The Full Wiki

Peter II of Brazil: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Pedro II of Brazil article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pedro II
Pedro II, at age 27, 1853.
Emperor of Brazil
Reign 7 April 1831 - 15 November 1889
(&0000000000000058.00000058 years, &0000000000000222.000000222 days)
Coronation 18 July 1841
Predecessor Pedro I
Heir Prince Afonso (1845-1847)
Prince Pedro (1848-1850)
Princess Isabel (1847-1848, 1850-1891)
Titular Emperor of Brazil
Pretendence 15 November 1889 - 5 December 1891
(&0000000000000002.0000002 years, &0000000000000020.00000020 days)
Successor Isabel, Princess Imperial
Spouse Teresa of the Two Sicilies
Issue
Afonso, Prince Imperial
Isabel, Princess Imperial
Leopoldina, Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary
Pedro, Prince Imperial
Father Pedro I of Brazil
Mother Maria Leopoldina of Austria
Born December 2, 1825(1825-12-02)
Palace of São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro
Died December 5, 1891 (aged 66)
Paris, France
Signature

Pedro II (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu seˈɡũdu]; 2 December, 1825 – 5 December, 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous"[1][2] was the second and last Emperor of Brazil, having reigned for 58 years.[3] His name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. When anglicised, his name would be Peter II, full name Peter of Alcantara John Charles Leopold Salvador Vivian Francis Xavier of Paula Leocadio Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga.

He was born on December 2, 1825, in Rio de Janeiro, the seventh child of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil and Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria. He was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. As a member of the Brazilian Imperial House he was referred to using the honorific "Dom"[4] (In English:[5][6] Don)[7]. Emperor Pedro II is usually considered the greatest Brazilian.[1][8][9]

Contents

Early life

Consolidation

Growth

The emperor and politics

Protector of science and arts

Family and Countess of Barral

Trip to the northern Brazilian provinces

Quasi-war with Great Britain

The War of the Triple Alliance

The number one volunteer

In December 1864 the dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano López, ordered the capture of the Brazilian civilian steamship Marquês de Olinda, including its passengers and crew members. Immediately afterward, the Paraguayan army invaded the Brazilian province of Mato Grosso (currently the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) without a declaration of war. Four months later, Paraguayan troops invaded Argentina as a prelude to an attack upon the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul.[10][11][12] News of the Paraguayan invasions was received with surprise both by the Brazilian government and the general population.[12] Brazil had previously discounted the war-making potential of neighboring Paraguay.[12] Pedro II, along with the Brazilian people, was infuriated[13] at attacks, which were seen as unjustified, and believed that it was necessary to punish the Paraguayan dictator.[12] This feeling was strengthened by the Emperor's aversion to the caudillos-dictators who were common elsewhere in Latin America.[12]

Emperor Pedro II wearing a southern Brazilian (Gaúcho) traditional outfit during his visit to Uruguaiana in the province of Rio Grande do Sul, 1865.

Nevertheless, Pedro II tried to pacify the nation in a speech from the throne on 6 May 1865 where he addressed concerns such as public health, the economy, and the marriage of his daughters, and during which he calmly made only brief mentions of the ongoing conflict with Great Britain and the Paraguayan invasion.[14] He was particularly opposed to the involvement of the Empire in the problems of the platine region, as he affirmed in his diary in 1862: "After the war against Rosas, I was always a partisan of the abstention of Brazil in the businesses of the Plata, without harm to the national honor and the Brazilian interests." However, he strongly supported the cabinet in its decision to counterattack.[15]

The invasion of Rio Grande do Sul became known in the capital on 30 June 1865.[16] Aware of the anarchy in the province and the incapacity and incompetence of the military chiefs in resisting the Paraguayan army, Pedro II decided to go to the front in person.[17] He wrote to the Countess of Barral: "Rio Grande do Sul has been invaded, my place is there".[18][19] As Head of State, he intended to assume command of the Brazilian army.[20] Both the Cabinet and the General Assembly refused to accede to the Emperor's wish.[17][21] The senators and general deputies, using their constitutional prerogatives, refused to grant permission for the travel.[22][23] If something happened to the Emperor, the throne would be inherited by his 18-year old daughter Isabel. The risks to the stability of the country were considered too high at that critical moment.[17] After he also received objections from the Council of State, Pedro II made the memorable pronouncement: "If they can prevent me from going as an Emperor, they can not prevent me from abdicating and going as a Fatherland Volunteer".[17][24][25][26] Thus those Brazilians who signed up to go to war under Decree 3,371 of 7 January 1865[27] became known throughout the nation as the "Fatherland Volunteers."[21] The monarch himself was popularly called the "Number one volunteer."[28][29]

