed100anniversary/08sahibzadazahoorahmad_sahibzadaabdullatifshaheed. mp3
  22. ^ Peshawar: The city of contrasts by S.A. HussainLink
  23. ^ Pakistan Restricts Afghan Refugees by Donatella Lorch for the New York Times. November 16, 1988.
  24. ^ Times. Monday, October 16, 2006 Pollution reaches alarming level throughout Peshawar
  25. ^ History of Peshawar By Asghar Jaaved August 6, 2007 Monday
  26. ^ Statistics Division - Government of Pakistan
  27. ^ PESHAWAR: Refugee musicians keep Afghan music alive by Intikhab Amir, Dawn newspaper. December 25, 2001.
  28. ^ underground: Rocking against all odds August 6, 2007 Monday. The Frontier post. Retrieved 8th August 2007
  29. ^ Gazetteer of Peshawar District, 1897-98, p, 362
  30. ^ N-W.F.P Gazetteer, Peshawar District, 1931, p. 299
  31. ^ List of some Historical Monuments of Peshawar By Prof Mohd Said

Further reading

  • Ahmad, Aisha and Boase, Roger. 2003. "Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier." Saqi Books (March 1, 2003). ISBN 0-86356-438-0.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. "Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang." 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. "The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing". Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1985. "Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier" Sang-e-Meel Publications (1995). ISBN 969-35-0554-9.
  • Dobbins, K. Walton. 1971. "The Stūpa and Vihāra of Kanishka I". The Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta.
  • Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1815. "An account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India,: comprising a view of the Afghaun nation." Akadem. Druck- u. Verlagsanst (1969).
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910-11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910-11, pp. 25–32.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilue" 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation.
  • Hopkirk, Peter. 1984. "The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia." Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. ISBN 1-56836-022-3.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. "Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825", Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Reeves, Richard. 1985. "Passage to Peshawar: Pakistan: Between the Hindu Kush and the Arabian Sea." Holiday House (September, 1985. ISBN 0-671-60539-9.
  • Baghaat-i-Peshawar By Imran Rashid Imran

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Travel Warning

WARNING: Before going to the northwest regions, Swat, and Peshawar, check for travel advisories from your government, as these regions have become volatile and unstable, with fighting between the Taliban and Pakistani military.

Peshawar is a relatively prosperous frontier town in Pakistan near the Khyber Pass, which gives it a distinct Afghan flavor.

Get in

By plane

Peshawar International Airport (PEW) is located about a 25 minute drive from the center of Peshawar, it is the 4th busiest airport in Pakistan. It is served by all Pakistan carriers including national flag carrier "PIA". Moreover, many Middle East airlines also serve this airport, such as Emirates, Etihad, Gulf, Kuwait and Qatar airlines.

Peshawar airport has international direct flights to Al Ain, Bahrain, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Doha , Jeddah, Kabul, Muscat, Kuwait and Riyadh. The connections to/from other Asian, European and American cities are available VIA Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad airports. The domestic flights to/from Peshawar Airport are Chitral, Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore.

By train

You can reach Peshawar by train with Pakistan Railway [1] from Karachi (36 hours) and Quetta (25 hours), both are via Lahore and Rawalpindi.

There are currently no passenger trains from Landi Kotal in the Khyber Pass.

By Road

Peshawer is connected with Islamabad via Motorway M-1 and via national highway N-5.

By bus

Buses and minibuses run to many parts of the country from here.

Get around

Auto-rickshaws give Peshawar two of its most well-known traits: polluted air and clogged streets, and are the most popular way to get around the city.

Walking is another option, but take care with the traffic and at night.

