Petrovaradin Fortress, on the Danube river, overlooking Novi Sad
|Architectural style||Austro-Hungarian fortification|
Petrovaradin Fortress (Serbian: Петроварадинска тврђава or Petrovaradinska tvrđava, Hungarian: Péterváradi vár, German: Peterwardein) is a fortress in Novi Sad, Serbian province of Vojvodina, on the right bank of the Danube river. The cornerstone of the present-day southern part of the fortress was laid on October 18, 1692, by Prince Croy. Petrovaradin Fortress has many underground tunnels as well (16 km of underground countermine system).
Recent archeological discoveries have offered a new perspective not only on the history of Petrovaradin, but on the entire region. At the Upper Fortress, the remains of an earlier Paleolithic settlement dating from 19,000 to 15,000 B.C. has been discovered. With this new development it has been established that there has been a continuous settlement at this site from the Paleolithic age to the present. During the excavations carried out in 2005, archeologists also discovered another significant find. Examining remains from the early Bronze age (circa 3000 B.C.), ramparts were discovered which testify that already at that time a fortified settlement existed at the Petrovaradin site.
The turning point in the history of the area came in 1235 when King Bela IV of Hungary brought a group of the Order of Cistercians from France. This order of monks built the monastery Belakut upon the remains of the Roman fortress of Cusum. The walls of this monastery were built between 1247 and 1252 and represent the fortifications at this site during the Middle Ages.
The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War in 1687. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.
In 1692, the Krieghofrath ordered engineers to Petrovaradin to investigate the area in order to build a new fortress. Count Keysersfeld received both financial and personnel support.
The first plans for the fortress were designed by the engineer Colonel Count Mathias Keyserfeld, and afterwards by Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (1659-1730). The works in the field were led by the engineer Colonel Michael Wamberg who died in 1703 and was buried in the church of the Franciscan monastery which today serves as part of the present day military hospital.
On September 9, 1694, the Grand Vizier Sürmeli Ali Paşa arrived at Petrovaradin Fortress from Belgrade. A siege of 23 days was laid on, however poor weather conditions in October forced the Turkish forces to retreat towards Belgrade with their task left unfinished.
A new war with the Turks was imminent. The Austrian lack of interest in war, plus the war reparations suggested by the Austrians to the Turks in the interest of the Venetian Republic all served as reasons for the renewal of Turkish aggression towards Austria. In order to prepare for the upcoming battle, Prince Savoy ordered the concentration of Austrian troops around Futog under the temporary command of Count Johann Pálffy. Prince Savoy arrived personally on July 9. The entire Austrian army numbered 76,000 troops. In the meantime, the Turkish army concentrated 150,000 troops at Belgrade. The decisive battle between the Austrian and Turkish armies took place on August 5, 1716 at Petrovaradin. The Austrians were led by Prince Savoy and the Turks were under the command of Grand Vizier Damad Ali Paşa. The victory of the Austrian army signaled the end of the Turkish threat to central Europe.
New plans were developed in 1751 and major works began in 1753 and lasted until 1776. When these works were under way, engineer Major Albrecht Heinrich Schroeder proposed a branched system of anti-mine tunnels to the High Military Council in early 1764. In March of the same year the plan was approved, but their construction was delayed for a number of years. During his visit to the Petrovaradin Fortress in May, 1768, Emperor Joseph II observed a military exercise with mine equipment carried out in his honor. The construction of this system of tunnels, having four levels, was completed in 1776 and the total length of the system was 16 kilometers (10 miles).
After the completion of the Petrovaradin Fortress, there was never any further threat from Turkish forces. The last offensive military role the fortress was to play was during the Hungarian Revolution in 1849, when Austrian troops tried to force the Fortress to surrender after a blockade. The answer came in the form of the shelling of Novi Sad on June 12, when two-thirds of the city was destroyed.
During the following period, the fortress served as a military barracks and storage facility. Following World War I, Petrovaradin became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Later known as Yugoslavia).
During these years, the old fortresses at Belgrade, Osijek, Karlovac and Slavonski Brod which were built in the 17th century were razed because they had lost their military significance. The engineer Colonel Dragoš Đelošević, who was responsible for the destruction of the fortresses decided to save Petrovaradin because it was, to him, far too beautiful to suffer the fate of the other fortresses.