Pedro II left for the south on 7 July 1865[16][30] (other authors affirm that he left on 10 July)[18][31] and was greeted by crowds, along with the national hymn and patriotic celebrations. Accompanying him were his son-in-law the Duke of Saxe, his Aide-de-camp General Francisco Xavier Calmon Cabral da Silva (later the 2nd Baron of Itapagipe), the Vice Admiral William Parker, the Minister of War Ângelo Ferraz, his Aide-de-Camp the Marquis of Caxias, Admiral Joaquim Raimundo de Lamare, General Beaurepaire Rohan, and an escort of 300 soldiers.[18][22][32][33] When embarking, he said: "I am the perpetual defender of Brazil, and when my fellow citizens sacrifice their lives in holocaust upon the altar of the fatherland in defense of such saintly cause, I will not be the one who refuses to follow them."[17]

Siege of Uruguaiana

Pedro II disembarked in Rio Grande do Sul on 16 July and proceeded from there by land[34][35] with his escort of 300 men.[36] The trip was made by horse and wagon, and at night the emperor slept in a campaign tent.[36] On 1 August at Caçapava he was joined by his other son-in-law, Gaston d'Orléans, the Count of Eu, who had arrived from Europe where he had been spending his honeymoon.[16][18][37] From Caçapava he traveled to São Gabriel,[38] and on 5 September passed through the Campo do Rosário (Field of the Rosary), where 37 years earlier Brazilian troops were defeated by Argentine and Uruguayan forces.[36][39] General Francisco Xavier Calmon, who had participated in the battle and was traveling with the Emperor, related his memories of the event.[39] In São Gabriel the Emperor said farewell to João Propício Mena Barreto, Baron of São Gabriel, former commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Army during the Uruguayan War, who was dying of tuberculosis.[40] He also visited the hospitals and talked with the wounded.[40] Pedro II also had his first contact with the Paraguayans when he talked with three prisoners of war. He spoke in guarani and offered them an opportunity to return to Paraguay. The Paraguayans refused, alleging that they would be put to death by Lopez for having been taken prisoner.[36] These Paraguayan soldiers, who had hated the monarch without ever having met him, began to admire him greatly and called him Murubichab ("Great Chief" in guarani).[40] The Emperor, for his part, felt pity for the Paraguayan people and was convinced that Lopez’s dictatorship was barbarous and must be overthrown at any cost.[41]

Surrender of Uruguaiana, 1865. From left to right: Unknown Paraguaian soldier, Father Duarte, unknown Paraguaian Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Estigarribia, Minister Ângelo Ferraz (delivering Estigarribia's sword), Emperor Pedro II, Venancio Flores, Bartolomé Mitre, the Count of Eu, the Marquis of Caxias and the Baron of Porto Alegre, along with other unidentified Brazilian Officers.

After quickly passing Alegrete Pedro II arrived in Uruguaiana on 11 September, where he joined Admiral Joaquim Marques Lisboa (then Baron of Tamandaré), General João Frederico Caldwell, General Manuel Luis Osório (later Marquis of Erval) and Manuel Marques de Sousa (then Baron of Porto Alegre and also commander of the besieging forces).[40][42][43] Uruguaiana had been taken by the Paraguayans under Lieutenant Colonel Antonio de la Cruz Estigarribia with a force of 10,000 men on 5 August 1865.[16] By the time of the Emperor's arrival, Estigarribia's force was reduced to only 5,500 men, while the besieging army composed of Brazilians, Argentines and Uruguayans was 17,000-strong.[44][45] Pedro II also met the Argentine president Bartolomé Mitre and Uruguayan president Venancio Flores, who were commanding the troops of their respective countries.[41][46]