Old town of Peshawar
Old town of Peshawar
  • The Old City Center with the Qissa Khwani Bazaar, Bazar-e-Kalan, Clock Tower Square, Chowk Yadgar, Tehsil Gorgathri, Mohaabit Khan Mosque, Sunehri Masjid (Sadar), Peshawar Museum, Khyber Bazar. Parks includes Khalid bin waleed park, Shahi bagh and Wazir bagh. The traditional halal food of Peshawar can be bought from Namak Mandi, Khyber Bazar. The famous 'Kulfa' can be accessed from Qissa Khwani Bazar in the months of Apri-Sept every year, when there is hot weather in the city.
  • Bala Hisar Fort is one of the most historic places of Peshawar. The word Bala Hisar is from Persian, meaning, “elevated or high fort”. Renowned historian, Dr A.H. Dani in his book "Peshawar-Historic City of Frontier" writes that when Hiuen Tsang, a Chinese traveller, visited Peshawar in 630 AD, he spoke of a "royal residence".
  • Sethi Houses
  • Ghor Khutree
  • Ghanta Ghar (Clock Tower) The clock in this tower is one among the pair (second one in England) presented by the Queen Elizebeth, UK.
  • Mahabat Khan Mosque; Mahabat Khan, the governor of Peshawar, built it in 1630 AD during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (the ruler of the Mughal Empire in India from 1628 until 1658)
  • Islamia College, is an educational institution located in the city of Peshawar of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. It was opened on October 1st 1913 as a constituent college of University of Peshawar by Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan and Sir George Roos-Keppel. Though its names suggests it to be some kind of a religious institution, it is not. In fact, inline with other government colleges, it primarily educates its students in arts, humanities and sciences.
  • Peshawar Museum
  • University of Peshawar, came into being in 1950 AD, institution is committed to achieving excellence in the undergraduate and graduate education, research and public service. The University provides superior and comprehensive educational opportunities at the baccalaureate through doctoral and special professional educational levels.
  • Hayatabad is a posh neighborhood of Peshawar, famous for its Shopping centers
  • In the summertime hiking tours to the mountains are offered. Ask at Green Tours in front of the Greens Hotel, Peshawar Cantt, and Pearl Tours of the Pearl Continental Hotels. This can also be done by hiring a car, jeep or pickup from local 'Rent-a-Car' servicing private agencies at a very cheap rate ranging from US$20-US$60 per day, depending upton the condition of the vehicle. (the prices r correct as at June 30, 2006-maslampsh)
  • Khyber train Safari
  • Shah Qabool Gems Street, Namak mandi. You can buy gems and minerals precious and semi precious ask Mr Nasro Minallah Ahmadzai and co shop No 1 Ashoor building Shah Qabool Gems Street  edit

At present the University comprises of six faculties with 40 postgraduate departments, four centers, two centers of excellence, four colleges and three high schools. Student population on campus is over twenty thousand. The male-female ratio of student is 60:40. Current Ph.D enrolment is 162 and M.Phil 416; this includes 171 female aspirants.

The existing faculty of 84 Professors, 69 Associate Professors, 129 Assistant Professors and 213 Lecturers, has 170 Ph.Ds and 215 M.Phils. We are sending our teachers abroad on various programmes. A large number of national / international seminars and conferences are organized. Special emphasis is given to sports, co and extra curricular activities. The University enjoys a good reputation and our graduates are contributing immensely both at home and abroad.

  • IM Sciences (Institute of Management Sciences) [3]

The Institute of Management Sciences (IMSciences) is the foremost management school of the NWFP, and increasingly its recognition has been extending beyond the Frontier. As a public sector Institute it is markedly different from others because it is fully autonomous and self governing. This enables it to respond quickly to all new developments in the world of academia and meet the requirements of employers. IMSciences operates with a view to foster growth in students’ know how and professional skills and enable them to remain competitive in a tight labor market.

Today IMSciences offers degree programmes for business administration, management, information technology and public health. These are all similarly tied knowledge bases that help create synergy and foster the cross fertilization of knowledge. The current position of the IMSciences as a forerunner in education provision has come about as a unique case of self sustained development. This was made possible by a dedicated staff that had the creativity to grow beyond the narrow confines of state provided education. Most of the universities in Pakistan have been in stasis for decades now, but the IMSciences has been one of the few examples of successful growth in academia, one that has become a benchmark of quality for others.

Since its establishment in 1981, this University has been playing a vital role in imparting Agricultural Education and conducting basic and applied agricultural research throughout the Province, and disseminating the results of agricultural research among the farmers and general public through its outreach/public service activities.

