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Pfizer, Inc.
Type Public (NYSE: PFE)
Founded Brooklyn, New York (1849 (1849))
Headquarters New York City, New York, U.S.
Key people Jeff Kindler, Chairman and CEO
Frank D'Amelio, CFO
Mikael Dolsten, President, BioTherapeutics R&D
Freda C. Lewis-Hall, Chief Medical Officer
Martin Mackay, President, PharmaTherapeutics R&D
Mary McLeod, SVP Human Resources
Ian Read, President, BioPharmaceutical Businesses
Cavan Redmond, President, Diversified Businesses
Natale Ricciardi, President, Global Manufacturing
William Ringo, SVP Business Development Strategy & Innovation
Amy Schulman, General Counsel
Sally Susman, Chief Communications Officer
Industry Health Care
Products Accupril
Lipitor
Viagra
See more products.
Revenue US$48.296 billion (2008)[1]
Operating income US$9.694 billion (2008)[1]
Net income US$8.104 billion (2008)[1]
Total assets US$111.148 billion (2008)[1]
Total equity US$57.556 billion (2008)[1]
Employees 81,800 (2008)[2]
Subsidiaries Agouron Pharmaceuticals
G.D. Searle
Parke-Davis
Pharmacia
Upjohn
Warner Lambert
Wyeth
Website www.pfizer.com

Pfizer Incorporated (NYSEPFE) is a pharmaceutical company, ranking number one in sales in the world. The company is based in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. It produces Lipitor (atorvastatin, used to lower blood cholesterol); the neuropathic pain/fibromyalgia drug Lyrica (pregabalin); the oral antifungal medication Diflucan (fluconazole), the antibiotic Zithromax (azithromycin), Viagra (sildenafil) for erectile dysfunction, and the anti-inflammatory Celebrex (celecoxib) (also known as Celebra in some countries outside the USA and Canada, mainly in South America).

Pfizer's shares were made a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average on April 8, 2004.[citation needed]

Pfizer pleaded guilty in 2009 to the largest health care fraud in U.S. history and received the largest criminal penalty ever levied for illegal marketing of four of its drugs. Called a repeat offender, this was Pfizer's fourth such settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in the previous ten years.[3][4]

On January 26, 2009, Pfizer agreed to buy pharmaceutical giant Wyeth for US$68 billion, a deal financed with cash, shares and loans.[5] The deal was completed on October 15, 2009.[6]

Contents

History

Pfizer is named after German-American cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhardt (they were originally from Ludwigsburg, Germany) who launched a fine chemicals business, Charles Pfizer and Company, from a building at the intersection of Harrison Avenue and Bartlett Street[7] in Williamsburg, Brooklyn in 1849. There, they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acid that really kick-started Pfizer's growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the block bounded by Bartlett Street; Harrison Avenue; Gerry Street; and Flushing Avenue. That facility was used by Pfizer until 2005, when Pfizer closed its original plant along with several others. Pfizer established its original administrative headquarters at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan[7]. By 1906, sales totaled nearly $3 million.

World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate that Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, and the company began a search for an alternative supply. Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid and were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919. As a result Pfizer developed expertise in fermentation technology. These skills were applied to the mass production of penicillin during World War II, in response to a need from the U.S. government. The antibiotic was needed to treat injured Allied soldiers. In fact, most of the penicillin that went ashore with the troops on D-Day was made by Pfizer.

Following the success of penicillin production in the 1940s, penicillin became very inexpensive and Pfizer made very little profit for its efforts. As a result, in the late 1940s Pfizer decided to search for new antibiotics with greater profit potential. The discovery and commercialization of Terramycin (oxytetracycline) by Pfizer in 1950 moved the company on the path of change from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a research-based pharmaceutical company. To augment its research in fermentation technology, Pfizer began a program to discover drugs through chemical synthesis. Pfizer also established an animal health division in 1959 with an 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana.

By the 1950s, Pfizer was established in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Iran, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turkey and the United Kingdom. In 1960, the Company moved its medical research laboratory operations to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut. In 1980 Pfizer launched Feldene (piroxicam), a prescription anti-inflammatory medication that became Pfizer's first product to reach a total of a billion United States dollars in sales.