A quarrel developed in the allied camp: Mitre demanded the command of the allied army in accordance with the Treaty of the Triple Alliance. The Brazilian military leaders refused to accept this, since the same treaty affirmed that on Brazilian soil the command would be held by a Brazilian.[47] Pedro II amicably persuaded all to accept his proposal: the allied forces would be divided in three columns, each under the command of a chief of their own nationality, while he would act as a Moderating Power to mediate conflicts between the three commanders, thus becoming de facto and de jure commander of the allied army.[48] The Emperor rode within rifle shot of Uruguaiana to demonstrate his courage, but the Paraguayans did not attack him.[48][49]

The strategies proposed by the commanders conflicted: Osório suggested that they should destroy the village using artillery, since all its (Brazilian) inhabitants had run away before it had fallen to the Paraguayans. Tamandaré and Flores, on the other hand, pushed for an initial bombardment followed by an advance of the allied troops. Pedro II wished to prevent the bloodshed of a battle and called on Estigarribia to surrender.[50] Estigarribia did so[51] on the condition that he would surrender only to the Brazilian Emperor, as he did not trust his fellow republicans from Argentina and Uruguay.[44] The Paraguayan troops paraded in front of the allies[44][51] and the sword of Estigarribia was solemnly delivered by the minister Ferraz to Pedro II.[48] By "his example and his actions he had contributed decisively to the expulsion of the Paraguayan invaders from Brazilian soil."[52] The Paraguayans were malnourished and practically naked.[48] Pedro II did not feel proud of the victory and wrote to the Countess of Barral: "Yesterday we entered into Uruguaiana. The enemy was unworthy even of being defeated. What a rabble!"[48] There was a general belief that the war was near its end and that it was only a matter of time until López surrendered. Because of this, Pedro II decided to return to Rio de Janeiro.[44][53][54] Before leaving Uruguaiana, he received the British ambassador Edward Thornton, who publicly apologized on behalf of Queen Victoria and the British Government for the crisis between the empires.[50][51] The emperor considered that this diplomatic victory over the most powerful nation of the world was sufficient and renewed friendly relations between the nations.[51] He returned to Rio de Janeiro and was received with great joy and celebration everywhere.[55]

Sacrifice

Victory

The war's cost came to R$614.000:000$000 (see Brazilian currency), which was paid as follows: R$265.000:000$000 from taxes, R$171.000:000$000 from bond sales, R$102.000:000$000 in new money issued, R$27.000:000$000 from internal loans and R$49.000:000$000 from foreign loans. Thus, only 7.9% of the total war debt was composed of external loans.[56] However, the country was so rich, that the government paid off the war debt in only ten years.[57][58] The conflict "brought about a considerable expansion in Brazil's economy, stimulating new forms of production."[59] After more than five years of war, the emperor seemed to have aged twenty years: his blond hair and beard had become completely grey and at age 44 his face seemed to be of a sexagenarian.[60][61][62][63][64] However, Pedro II whose popularity was shaken by the long conflict, immediately recouped it with the final victory.[62][65][66][67] He also turned down the General Assembly's suggestion to create an equestrian statue of him to commemorate the victory and chose instead to use the money to build elementary schools.[68][69][70]

Apogee

The end of the War of the Triple Alliance ushered in what is considered the "golden age" and apogee of the Brazilian Empire.[71] In a "general way, the 1870s were prosperous for the nation and its monarch. It was a period of social and political progress where the distribution of national wealth began to benefit a greater part of the population."[72] Brazil's international reputation skyrocketed and, with the exception of the United States, was unequalled by any other American nation.[71] Indeed, the "start of the 1870s brought prosperous times for Brazil. Its economy was booming, and schemes for internal development—railroads, shipping lines, and immigrant colonies—proliferated. With slavery destined for extinction and other reforms projected, the prospects for 'moral and material advances' seemed vast."[73]

Racial thoughts and abolitionism

Few Brazilians opposed slavery around 1870, and even fewer were openly against it. But among its opponents was Pedro II. He "repudiated the enslaved manpower and he considered it a national shame."[74] The emperor never acquired slaves.[75] The only ones he owned (forty and something) came from an inheritance he received when declared of age in 1840—at which point he immediately set them all free.[76] Around this time he began looking for ways to abolish slavery, even if gradually.[60][77] He affirmed in a letter: "Nobody desires the abolition more strongly than I do."[78] In a private conversation with Louis Agassiz he said: "Slavery is a terrible curse on any nation, and it must, and will, disappear among us [Brazilians]."[79] He was supported by few, among them his sister Dona Francisca and his wife, Teresa Cristina.[79] But "the emperor, who declared several times his intention to assume direction of the abolitionist movement, as expected, took too long to overcome the political obstacles."[80]