  • Khyber Medical University

Khyber Medical University is a pioneer institution in N.W.F.P in medical education and has created name for itself at national and international level by dedicated work of its staff and students. In fact, it can be proudly called as the mother institution for rest of the medical and dental colleges and other allied medical institution established in N.W.F.P over the past twenty five years.Today, Khyber Medical College enrolls 250 students yearly, and our graduates, numbering over 8000, are providing health care, not only in N.W.F.P and FATA, but also in rest of the country. In addition, our graduates are holding key positions both at home and abroad. Beside undergraduate medical education, the college offers teaching and research facilities to the postgraduate students, i.e. M.Phil, in all basic Medical Sciences, FCPS in Clinical as well as basic medical sciences, and minor diplomas in many specialties. The college is affiliated with Peshawar University and is recognized by PMDC. General Medical Council of UK, Ireland and licensing authority of USA. Khyber Teaching Hospital, established in 1976, in attached to the college for teaching/training purposes. It is a 1200-bedded hospital, which maintains high standards with competent medical staff and sophisticated equipments.

  • Gandhara University

For over thirteen years Gandhara university has played a major role in education and training in North West Fronteir province of Pakistan. Founded in 1995 to train doctors, other colleges were later established to develop the institution into a University. Today Gandhara University has schools of Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Nursing and healthcare management.

In addition to Undergraduate education Gandhara University delivers postgraduate training an education through its Faculties of Public Health, Dentistry and the school of Postgraduate Studies. The Research Institute is one of Pakistan’s foremost research centres.

  • Islamia College University

Islamia College is an educational institution located in the city of Peshawar of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. It was founded in October 1913 by Nawab Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and Sir George Roos-Keppel. The college educates its students in arts, humanities and modern sciences. It was a constituent college of the University of Peshawar but in the year 2008 it was given the status of University and is now known as "Islamia College University" with Professor Muhammad Ajmal Khan as its first vice chancellor and Professor Dr A.Rashid Farooqi as its patron.

Being one of the leading institutions in the country, the University has been enjoying the prestige of providing high quality agricultural education and research to its students.

City university of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar is one of the first private-sector universities, chartered by the Govt. of N-W.F.P, recognized by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) and the only university in Pakistan which has been accredited by the British Accreditation Council, UK. It is an extension of Peshawar Model Educational Institutes (PMEI), founded in 1979 with an aim to impart quality education at an affordable cost. Initially, only a primary school was established, comprising just one moderate campus with 300 students. But, in due course of time, the continuous efforts of our highly qualified faculty and dedicated management paid off and resulted in the establishment of eight separate school campuses, one degree college campus for boys and one degree college campus for girls, with a combined strength of over 14,000 students. Recognizing the extraordinary reputation of PMEI in providing quality education from primary to bachelor level, the Government of N-W.F.P granted the charter of City University of Science and Information Technology on August 30, 2001. By the grace of Allah, PMEI is now providing the facility of education from primary to postgraduate levels under one umbrella. The first batch of 89 graduates were awarded degrees and medals in MCS, MBA, M.Ed, B.Ed, and MA (Egnlish) during the First Convocation on 8th April, 2004 by the then Governor NWFP, Lt. Gen. (R) Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah. Since then the convocations are being held with regularity. During the Second Convocation held on 24th November, 2005, 175 successful graduates of BCS, BSE, BBIT, B.Ed, M.Ed, MCS, MBIT, MBA (B&F), Ex-MBA and MA (English) were conferred degrees by the then Governor NWFP, Mr. Khalil-ur-Rehman. Ten gold medals and distinction certificates were also awarded to the outstanding graduates. The third convocation was held on November 30, 2006. 174 graduates of BCS, BSE, BBIT, B.Ed, M.Ed, MCS, MBIT, Ex-MBA, MBA,MBA (B&F) and MA (English) were conferred degrees, medals and certificates by the Governor N-W.F.P Lt. Gen(R) Ali Muhammad Jan Aurakzai. These results are indicative of a steady progress made by the university. Work on building the new campus has been started on the newly acquired land at Dalazak Road, Peshawar. First building of 100,000 sq. ft. covered area will be completed by end of 2007. The Foundation-Stone laying ceremony was performed by honourable Mr. Khalil-ur-Rehman, the then Governor N-W.F.P. This remarkable success story reflects the persevered efforts of the management and staff members. It is a great achievement for both the management and the staff of PMEI.