During the 1980s and 1990s Pfizer underwent a period of growth sustained by the discovery and marketing of Zoloft, Lipitor, Norvasc, Zithromax, Aricept, Diflucan, and Viagra. Pfizer has recently grown by mergers, including those with Warner-Lambert (2000), with Pharmacia (2003), and with Wyeth (2009).

Corporate structure

Pfizer world headquarters

Current members of the board of directors of Pfizer are: Michael S. Brown, M. Anthony Burns, Robert Burt, Don Cornwell, William H. Gray, Frances D. Fergusson, Constance Horner, William R. Howell, Stanley Ikenberry, Jeff Kindler (chairman), George Lorch, John P. Mascotte, Dana Mead, Ruth J. Simmons, and William Steere.

  • Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chairman of the Board: Jeff Kindler
  • Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and Senior Vice President: Frank A. D'Amelio
  • Vice Chairman: David L. Shedlarz
  • Strategy and Business Development and Senior Vice President: William R. Ringo Jr.
  • General Counsel, Corporate Secretary and Senior Vice President: Amy W. Schulman
  • Chief Communications Officer (CCO) and Senior Vice President: Sally Susman
  • President of Worldwide Pharmaceutical Operations and Senior Vice President: Ian Read
  • President of Global R&D and Senior Vice President: Martin Mackay
  • Senior Vice President and President - Pfizer Global Manufacturing: Natale S. Ricciardi
  • Senior Vice President - Worldwide Human Resources: Mary S. McLeod
  • Regional President of U.S., Oncology Business Unit: Elizabeth Barrett

Pfizer has four divisions: Human Health ($44.28B in 2005 sales), Consumer Healthcare ($3.87B in 2005 sales), Animal Health ($2.2B in 2005 sales), and Corporate Groups (which includes legal, finance, and HR).[citation needed] On June 26, 2006, Pfizer announced that it would sell its Consumer Healthcare unit (manufacturer of Listerine, Nicorette, Visine, Sudafed and Neosporin) to Johnson & Johnson for $16.6 billion.[8][9][10]

Warner-Lambert / Parke-Davis / Agouron

Warner-Lambert: A History

Like Pfizer, Warner-Lambert traces its history back to the mid-1800s, the opportune days of a growing America. In 1856, William R. Warner launched his own drug store in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. An innovator at heart, he invented a tablet-coating process to encase harsh-tasting medicines in sugar shells. This innovation earned Warner a place in the Smithsonian Institution.

Warner gave up his retail shop in 1886. He then focused solely on drug manufacturing under the name William R. Warner & Co.

Meanwhile, in the American midwest, Jordan Wheat Lambert was launching Lambert Pharmacal company in St. Louis. Lambert's main product was Listerine® antiseptic, and it was marketed only to medical professionals. Lambert soon realized that Listerine had huge consumer marketing potential. In 1914, he began to mass-market Listerine through an advertising campaign that is still a case model in business schools.

Another St. Louis-based company, Pfeiffer Chemical, bought William R. Warner in 1908, kept the Warner name, and expanded the company through acquisition.

The paths of Warner´s company and Lambert´s firm intersected in 1955, with the creation of the Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company.

Warner-Lambert grew through acquisition. One of the earliest came in 1962, when the company bought American Chicle Company, a New York City-based company that was among the world's largest producers of gums and mints. American Chicle's flagship brand name, Adams, was well known around the world and its products included Dentyne®, Chiclets® and Trident® gums, and Certs® and Clorets® mints. In 1965, Warner-Lambert purchased a small cough tablet company in the United Kingdom and expanded the brand known as Halls® Mentholyptus to global stature.

In 1970, Warner-Lambert acquired the Schick® wet-shave product line from Eversharp. The company was founded in 1929 by Jacob Schick, whose magazine-loading razor was inspired by the repeating rifle.

1970 also saw the deal that transformed Warner-Lambert: the acquisition of Parke-Davis, once the world's largest drugmaker.

Parke-Davis traces its history back to 1866, when Hervey Parke and George Davis formed a small company in Detroit, Michigan.