The Afro-Brazilian Cândido da Fonseca Galvão, friend of Emperor Pedro II.[81]

Pedro II was not a racist[82] and manifested "great tolerance towards all his subjects, without exception, no matter their color or faith."[83] He also exhibited tolerance towards both Jews (when asked why there were no laws against them in the country, he answered: "I will not attack the Jews, as the God of my religion came from their people")[84] and Muslims (affirming that a sincere reconciliation between the West and the East was necessary).[85] The emperor never adopted ideas, common during the era, espousing racial inequality.[84][86] According to historian Roderick J. Barman:[87]

"During one of his visits to a night school in Rio, the Liceu de Artes e Ofícios, the emperor learned that a freed slave was enrolled, learning how to read, write and do arithmetic. 'When he entered the classroom, he went up to him, clapping him on the shoulder, as a demonstration of his immense satisfaction in seeing the way in which a man of the people was striving to learn how to be useful to the country and his family.' Pedro II’s commendable freedom from racial prejudice meant that he did not perceive skin color as a bar to civilization or citizenship."

The abolition of slavery was a delicate subject in Brazil. Slaves were used by everyone, from the richest to the poorest. They worked as house servants, farmers, miners, prostitutes, and gardeners.[88] Slavery was so widespread in the country that many former slaves owned slaves, and cases of slaves who had their own slaves were common.[75][89] So strongly entrenched was this institution, that none of the rebellions which occurred during the regency in the 1830s advocated ending it. Even the Malê Revolt had as a goal only the release of enslaved Muslims.[89] To oppose slavery was seen as being counter to the national interest. Even so, the emperor did not give up. Pedro II despised slave dealers and refused to grant titles of nobility to any of them, including powerful and influential figures at court.[79][90] He threatened to abdicate if the General Assembly (parliament) did not declare the traffic illegal, which was done in 1850.[90] This was his first open move against slavery.[74]

As one source supplying new slaves had been eliminated, at the beginning of 1860s Pedro II turned his attention to eliminating the remaining source: the enslavement of children born to slaves.[79][91] On his initiative, legislation was drafted by the Marquis of São Vicente.[79] The War of the Triple Alliance, however, delayed discussion of the proposal by the General Assembly.[80][91] Pedro II openly asked for the gradual eradication of slavery in the Speech from the Throne of 1867.[92] He was heavily criticized (including by the republicans),[93] and his move condemned as "national suicide."[80][94][95] The accusation was aired "that abolition was his personal desire and not that of the nation."[93] Eventually, the nomination of the abolitionist[91] and conservative Viscount of Rio Branco as President of the Council of Ministers made possible the passage of the bill, which was enacted as the Law of Free Birth on 28 September 1871, under which all children born of slave women after that date would be considered free.[96][97]

First trip to Europe

Religious thoughts

Travel to the United States

Second trip to Europe

Decline and fall

Exile and death

Legacy

Titles and honours

Styles of
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil
Brazilimperialblason2.svg
Reference style His Imperial Majesty
Spoken style Your Imperial Majesty
Alternative style Sire

Titles and styles

  • 2 December 1825 – 7 April 1831: His Imperial Highness The Prince Imperial
  • 7 April 1831 – 15 November 1889: His Imperial Majesty The Emperor

The Emperor's full style and title were:

His Imperial Majesty Dom Pedro II, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.[98]

Honours

Monogram of D. Pedro II.