  • National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (FAST) [4])

The Peshawar campus was established in 2001. It is housed in an impressive building, which has an architectural design similar to that of the Lahore and Karachi campuses. The green, well maintained lawns that surround the building add to the scenic beauty of the whole setup. The Campus covers an area of 4 acres and is in the Industrial Estate, Hayatabad. The satellite town of Hayatabad flanks it, which is an ideal place for students to find residence in privately run hostels. The historic Khyber Pass is within an hours drive from the Campus.

The campus has facilities for co-curricular activities. There are courts for volley ball, basketball and badminton. In addition, there are arrangements for playing indoor games and separate air-conditioned cafeterias for the male and female students. The students have a number of societies/clubs where they can learn and exhibit their talents.

The Peshawar campus of IQRA university is the pioneer of IT education in NWFP, and remains to this day the principal institution extending the frontiers of IT in the province. This is being done in several ways. The Peshawar campus is unique in the wide diversity of its student body. Students are drawn not only from amongst fresh graduates and post intermediate levels, but also from amongst a wide variety of working professionals, including senior engineers, doctors, defense forces personnel, teachers, bankers, and other groups of professional managers. IQRA university is active not only in teaching and implementing software, but also in its development.The campus consists of well-furnished, air-conditioned classrooms, equipped with latest audio visual aids, a spacious information Resource center, and state-of-the-art computer labs, which provide a custom built infrastructure to achieve the mission and objectives of IQRA university.

  • CECOS University [5]

CECOS Educational Institutions have been sources of continuous support to more than twelve thousand students for developing their careers, especially in Business Management, Computer Sciences and Information Technology since 1986.

The story of genesis of this University and its evolution through various stages, started in the year 1986, Engr. Muhammad Tanveer Javed established in Peshawar Saddar a small private sector institution - CECOS Data Institute with only five computers and a very few students. CDI than designed a One year diploma course in Computer Science and got it approved from Board of Technical Education (B.T.E) for implementation in NWFP. Later this institute got affiliated to Peshawar University becoming the premier college to offer post graduate courses in computer science and University of London for certain computer courses. Today, AlhamdoLillah, it has on its role over one thousand students.

Besides these in-land institutions, CECOS also moved to open the CECOS London College of Information Technology and Management in 1998, registered under UK rules, to facilitate credit transfer of our students to American and European Universities and to market software developed by us and conduct split degree programs. CECOS-London College is fully accredited and affiliated to world prestigious bodies like City & Guilds London, Institute of Management for Information Systems UK, London Chamber of Commerce and Industry, ACCA (UK) and British Computer Society to conduct diploma, advanced diploma and graduate diploma in IT, MIS and Business studies. These diplomas are equivalent to first year, second year and third year degree programs of most of the UK Universities with full credit transfer. All the courses of CECOS London college are fully accredited by British Accreditation Council (BAC, UK). Another landmark was achieved in the year 2001 when CECOS IT Park Project was opened with the aim to provide live facility to the students for the development of software and to capture the huge International software market.

Finally, the dawn of a new era began when Government of NWFP after realising the dedicated and zealous efforts of CECOS Educational Institutions in imparting quality & professional education, granted charter for University under the name & style of CECOS University of Information Technology & Emerging Sciences. This charter was promulgated vide Ordinance No. XXI of 2001. The University is recognised by Higher Education Commission (formerly known as University Grants Commission - UGC), Govt. of Pakistan. CECOS University has also received accreditation from International Universities Accrediting Association, USA.

  • Preston University

Preston University, was established as School of Business and Commerce in 1984 to foster academic excellence. Preston University is seriously committed to improving the quality of higher education in Pakistan. The university is managed by a group of dedicated professionals and academicians who have committed their lives to the cause of higher education in Pakistan. Since its inception in 1984, Preston Network has imparted knowledge and skills to thousands of individuals through many teaching programs. The experience at this University has played an important role in the professional and personal development of our students. Preston University will continue to fulfill its responsibilities to the society by creating and providing facilities for personal and professional growth of individuals who wish to make a career in the fields of business, technology, natural and social sciences, humanities, and arts.