They pioneered the standardization of medications and built the first modern pharmaceutical laboratory. They also developed the first organized, systematic method of clinically testing new drugs.

In the first half of the 20th Century, Parke-Davis introduced a number of breakthrough products, including the first bacterial vaccine, a pure form of adrenaline, and Dilantin® (phenytoin), the first widely available treatment for epilepsy and seizure. Dilantin® remains a valuable therapy against convulsions.

After World War II, Parke-Davis popularized a number of anti-infectives, developed the Salk polio vaccine for widespread use, and introduced a new line of oral contraceptives.

In 1976, the acquisition of Parke-Davis was approved by the United States Government and in the mid-1980s, Warner-Lambert refocused on three main businesses: prescription pharmaceuticals, consumer health care products, and gums and mints. The company grew with the introduction, in the early 1980s, of the first effective cholesterol-lowering agent, Lopid.

In 1993, Warner-Lambert acquired Wilkinson Sword, combining it with Schick® to create the world's second largest wet-shave business. However, a far greater expansion of the company came in 1996, when Warner-Lambert entered into a co-marketing agreement with Pfizer on Lipitor® (atorvastatin calcium), a new entry into the statin class of lipid-lowering agents. Discovered by Parke-Davis Research and introduced in 1997, Lipitor® is the largest-selling pharmaceutical of any kind worldwide.

In 1999, Warner-Lambert acquired Agouron, based in La Jolla, California. Agouron is a leader in protein-based drug design and marketer of the protease inhibitor, Viracept® (nelfinavir mesylate).

Pfizer and Warner-Lambert announced their intention to join, a transaction completed in June 2000, creating the world's most valuable and fastest-growing pharmaceutical company.

In 2000, Pfizer acquired Warner-Lambert, bringing together two of the fastest-growing companies in the pharmaceutical industry and adding to Pfizer's global strengths and rich heritage. With Warner-Lambert, Pfizer gained product lines ranging from Parke-Davis branded pharmaceuticals to Listerine mouthwashto Schick and Wilkinson Sword wet-shave products.

Pharmacia / Upjohn / Searle

Searle was founded in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1888. The founder was Gideon Daniel Searle. In 1908, the company was incorporated in Chicago. In 1941, the company established headquarters in Skokie, Illinois. It was acquired by the Monsanto Company, headquartered in St. Louis, in 1985.

The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school. The company was originally formed to make friable pills, which were specifically designed to be easily digested.

In 1995, Upjohn merged with Pharmacia, to form Pharmacia & Upjohn. Pharmacia was created in April 2000 through the merger of Pharmacia & Upjohn with the Monsanto Company and its G.D. Searle unit. The merged company was based in Peapack, New Jersey. The agricultural division was spun off from Pharmacia, as Monsanto, in preparation for the close of the acquisition by Pfizer.

In 2002, Pfizer merged with Pharmacia. The merger was again driven in part by the desire to acquire full rights to a product, this time Celebrex (celecoxib), the COX-2 selective inhibitor previously jointly marketed by Searle (acquired by Pharmacia) and Pfizer. In the ensuing years, Pfizer commenced with a massive restructuring resulting in numerous site closures and loss of jobs including: Terre Haute, IN; Holland, MI; Groton, CT; Brooklyn, NY; Sandwich, UK and Puerto Rico.

In 2008, Pfizer announced 275 job cuts at the Kalamazoo manufacturing facility. Kalamazoo was previously the world headquarters for the Upjohn Company.

