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The phallotoxins consist of at least seven compounds, all of which have seven similar peptide rings, isolated from the death cap (Amanita phalloides). Phalloidin had been isolated in 1937 by Feodor Lynen, Heinrich Wieland's student and son-in-law, and Ulrich Wieland of the University of Munich.[1][2] The remaining six are prophalloin, phalloin, phallisin, phallacidin, phallacin and phallisacin. Though highly toxic to liver cells, it has since been found to have little input into the death cap's toxicity as it is not absorbed through the gut. Furthermore, it is also found in the edible (and sought after) Blusher (Amanita rubescens).[3]

Chemical structures

See also

  • Amatoxins, a closely related class of mycotoxins


  1. ^ Theodor Wieland (1987). "50 Jahre Phalloidin". Naturwissenschaften 74 (8): 367–373. doi:10.1007/BF00405464.  
  2. ^ Feodor Lynen, Ulrich Wieland (1938). "Über die Giftstoffe des Knollenblätterpilzes". Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie 533 (1): 93–117. doi:10.1002/jlac.19385330105.  
  3. ^ Litten, W. (March 1975). "The most poisonous mushrooms". Scientific American 232 (3): 90–101. PMID 1114308.  


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