Peter II of Yugoslavia: Wikis

  
  

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Peter II
King of Yugoslavia
Reign 9 October 1934 - 29 November 1945
Predecessor Alexander I
Regent Paul, Prince Regent (1934–1941)
Spouse Alexandra of Greece and Denmark
Issue
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia
House House of Karageorgevich
Father Alexander I of Yugoslavia
Mother Maria of Romania
Born 6 September 1923(1923-09-06)
Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Died 3 November 1970 (aged 47)
Denver, Colorado, USA
Burial Libertyville, Illinois, USA

Peter II, also known as Peter II Karađorđević ( Serbo-Croatian: Petar II Karađorđević, Cyrillic script: Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the third and last King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, previously known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (before 1929). He was the eldest son of King Alexander I Karađorđević and Princess Maria of Romania; two of his godparents were George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, King and Queen of the United Kingdom.

Contents

Early life

His education commenced at the Royal Palace. He then attended Sandroyd School in Wiltshire, England. Then 11 years old, Peter, of the House of Karađorđević, succeeded to the Yugoslav throne in 1934 upon the assassination of his father King Alexander I in Marseille, during a state visit to France. Because of the King's young age, a regency was established, headed by his father's cousin Prince Pavle Karađorđević.

World War II

Although King Peter and his advisers were opposed to Nazi Germany, Regent Prince Paul declared that the Kingdom of Yugoslavia would join the Tripartite Pact. On 27 March 1941 King Peter, then 17, was proclaimed of age, and participated in a British-supported coup d'état opposing the Tripartite Pact.

Postponing Operation Barbarossa, Germany simultaneously attacked Yugoslavia and Greece. From 6 April Luftwaffe pounded Belgrade for three days and three nights in Operation Punishment. Within a week, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Italy invaded Yugoslavia and the government was forced to surrender on 17 April. Yugoslavia was divided to satisfy Italian, Bulgarian, Hungarian and German demands and puppet Croat, Montenegrin and Serb states proclaimed.

Peter was forced to leave the country with the Yugoslav Government following the Axis invasion; initially the King went with his government to Greece, and Jerusalem, then to the British Mandate of Palestine and Cairo. He went to England in June 1941, where he joined numerous other governments in exile from Nazi-occupied Europe. The King completed his education at Cambridge University and joined the Royal Air Force.

Despite the collapse of the Yugoslav Army, two rival resistance groups to the occupying forces formed. The first were the Partisans, a Communist-led left-wing movement encompassing republican elements in Yugoslav politics, led by Josip Broz Tito. The other were the Chetniks, a predominantly Serbian movement led by royalist General Draža Mihailović, soon proclaimed the Minister of Defence in the government-in-exile. Starting in November 1941, Mihailović began attacking the Partisan strongholds, the "liberated territories". The royalist Chetniks soon ceased operations against the occupation altogether, and focused on defeating the Partisans. In this they found a common cause with the enemy and widespread collaboration between the royalists and the Axis troops began, aiming to stamp out the resistance.[1][2]

Learning of the shift of allegiance from ULTRA intercepts, the Allies switched their support to the Partisans in 1943, as their sources came to indicate an increasing relationship between the Germans and Mihailović. The Partisans soon gained recognition in Tehran as the Allied Yugoslav forces on the ground. In 1944 the Partisan commander, Marshal Josip Broz Tito was recognized as the Commander-in-Chief of all Yugoslav forces, and was appointed Prime Minister of a joint government.

Marriage

1934 portrait

Peter married Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark, in London on 20 March 1944. They had one son: Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia

Deposed and exiled

Peter was deposed by Yugoslavia's Constituent Assembly on 29 November 1945. After the War, he settled in the United States. After many years of suffering from cirrhosis, he died in Denver, Colorado on 3 November 1970 after a failed liver transplant.

He is interred at the St. Sava Monastery Church at Libertyville, Illinois, the only European monarch buried on American soil. His son, Crown Prince Alexander, is the legitimate heir to the Yugoslavian throne.

On 4 March 2007 Crown Prince Alexander announced plans to return the body of his father to Serbia.[3] The plan has upset some Serbian-Americans. Peter II chose St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Monastery as his interim resting place because of the extenuating circumstance that has afflicted his homeland.[4]

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Peter I of Serbia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Persida Nenadović
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexander I of Yugoslavia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nicholas I of Montenegro
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zorka of Montenegro
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Milena Vukotich
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Peter II of Yugoslavia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ferdinand I of Romania
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infanta Antónia of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maria of Romania
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marie of Edinburgh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sources

  • Marlene Eilers, Descendants of Queen Victoria

References

  1. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo; War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: The Chetniks, Volume 1; Stanford University Press, 1975 ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9 [1]
  2. ^ Cohen, Philip J., Riesman, David; Serbia's secret war: propaganda and the deceit of history; Texas A&M University Press, 1996 ISBN 0-89096-760-1 [2]
  3. ^ The Mausoleum of the Serbian Royal Family
  4. ^ King's body in U.S. may head to homeland

External links

Bibliography

  • Petar. A King's Heritage; The Memoirs of King Peter II of Yugoslavia. London: Cassell, 1955.
Peter II of Yugoslavia
Born: 6 September 1923 Died: 3 November 1970
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Aleksandar I
King of Yugoslavia
9 October 1934 – 29 November 1945
Vacant
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of Yugoslavia
29 November 1945 – 3 November 1970
Succeeded by
Crown Prince Alexander







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