SUGEN

SUGEN, customarily written with capital letters, was founded in 1991 in Redwood City, California, as a partnership between the laboratories of Joseph Schlessinger at New York University Medical School and Axel Ullrich at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, with Steven Evans-Freke as a third co-founder. The name, SUGEN, is derived from combining the first "S" in Schlessinger followed by the "U" in Ullrich with "GEN" - a commonly used suffix by biotech companies (short for "GENetics" or "GENesis"). The focus of the enterprise was to develop drugs targeting intracellular signaling pathways to treat cancer. Specifically, the company sought to discover competitive ATP small-molecule kinase inhibitors which block common cancer pathways. Pharmacia acquired SUGEN in 1999, which merged with the pharmaceutical division of Monsanto Company in 2000 and was purchased by Pfizer in 2003. In 1999, Pharmacia advanced two of SUGEN's lead compounds into clinical trials for colon cancer: SU5416 (Semaxanib) and SU6668; the trials were discontinued but a third and closely related compound named SU11248 was pursued. SUGEN's laboratories were closed in 2003 as part of the reorganization following Pfizer's purchase of Pharmacia. From the acquisition, SUGEN compounds SU11248 and SU14813 entered Pfizer's pipeline.[11][12] In January 2006, SU11248 was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of GIST and RCC, and it is now marketed as Sutent (sunitinib). Sutent is packed by Plant in Ascoli Piceno, Italy.

Wyeth

On 26 January 2009, after more than a year of talks between the two companies, Pfizer agreed to buy pharmaceuticals rival Wyeth for a combined US$68 billion in cash, shares and loans, including some US$22.5 billion lent by five major Wall Street banks. The deal would cement Pfizer's place as the largest pharmaceutical company in the world, with the merged company generating over US$20 billion in cash each year, and represents the largest corporate merger since AT&T and BellSouth's US$70 billion deal in March 2006.[13] Wyeth's management team is expected to depart following the merger. The combined company could save US$4 billion annually through the streamlining of operations; however, as part of the deal, both companies must repatriate billions of dollars in revenue from foreign sources to the United States, which will result in higher tax costs. The acquisition was completed on October 15, 2009 making Wyeth a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pfizer.[6]

Critics of the merger

The merger received a vast array of criticism. Harvard Business School’s Gary Pisano told The Wall Street Journal:

The record of big mergers and acquisitions in Big Pharma has just not been good. There’s just been an enormous amount of shareholder wealth destroyed.[14]

The Warner-Lambert and Pharmacia mergers do not appear to have achieved gains for shareholders so it is unclear who will benefit from the Wyeth-Pfizer merger to many critics.[15]

Development of torcetrapib

Development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease, was cancelled in December 2006. During a Phase III clinical trial involving 15,000 patients there were more deaths than expected in the group that took the medicine, and a 60% increase in deaths was seen among patients taking torcetrapib plus Lipitor versus Lipitor alone. There was no suggestion these results called into question the safety of Lipitor. Pfizer lost nearly $1 billion invested developing the failed drug, and the market value of the company plummeted in the aftermath.[16][17][18]

Pharmaceuticals

The following is a list of key prescription pharmaceutical products. The names shown are all registered trademarks of Pfizer Inc.[19]

Animal health brands

The following is a partial list of Animal Health brands manufactured by Pfizer:

Legislation and litigation

Pfizer is party to a number of suits stemming from companies it has acquired or merged with, including asbestos litigation as well as litigation stemming from its medicinal products.

Kelo case

Pfizer's interest in obtaining property in New London, Connecticut, for expanded facilities led to the Kelo v. New London case before the U.S. Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court's 2005 decision in Kelo v. City of New London handed local governments the right to seize private property for economic development,[20] i. e., offices, a hotel to enhance Pfizer Inc.'s nearby corporate facility. However, following the completion of the aforementioned Wyeth merger, Pfizer announced it will close its research and development headquarters in New London, Connecticut, moving employees to nearby Groton.

Quigley Co.

Pfizer acquired Quigley in 1968, and the division sold asbestos-containing insulation products until the early 1970s.[21] Asbestos victims and Pfizer have been negotiating a settlement deal which calls for Pfizer to pay $430 million to 80 percent of existing plaintiffs. It will also place an additional $535 million into an asbestos settlement trust that will compensate future plaintiffs as well as the remaining 20 percent of current plaintiffs with claims against Pfizer and Quigley. The compensation deal is worth $965 million all up. Of that $535 million, $405 million is in a 40-year note from Pfizer, while $100 million will come from insurance policies.