  • Abasyn University

Abasyn University was chartered on December 1, 2007 by the Provincial Government. Abasyn University was the first University in N-W.F.P to achieve highest Category "A". All its programs are fully recognized by Higher Education Commission, Pakistan.

  • Islamia College

Islamia College is an educational institution located in the city of Peshawar of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. It was founded in October 1913 by Nawab Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and Sir George Roos-Keppel. The college educates its students in arts, humanities and modern sciences. It was a constituent college of the University of Peshawar but in the year 2008 it was given the status of University and is now known as "Islamia College University" with Professor Muhammad Ajmal Khan as its first vice chancellor and Professor Dr A.Rashid Farooqi as its patron.

  • Edwards College
  • PAF Degree College
  • Army Public College
  • Jinnah College for women
  • College of Home Economics
  • Peshawar Moddel School and College

Several other public and private sector school, colleges and universities are operating all across the city and surrounding areas.

Buy

Before going to buy anything in Peshawar, you first have to be ready to bargain. You will need to bargain at most of the shops for items especially fabric. If you are a foreigner, be careful when shopping at shops that do not have fixed prices. The shop keepers will try their best to rip you off. When you ask how much, be prepared to offer half of what they ask and then bargain from there. Also, if the price still seems to high, don't be afraid to walk away. Many times they will call you back or you can find the same thing at another shop nearby. If is best to take a local person with you when shopping at stores that require bargaining.

The old town is a good place to stock up on Pakistani and Afghani handicrafts. These markets are located in almost all parts of the Peshawar, most commonly at Bazar Shah Qabool Olia, Namak Mandi, Khyber Bazar, Sadar Road, etc. (maslampsh)

Shafi Market (and surrounding bazaars) in the Sadar area is one of the best places to buy clothing fabric. You will find every kind of cloth from simple everyday fabric to fabric suitable for the fanciest of of occasions. The shops in Shafi Market work on a bargaining system for the most part. The market is usually very crowded, so keep a close watch on your money.

Dean's Trade center also just opened in late October 2007. It can be accessed from both Sadar Road and Sonheri Masjid Road. It is a beautiful shopping center. Many of the shop keepers who have stores on Shafi Market are also opening stores in Dean's Trade Center, however there is a lot more than just fabric at Dean's Trade Center. In general the prices are a bit higher at Dean's Trade Center, but it is much easier to shop there as it is less crowded. Some of the stores have fixed prices, but most will bargain with you. A to Z Mart is one a great general department store in Dean's that has clothing, cosmetics, stationary, housewares, and groceries. The prices are all fixed, but very reasonable. As of October 2007, most of the shops at Dean's Trade center are not occupied, so it is bound to only get better as more shops open.

In the Sadar area, the best place to buy fabric at fixed prices is at R-Sheen on Arbab Road. As for Shoes, Imperial, and Jolly, Service, Bata, and Stylo have the best ladies and kids collections as well as fixed prices. There are a number of ready made clothing shops along Sadar Road and Arbab Road as well. Most have fixed prices, but some will still bargain a bit so don't be afraid to ask. Also on University Road there are several Big Plazas and Fashion Outlets with outstanding class and Designs. Most of them are Fixed Price, take a look in the shop if its Fixed Price they must have it displayed otherwise don't forget to bargain.