EXIT festival is an annual summer music festival that has been held at the fortress since its inception in 2001. Since then, it has grown from the biggest festival in South-Eastern Europe, to one of the best in Europe. Garbage, Fatboy Slim, Franz Ferdinand, Morrissey, Billy Idol, Pet Shop Boys, The Cardigans, HIM, Robert Plant, The Prodigy, Beastie Boys, Lauryn Hill, Basement Jaxx, Snoop Dogg, Wu-Tang Clan are just a few names that have performed at EXIT festival.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад/Novi Sad in Serbian) is the capital of Vojvodina, the northern region of Serbia. Situated on the Danube River between Budapest and Belgrade, it is a treasured regional and cultural centre. Novi Sad has the population of 400,000 and it's home to EXIT, a large 4 day music festival which takes place each July at Petrovaradin fortress.
Orientation: Novi Sad has good transport connections with nearby cities thanks to its great position. It is located about 80km to the northwest of Belgrade, about 300km from Budapest, 424 km from Ljubljana, 309km from Zagreb, 548 km from Podgorica, 150km from Timisoara (Romania), 100km from the border town (with Hungary) of Subotica and about 100km from the Romanian border town of Jimbolia.
The city itself doesn't have an airport and the closest one is Nikola Tesla International Airport (IATA: BEG)  near Belgrade (about 70 kilometers). There is no easy bus/train connection, but some taxi companies run regular cars between Belgrade Airport and Novi Sad, e.g. Gonzales Taxi, tel. +381 63 514 850 (English Speaking). Other useful airports with low-cost flights might be:
E-75 highway that connects Belgrade and Budapest is passing by some 5km from Novi Sad. Toll fare for passenger cars coming from Belgrade is 240RSD (or 3EUR). Prices for other types of vehicle (bus, truck) are higher.
If you want to go in the direction of Zagreb, Ljubljana take E-70 highway which is some 40km south/west of Novi Sad.
Using the bus is the most recommended option. The bus stations for long-distance trips are:
Internationally, the city has frequent bus connections to Budapest in Hungary, Zagreb, Vukovar, Osijek in Croatia, Sarajevo and Banja Luka in Bosnia and Hercegovina, and Budva, Tivat, Podgorica, Herceg Novi in Montenegro, but also many other international and domestic lines.
The cycling route EuroVelo 6  connects Novi Sad to Hungary and to Belgrade by following the Danube river. Novi Sad has dedicated cycle-paths along most of its avenues.
Understand: After a hearty breakfast with meat, Serbians traditionally work eight hours straight before having their "lunch" between 15:00-18:00. Obviously this is by far the biggest meal of the day, with huge quantities of soup, roasted meat and potatoes, and a pickle salad as a side dish. Novi Sad being the capital of "bacon heartland" Vojvodina, vegetarians can be frowned upon. Restaurants are typically open until 22:00.
Fast eat at "Cezar" pizza, Modene 2
GREEN HOUSE - vegetarian snacks, sandwiches, muffins, cakes VOJVODE KNIĆANINA 1, Phone: +381 21 654 1305
As a university town, Novi Sad is known for a lively bar scene. There are lots of nice bars in the small streets to the west of Zmaj Jovina, around Njegoševa and Grčkoškolska Streets
Outdoor drinking (in summer): at Zmaj Jovina/Dunavska (slightly more relaxed) and at the sports stadium (locally referred to as Silicon Valley because of the alleged preponderance of breast implants!)
e-mail: email@example.com ,From €12 per person/per night private single room. Bela Ladja is located 5 minutes walk from the Exit Festival or the Danube promenade, the famous Dunavska street and Petrovaradinska tvrdjava on the River Dunav! In Novi SadPhone: +381 21 66 16 594, +381 21 422 552, +381 21 500 190, Mobile: +381 62 418-681, +381 63 680-822, Fax:+381 21 47 25 120, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Address: Restaurant - Kisačka street 21, Rooms - Zlatne Grede street 15
While in Novi Sad, you should definitely consider visiting:
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