Bjork-Shiley heart valve

Pfizer purchased Shiley in 1979 at the onset of its Convexo-Concave valve ordeal, involving the Bjork-Shiley heart valve. Approximately 500 people died when defective valves failed and, in 1994, the United States ruled against Pfizer for ~$200 million.[22]

Tort reform legislation contributions

Pfizer proposed a ban on all lawsuits against manufacturers of body implant parts which was proposed in the United States Congress as part of tort reform legislation.[citation needed]

Off-label promotional practices

Access to pharmaceutical industry documents has revealed marketing strategies used to promote Neurontin for off-label use.[23] In 1993, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved gabapentin (Neurontin, Pfizer) only for treatment of seizures. Warner-Lambert, which merged with Pfizer in 2000, used activities not usually associated with sales promotion, including continuing medical education and research, sponsored articles about the drug for the medical literature, and alleged suppression of unfavorable study results, to promote gabapentin. Within 5 years the drug was being widely used for the off-label treatment of pain and psychiatric conditions. In 2004, Warner-Lambert admitted to charges that it violated FDA regulations by promoting the drug for pain, psychiatric conditions, migraine, and other unapproved uses, and paid $430 million to resolve criminal and civil health care liability charges.[24][25] Today it is a mainstay drug for migraines, even though it was not approved for such use in 2004.[26]

Bextra Settlement of Off-Label Marketing Investigation

In September 2009, the United States Department of Justice announced that Pfizer had agreed to pay $2.3 billion to settle civil and criminal allegations that it had illegally marketed four drugs: Bextra, Geodon, Zyvox, and Lyrica "with the intent to defraud or mislead" by promoting the drugs for non-approved uses; this marks Pfizer's fourth such settlement in a decade.[3][4][27] Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, Inc., a Pfizer subsidiary, agreed to plead guilty to mis-branded promotion of Bextra, a felony violation of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. The criminal fine accounts for $1.3 billion of the settlement, and is the largest criminal penalty ever imposed by the United States.[28] Pfizer has entered an extensive corporate integrity agreement (CIA) with the Office of Inspector General and will be required to make substantial structural reforms within the company, and maintain the Pfizer website (www.pfizer.com/pmc) to track the company's post marketing commitments. Pfizer must also put a searchable database of all payments to physicians the company has made on the Pfizer website by March 31, 2010.[29] In addition, two former employees were separately indicted and sentenced for their role in marketing of Bextra. A former District Sales manager was found guilty of obstruction of justice for destroying documents pertinent to the investigation, and a Regional Sales Manager pled guilty to the distribution of a mis-branded product.[30][31]

The case is the largest civil settlement against a pharmaceutical company as well.[32] Pfizer paid a $1 billion civil fine to settle allegations it had illegally promoted the drugs for uses that were not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and caused false claims to be submitted to Federal and State programs including but not limited to Medicare and Medicaid. Under the False Claims Act, damages can be assessed for violations of the federal Anti-Kickback statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b) [33] and the off-label marketing provision within the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), 21 U.S.C. §§301-97.[34] Six whistle-blowers will receive $102 million for their participation in the civil investigation, and John Kopchinski, a former sales representative, will receive $51.5 million for his allegations involving the marketing of Bextra.[35]

Nigeria

In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to assist in treating the affected population. An experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, was administered to approximately 200 children. Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died from infection, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.[36] In 2001, families of the children, as well as the governments of Kano and Nigeria, filed lawsuits regarding the treatment[37]. Representing the government is Babatunde Irukera. According to the lawsuits, Pfizer administered the trovafloxacin (now marketed as Trovan) without parental consent. The lawsuits also accuse Pfizer of using the outbreak to perform unapproved human testing, as well as allegedly under-dosing a control group being treated with traditional antibiotics in order to skew the results of the trial in favor of Trovan. Pfizer denied these claims, and subsequently produced an approval letter for testing from the Nigerian Ethics Committee; the Nigerian government claims it is a fake.[38]

In 2007, Pfizer published a Statement of Defense letter.[39] The letter makes several claims, including that Pfizer donated 18 million in Nigerian Naira (NGN) (about $216,000 in 1996 US dollars (USD)) [40], that the drug's oral form was presented as safer and easier to administer, that the administration of Trovan saved lives, and that no unusual side effects, unrelated to meningitis, were observed after 4 weeks.