  • Khan's Club, Peshawar City, rated among Top 10 resturants in Pakistan by "The News"
  • Chief Burger, University Town. Best fast food in town offering several kind of Burgers, Pizza's etc.
  • Cafe de Milan, University Town.
  • Clock Tower Food Streert, Peshawar City, for all local and traditional spicy foods.
  • Masoom's, University Town, for continental foods.
  • Pearl Continental Hotel Roof Top Bar B Que, on weekends only.
  • KFC.
  • Pizza Hut, near Sher Khan Shaheed Stadium.
  • North West Frontier Heritage, roof top Bar B Que with live traditional music. Behind Firdos Cenima, Main GT Road, Peshawar City
  • Habibi Resturant, (can be located in city and entrance to Hayatabad) for local and traditional foods.
  • Chapli ('sandal') Kabab, a flat beef kebab, one of the famous dishes of Peshawar. Several famous kabab selling shops are around. Information about them can be obtained from the travel agents or local hotels and guides. To name a few: Jalil Kabab House near Hayatabad Entrance is the most popular also you can find some others near the Ring Road Hayatabad
  • The restaurants in *Namak Mandi serve marvellous tikka and karai."CHERSEE TIKKA HOUSE" is the most famous tikka shop here. Meat is ordered by the kilogram, and then prepared according to your preference, either as tikka (barbecued) or as karahi (stir-fried, finished with fresh tomatoes & chilli).
  • Faluda, a sweet dish mainly found on the Peshawar markets and bazaars especially Qisa-Khwani Bazaar.
  • Fried Fish is also an another good treat, it can be found in Jalil Kabab House and some other restaurants near Hayatabad on Ring Road.
  • Of course the easy to eat and everywhere available "Samosa" and "Pakora"
A pot of Kawa
A pot of Kawa

Peshawar is known for its Kawa (Green Tea) which has a unique flavor, and is usually served sweet.

Sharbat-e-Sandal is a sweet, non-carbonated drink unusually found in markets in summer. It has a good taste and a yellowish-green transparent colour - look out for the black seeds. Served ice cold.

NWFP is a dry state, making alcohol hard to come by.

  • Tourist Inn Motel, 6 Saddar Rd, (NE of Saddar Bazaar, behind Jan's Bakers), +92(0)91-5279-156. Similar in facilities to Regale Internet Inn in Lahore, it's a popular place with budget backpackers and those wishing to meet up for onward travel. Has a kitchen, 3 big dorm rooms (Rs 150/person) and 2 double rooms, a community kitchen, and ample parking for self-drivers. The managers can arrange tours to the Khyber Pass, TakhtBai, Darra Adam Khel, where you can peruse gun factories and possibly even fire some of their products!
  • The Rose Hotel, Khyber Bazaar, Shoba Chowk, +92(0)91-250-755. Good sized and fairly clean rooms with attached bath in a large, secure building. Parking is available. Another popular place to meet other travelers, and the office can arrange trips to the Khyber Pass and other areas, but at a premium. Doubles from Rs 400 w/cable tv and attached bath.
  • Amin Hotel, main GT Road
  • Greens Hotel, Saddar Rd, (1 block west of Tourist Inn Motel), +92(0)91-270-182. A nice mid-range hotel, with a decent restaurant. Rooms from Rs 1200.
  • Hotel Grand, Tehkal Road, Peshawar. Rooms for Rs 1000+
  • Pearl Continental, Khyber Rd, (near Bala Hissar Fort), +92(0)91-276-631, [6]. The nicest hotel in the city, 5 star standards, with a few restaurants, a business center with internet (Rs400/hour), and a swimming pool. Rooms from ~Rs 10,000.
  • Khan's Club, Peshawar City. Standards are high but surrounded in a crowded area.

Stay safe

Peshawar is the home of several ethnic and religious groups and has had a number of terrorist attacks in recent years.

There were several bomb blasts in or near the old city in October 2006. More recently, 49 were killed in a Taliban attack in Peshawar in October 2009.

Police sergeants can be found in the streets and roads to ensure safety.

As a stranger, and therefore a guest, you can usually rely on the support of people around you should something or someone feel threatening. Make noise and create a scene, drawing as much attention to the problem as you can should work to your advantage.

Several areas bordering on Peshawar, the agencies, are administered by tribal authorities only, and outside the control of the regular police. Entry to these areas can be dangerous for foreigners.