Genealogy

Ancestry

The ancestry of Emperor Pedro II:[105]

Posterity

Pedro II was married on 17 September 1842 to his cousin Princess Teresa of the Two Sicilies (1822–1889), the youngest daughter of his grand-uncle King Francis I of the Two Sicilies (1777–1830) and his grand-aunt Maria Isabella of Spain. Pedro II and Teresa Cristina had four children:

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes
By Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies (14 March 1822 – 28 December 1889; married in 17 September 1842)
Dom Afonso Pedro de Alcântara Cristiano Leopoldo Filipe Eugênio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga Afonso 03 1846.JPG 23 February 1845 –
11 June 1847
was the Prince Imperial of Brazil from 1845 to his death in 1847. He died in childhood.
Dona Isabel Cristina Leopoldina Augusta Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga Princess Isabel.jpg 29 July 1846 –
14 November 1921
was the Princess Imperial of Brazil and Comtesse d'Eu due to her marriage to Gaston, comte d'Eu. She had 3 sons from this marriage. She also acted as Regent of the Empire while her father was traveling abroad.
Dona Leopoldina Teresa Francisca Carolina Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga Leopoldina de braganca.jpg 13 July 1847 –
7 February 1871
married Prince Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary and had 4 sons from this marriage.
Dom Pedro Afonso Cristiano Leopoldo Eugênio Fernando Vicente Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga Brazilimperialblason2.svg 19 July 1848 –
9 January 1850
was the Prince Imperial of Brazil from 1848 to his death in 1850. He died in childhood.

See also

Bibliography

References

  • Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. (English)
  • Benevides, José Marijeso de Alencar. D. Pedro II, patrono da astronomia brasileira. Fortaleza: Imprensa oficial do Ceará, 1979. (Portuguese)
  • Besouchet, Lídia. Pedro II e o Século XIX. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1993. ISBN 85-209-0494-7 (Portuguese)
  • Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. 1. ed. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (Portuguese)
  • Calmon, Pedro. História de D. Pedro II. 5 v. Rio de Janeiro: J. Olympio, 1975. (Portuguese)
  • Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002. (Portuguese)
  • Carvalho, José Murilo de. Os Bestializados: o Rio de Janeiro e a República que não foi. 2. ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1987. (Portuguese)
  • Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II: ser ou não ser. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (Portuguese)
  • Dolhnikoff, Miriam. Pacto imperial: origens do federalismo no Brasil do século XIX. São Paulo: Globo, 2005. (Portuguese)
  • Doratioto, Francisco. Maldita Guerra: Nova história da Guerra do Paraguai. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. (Portuguese)
  • Ermakoff, George. Rio de Janeiro - 1840-1900 - Uma crônica fotográfica. Rio de Janeiro: G. Ermakoff Casa Editorial, 2006. (Portuguese)
  • Gonçalves, Andréa Lisly. Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional. Year 4. Issue 45. Rio de Janeiro: SABIN, 2009. (Portuguese)
  • Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. História Geral da Civilização Brasileira (II, v. 3). DIFEL/Difusão Editorial S.A., 1976. (Portuguese)
  • Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990. (Portuguese)
  • Lima, Oliveira. O Império brasileiro. São Paulo: Itatiaia, 1989. (Portuguese)
  • Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825 – 1891): Ascenção (1825 – 1870). v.1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825 – 1891): Fastígio (1870 – 1880). v.2. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825 – 1891): Declínio (1880 – 1891). v.3. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • M. de Carvalho, José J. Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional. Year 4. Issue 39. Rio de Janeiro: SABIN, 2008. (Portuguese)
  • Markun, Paulo. Anita Garibaldi: uma heroína brasileira. 4. ed. São paulo: Senac, 2000. (Portuguese)
  • Martins, Luís. O patriarca e o bacharel. 2.ed. São Paulo: Alameda, 2008. (Portuguese)
  • Mônaco Janotti, Maria de Lourdes. Os Subversivos da República. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986. (Portuguese)
  • Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton, 1942. (English)
  • Nobrega, Maílson da. VEJA magazine, edition 2111, year 42, May 6, 2009. (Portuguese)
  • Olivieri, Antonio Carlos. Dom Pedro II, Imperador do Brasil. São Paulo: Callis, 1999. (Portuguese)
  • Piccolo, Helga. Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional. Year 3. Issue 37. Rio de Janeiro: SABIN, 2008. (Portuguese)
  • Rodrigues, José Carlos. Constituição política do Império do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: [s.n], 1863. (Portuguese)
  • Salles, Ricardo. Nostalgia Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 1996. (Portuguese)
  • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2. Ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. (Portuguese)
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003. (Portuguese)
  • Sodré, Nelson Werneck. Panorama do Segundo Império, 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: GRAPHIA, 2004. (Portuguese)
  • Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (Portuguese)
  • Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. (Portuguese)
  • Vasquez, Pedro Karp. O Brasil na fotografia oitocentista. São Paulo: Metalivros, 2003. (Portuguese)
  • Vasquez, Pedro Karp. Nos trilhos do progresso: a ferrovia no Brasil imperial vista pela fotografia. São Paulo: Metavídeo, 2007. (Portuguese)
  • Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república. 15. ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994. (Portuguese)