A more likely reason for Pfizer's insistence on the oral form is the result of testing trovafloxacin intravenously in 1995, which found that the drug precipitated in saline, making it ineffective in patients receiving IV fluids. This is inferred from an FDA warning letter[41] to ex-CEO William C. Steere, regarding Trovan's compatibility with saline etc., which was omitted from Trovan's labeling until January 1999, shortly after Pfizer recieived the letter.

In June 1999, the FDA released a public health statement warning against the use of Trovan except in life-or-death situations, due to high risk of liver failure. In some cases, liver damage occurred after only two days of treatment.[42]

Research and development

Pfizer's human research and development organization is headquartered in New London, CT while their animal health research and development organization is headquartered in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The company has R&D labs in the following locations: Groton, Connecticut; Sandwich, England; La Jolla, California; South San Francisco, California; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Kalamazoo, Michigan; St. Louis, Missouri. In La Jolla, Pfizer has 1,000 people with plans to create cancer drugs, a departure from the company's cardiovascular specialties.[43]

Spending $8.1 billion in research & development (R&D) in 2007, Pfizer has the industry's largest pharmaceutical R&D organization: Pfizer Global Research and Development.[44]

In 2007, Pfizer announced plans to close or sell on the Loughbeg API facility, located at Loughbeg, Ringaskiddy Co.Cork Ireland by mid to end of 2008

In 2007, Pfizer announced plans to completely close the Ann Arbor, Nagoya and Amboise Research facilities by the end of 2008, eliminating 2,160 jobs and idling the $300-million dollar Michigan facility, which had seen millions of dollars of expansion in recent years.[45]

On June 18, 2007 Pfizer announced it will move the Sandwich, England Animal Health Research (VMRD) division to Kalamazoo, Michigan.[46]

Pipeline:

Environmental record

According to the EPA, Pfizer is among the top ten companies in America with the most numerous emissions sources.[47] A landfill and two wastewater lagoons in Ledyard, CT near the Pfizer plant in Groton, Connecticut, are a source of groundwater pollution in the area. According to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP), the Pfizer site is active under the CT DEP Site Remediation program.[48] In June 2002, a chemical explosion at the Groton plant injured seven people and caused the evacuation of over 100 homes in the surrounding area.[49]
Pfizer has provided funding to the Competitive Enterprise Institute[49]

Employment and diversity

Pfizer received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report. In 2007, Pfizer's Canadian division was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, as published in Maclean's magazine, the only research-based pharmaceutical company to receive this honor.[50] In 2008, there was controversy, including inquiries from members of Congress, around Pfizer's practice of replacing US workers with H-1b guest workers[51]

AIDS involvement

Pfizer has been involved in controversies over the medicine Diflucan (generic name fluconazole). In 1998, a campaign by Thai public health groups led to the elimination of the Pfizer monopoly on selling fluconazole in Thailand, and the price of the antifungal drug decreased from 200 baht to 6.5 baht in nine months, vastly expanding access to the medicine for AIDS patients. Faced with pressure for compulsory licenses to the Pfizer patent on this drug, Pfizer later established a program for limited access to the medicine in Africa.[52]

"In the United States, 46 percent of all new HIV/AIDS cases occur in the South. From 2003–2006 the Pfizer Foundation has funded 23 innovative HIV/AIDS prevention programs and strengthened the capacity of community-based organizations to reach and serve their communities."[53] Since 2003, Pfizer has committed a $3 Million grant toward supporting the Southern HIV/AIDS Prevention Initiative.