  • The Khyber Pass is one hour away and can be visited by taking a taxi. It is in the tribal area and easy-to-get permissions (from the NWFP gov't office or through your hotel or tour guide) are needed for foreigners to enter this area. A taxi to bring you there and back to Peshawar shouldn't set you back more than US$20. See Bab-e-Khyber (Khyber Gate), Jamrud Fort, Shagai Fort, Ali Masjid Fort. Due to Pakistan's security situation it is currently impossible to visit the Khyber Pass. Taliban and local warlords are currently fighting running battles with the Pakistani army in Khbyer Agency, part of tribal area. Main part of the conflict is about the control of the road between Peshawar and the Khyber Pass (entry into Afghanistan). This road is being used by truckdrivers to supply Nato troops in nearby Afghanistan. Taliban regularly attacks these Nato convoys whereby trucks are burned and truckdrivers are punished or killed. For now, stay away from Khyber Agency. Beware, tribal area starts already in the western outskirts of Peshawar.
  • The Hayatabad, is a modern and first planned suburb at south-eastern fringe of Peshawar (the capital of the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan).
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PESHAWAR, a city of British India, the capital of the North-West Frontier Province, giving its name to a district. The city is situated near the left bank of the river Bara, 11 m. from Jamrud at the entrance of the Khyber Pass, the railway station being 1588 m. north-west of Calcutta; pop. (1901), 95,147. Two miles west of the native city are the cantonments, forming the principal military station of the North-West Frontier Province. Peshawar lies within a horseshoe ring of hills on the edge of the mountain barrier which separates India from Afghanistan, and through it have passed nearly all the invaders from the north. The native quarter is a huddle of flat-roofed houses within mud walls, crowded along narrow, crooked alleys; there is but one fairly wide street of shops. Here for many centuries the Povindahs, or Afghan travelling merchants, have brought their caravans from Kabul, Bokhara and Samarkand every autumn. They bring horses, wool, woollen stuffs, silks, dyes, gold-thread, fruits, precious stones, carpets and poshtins (sheepskin clothing), fighting and buying their way to the British border where, leaving their arms, they are free to wander at will to Delhi, Agra and Calcutta. The chief speciality of Peshawar consists of bright-coloured scarves called lungis; wax-cloth and ornamental needle-work are also local products, as well as knives and small arms.

The district of Peshawar has an area of 2611 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 788,707, showing an increase of 10.8% in the decade. Except on the south-east, where the Indus flows, it is encircled by mountains which are inhabited by the Mohmand, Utman Khel and Afridi tribes. The plain consists of alluvial deposits of silt and gravel. The district is naturally fertile and well watered, and is irrigated by the Swat River Canal. The principal crops are wheat, barley, maize, millets and oil-seeds, with a little cotton and sugar-cane. Peshawar also produces a fine variety of rice, known as "Bara rice," after the river which irrigates it. The North-Western railway crosses the district from Attock, and has been extended from Peshawar city to Jamrud for military purposes. The district is chiefly inhabited by Pathans; there are some Hindus engaged in trade as bankers, merchants and shop-keepers.

In early times the district of Peshawar seems to have had an essentially Indian population, for it was not till the 15th century that its present Pathan inhabitants occupied it. Under the name of Gandhara it was a centre of Buddhism, and especially Graeco-Buddhism. Rock-edicts of Asoka still exist at two places; and a stupa excavated in 1909 was found to contain an inscription of Kanishka, as well as relics believed to be those of Buddha himself. The last of the Indian Buddhist kings was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1009. The Mogul emperors always found difficulty in maintaining their authority over the Afghan border tribes, who finally established their independence during the reign of Aurangzeb. Peshawar was a favourite residence of the Afghan dynasty founded by Ahmed Shah Durrani, and here Mountstuart Elphinstone came as ambassador to Shah Shujah in 1809. A few years later Ranjit Singh crossed the Indus, and after much hard fighting Sikh authority was firmly established under General Avitabile in 183}. In 1848 the whole of the Punjab passed to the British. During the Mutiny, after the sepoy regiments had been disarmed, Peshawar was a source of strength rather than of danger, though Sir John Lawrence did at one time contemplate the necessity of surrendering it to the Afghans, in order to preserve the rest of Northern India.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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English

Proper noun

Peshawar

  1. The capital of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, situated near Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

Translations


Simple English

Peshawar is a city in Pakistan, and it is the capital of the Afghania. The main languages spoken there are Pashto, Hindko and Urdu. Peshawar's estimated population in 2005 was 1,240,000 people.[1] [[File:|thumb|left|250px|left|Excavations of Kanishka's Monastery in central Peshawer]]

References

  1. "Peshawar". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9374991/Peshawar. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 







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