Further reading

  • Brown, Rose. American Emperor: Dom Pedro II of Brazil. 1945.
  • Crow, John A. The Epic of Latin American: Fourth Edition University of California Press, 1992.
  • da Costa, Emilia Viotti. The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories. 2000; 1985.
  • Harding, Bertita. Amazon Throne. London: Harrap, 1942.
  • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. The Emperor's Beard: Dom Pedro II and His Tropical Monarchy in Brazil. Trans. John Gledson. 2003.
  • Skidmore, Thomas. Brazil: Five Centuries of Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Skidmore, Thomas. Modern Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Bueno, p.196
  2. ^ Barman (1999), p.85 "Such acts of charity, which continued throughout his reign, explain why he was often termed in praise "the Magnanimous" [O Magnânimo]."
  3. ^ Vianna, p.467 "O Segundo Reinado, ou seja, o período em que foi nosso imperador D. Pedro II, durou cinquenta e oito anos, da abdicação do pai, D. Pedro I, em 1831, até a proclamação da república em 1889."
  4. ^ Ferreira, Aurélio Buarque de Holanda. Minidicionário da Língua Poretuguesa. 1. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1977, p.169 "dom² sm. Título honorífico que antecede os nomes próprios dos homens de certas categorias sociais."
  5. ^ Cook, James Fastone Sunderland. Dicionário compacto: ingles – português – ingles. São Paulo: Rideel, 1994, p. 478 "Dom sm. [...] title of honor; Don"
  6. ^ Houaiss, Antônio. Dicionário Inglês – Português. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1982, p.225 "don s. (com maiúsc.) dom (título de origem espanhola)"
  7. ^ Guralnik, David B. Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American language. New York: Warner Books, 1993, p.183 "don (dän) n. [Sp < L. dominus, master] 1. [D-] Sir;"
  8. ^ Vianna, p.467
  9. ^ Benevides, p.61
  10. ^ Schwarcz, p.299
  11. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.109
  12. ^ a b c d e Lyra (v.1), p.227
  13. ^ Pedrosa, p.196
  14. ^ Pedrosa, p.198
  15. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.226
  16. ^ a b c d Salles (2003), p.52
  17. ^ a b c d e Lyra (v.1), p.228
  18. ^ a b c d Calmon (1975), p.735
  19. ^ Barman (1999), p.202
  20. ^ Calmon (1975), p.727
  21. ^ a b Calmon (1975), p.734
  22. ^ a b Olivieri, p.32
  23. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.110
  24. ^ Calmon (1975), p.734 "...ainda me resta um recurso constitucional, abdicar e ir para o Rio Grande como voluntário da pátria"
  25. ^ Olivieri, p.32 "Se os políticos podem me impedir que siga como imperador, vou abdicar e seguir como voluntário da Pátria."
  26. ^ Barman (1999), p.202 "The emperor's desire to go in person to the front naturally encountered considerable resistance. [...] Pedro II won his ministers' consent by a simple stratagem: if denied his wish, he would abdicate the throne and, enlisting as a Voluntário da Pátria, go to the war front as an ordinary citizen."
  27. ^ Pedrosa, p.237
  28. ^ Schwarcz, p.300
  29. ^ Vainfas, p.200
  30. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.229
  31. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.111
  32. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.229 e 231
  33. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.111-112
  34. ^ Calmon (1975), p.736
  35. ^ Salles (2003), p.52 – The author affirms that Pedro II disembarked in Porto Alegre 19 July and departed on 23 July to Uruguaiana.
  36. ^ a b c d Carvalho (2007), p.112
  37. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.231
  38. ^ Calmon (1975), p.738
  39. ^ a b Calmon (1975), p.739
  40. ^ a b c d Calmon (1975), p.742
  41. ^ a b Carvalho (2007), p.113
  42. ^ Salles (2003), p.53