However, there are criticisms of the way Pfizer is testing its AIDS drug. "The European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG), collection of activists from 31 European Countries,[54] said the design of the trial for Pfizer's CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc (previously known as UK-427,857) is putting people with HIV infection at unnecessary risk of developing AIDS."[55]

On June 20, 2007, Maraviroc received an approvable letter from the FDA advisory board. The letter was a product of expedited review of the novel HIV compound.[citation needed]

In 2001, Pfizer asked the U.S. government to pressure the Brazilian government against issuing compulsory licenses for the patents on the AIDS drug nelfinavir.[citation needed]

AIDS drugs manufactured by Pfizer

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e "Pfizer 2008 Financial Report". Pfizer. August 12, 2009. http://media.pfizer.com/files/annualreport/2008/financial/financial2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  2. ^ "Company Profile for Pfizer Inc (PFE)". http://zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=PFE&page=quotesearch. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  3. ^ a b Harris, Gardiner (September 3, 2009). "Pfizer Pays $2.3 Billion to Settle Marketing Case". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/business/03health.html. 
  4. ^ a b Johnson, Carrie (3 September 2009). "In Settlement, A Warning To Drugmakers: Pfizer to Pay Record Penalty In Improper-Marketing Case". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/09/02/AR2009090201449_pf.html. 
  5. ^ Andrew Ross Sorkin and Duff Wilson (January 26, 2009). "Pfizer Agrees to Pay $68 Billion for Rival Drug Maker Wyeth". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/26/business/26drug.html. 
  6. ^ a b "Pfizer: Wyeth Transaction". Pfizer. http://www.pfizer.com/investors/shareholder_services/wyeth_transaction.jsp. Retrieved October 25, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b Kenneth T. Jackson. [yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn= 9780300055368 The Encyclopedia of New York City]. The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press; September 1995. P. 895. ISBN 978-0300055368
  8. ^ "Johnson & Johnson to Buy Pfizer Unit". MoneyNews.com. June 26, 2006. http://www.newsmax.com/money/archives/articles/2006/6/26/082230.cfm. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  9. ^ Johnson & Johnson (December 20, 2006). [www.investor.jnj.com/releaseDetail.cfm?releaseid=223093 "Johnson & Johnson Completes Acquisition Of Pfizer Consumer Healthcare"]. Press release. www.investor.jnj.com/releaseDetail.cfm?releaseid=223093. 
  10. ^ STEPHANIE SAUL (June 27, 2006). [www.nytimes.com/2006/06/27/business/27johnson.html "Johnson & Johnson Buys Pfizer Unit for $16.6 Billion"]. www.nytimes.com/2006/06/27/business/27johnson.html. 
  11. ^ Pfizer (2003). Annual Review 2003. Annual Report.
  12. ^ Schlessinger, Joseph (2005). "SU11248: Genesis of a New Cancer Drug". The Scientist 19(7):17-24. (subscription required)
  13. ^ Pfizer Agrees to Pay $68 Billion for Rival Drug Maker Wyeth By ANDREW ROSS SORKIN and DUFF WILSON. January 26, 2009. The New York Times
  14. ^ The Pfizer-Wyeth Deal Worst-Case Scenario By Jim Edwards | January 23rd, 2009 - BNET
  15. ^ Matthew Karnitschnig, & Jonathan D. Rockoff. (2009, January 23). Pfizer in Talks to Buy Wyeth. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. A.1. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from Wall Street Journal. (Document ID: 1631280041).
  16. ^ Pfizer Shares Plummet on Loss of a Promising Heart Drug By ALEX BERENSON and ANDREW POLLACK. December 5, 2006. The New York Times
  17. ^ Berenson, Alex (December 3, 2006). "Pfizer Ends Studies on Drug for Heart Disease". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/03/health/03pfizer.html?_r=1&th&emc=th&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  18. ^ Theresa Agovino (Associated Press) (December 3, 2006). "Pfizer ends cholesterol drug development". Yahoo! News. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061203/ap_on_he_me/pfizer_cholesterol_drug_5&printer=1. Retrieved 2006-12-03.  Each study arm (torcetrapib + Lipitor vs. Lipitor alone) had 7500 patients enrolled; 51 deaths were observed in the Lipitor alone arm, while 82 deaths occurred in the torcetrapib + Lipitor arm.
  19. ^ "Pfizer Prescription Products". Pfizer Inc. http://www.pfizer.com/products/rx/prescription.jsp. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  20. ^ [www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/04-108.ZO.html Kelo v. New London: Opinion of the Court]
  21. ^ [www.quigleyreorg.com Quigley Company reorganization]
  22. ^ [1]
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Notes

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