  43. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.235-6
  44. ^ a b c d Carvalho (2007), p.114
  45. ^ Calmon (1975), p.745
  46. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.235
  47. ^ Calmon (1975), p.743
  48. ^ a b c d e Calmon (1975), p.744
  49. ^ Pedrosa, p.199
  50. ^ a b Calmon (1975), p.748
  51. ^ a b c d Lyra (v.1), p.237
  52. ^ Barman (1999), p.205
  53. ^ Lyra (v.1), p.239
  54. ^ Calmon (1975), p.725
  55. ^ Calmon (1975), p.750
  56. ^ Doratioto (2002), p.462
  57. ^ Calmon (2002), p.201 "O Brasil, graças à sua capacidade econômica, recompôs em dez anos as finanças abaladas, pois despendera mais de 600 mil contos."
  58. ^ Munro, p.277 "The confidence that his government inspired both at home and in financial circles abroad made possible a rapid recovery."
  59. ^ Barman (1999), p.243
  60. ^ a b Lyra (v.2), p.161
  61. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.124
  62. ^ a b Calmon (1975), p.854
  63. ^ Schwarcz, p.316-317
  64. ^ Olivieri, p.46
  65. ^ Munro, p.276 "At its close, in 1870, Brazil was exhausted both morally and economically, but the Emperor's prestige, if somewhat shaken by reverses in the earlier part of the war, was restored by the final victory. The confidence that his government inspired both at home and in financial circles abroad made possible a rapid recovery."
  66. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.121
  67. ^ Schwarcz, p.315-316 "Não obstante, se a nova medida e a vitória final na guerra faziam de d. Pedro um monarca cada vez mais popular, é preciso reconhecer que os cinco anos de combate foram penosos para ele."
  68. ^ Calmon (1975), p.855
  69. ^ Doratioto (2002), p.455
  70. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.122
  71. ^ a b Lyra (v.2), p.9
  72. ^ Olivieri, p.37
  73. ^ Barman (1999), p.240
  74. ^ a b Olivieri, p.44
  75. ^ a b Barman, p.194
  76. ^ Benevides, p.60
  77. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.131
  78. ^ Lyra (v.3), p.29
  79. ^ a b c d e Carvalho (2007), p.132
  80. ^ a b c Schwarcz, p.315
  81. ^ Schwarcz, p.285
  82. ^ Barman, p.77
  83. ^ Lowenstamm, p.25
  84. ^ a b Lowenstamm, p.27
  85. ^ Besouchet, p.
  86. ^ Schwarcz, p.372
  87. ^ Barman, p.252
  88. ^ Olivieri, p.43
  89. ^ a b Carvalho (2007), p.130
  90. ^ a b Lyra (v.1), p.166
  91. ^ a b c Lyra (v.2), p.162
  92. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.134
  93. ^ a b Carvalho (2007), p.136
  94. ^ Carvalho (2007), p.133
  95. ^ Lyra (v.2), p.164
  96. ^ Lyra (v.2), p.170
  97. ^ Barman, p.238
  98. ^ Art. 100 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1824 says: "His titles are - Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil -, and is styled - Imperial Majesty" in Rodrigues, p.71
  99. ^ Barman (1999), p.11
  100. ^ Barman (1999), p.11
  101. ^ Barman (1999), p.11
  102. ^ Barman (1999), p.11
  103. ^ Barman (1999), p.11
  104. ^ Barman (1999), p.11
  105. ^ Barman (1999), p.8

External links

Pedro II of Brazil
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: December 2 1825 Died: December 5 1891
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Pedro I
Emperor of Brazil
April 7 1831 – November 15 1889
Monarchy abolished
Brazilian royalty
Preceded by
Princess Maria
Prince Imperial of Brazil
December 2 1825 – April 7 1831
Succeeded by
Princess Januária Maria
Titles in pretence
Republic
declared
— TITULAR —
Emperor of Brazil
November 15 1889 – December 5 1891
Succeeded by
Princess Isabel
Imperial coat of arms of Brazil
Pretenders to the
Brazilian throne since 1899
Emperor Pedro II
1889–1891
1891–1921
Vassouras branch
1921–1981
since 1981
Petrópolis branch
1940–2007
since 2007
See also
Brazilian Imperial Family








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message