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.A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.^ They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

^ It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
  • Medications | LIVESTRONG.COM 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ In medicine, a medical problem that occurs during a disease, or after a procedure or treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1][2]

Contents

Classification

.Medications can be classified in various ways,[3] such as by chemical properties, mode or route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects.^ Chemokines such as RANTES are pro-inflammatory and chemotactic for leukocytes but these properties can be reduced by chemical modification at the N-terminus.

^ Taking certain combinations of medications can either cause dangerous side effects or affect the potency of one or more of the drugs.
  • Medication Safety | HealthyWomen 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: General]

^ Peripheral neuropathy is a possible side effect of chemotherapy affecting the nervous system.

.An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system).^ Their therapeutic range is between 0.4 mEq/L and 1.4 mEq/L. The testing system is said to be similar to the glucose level tests used for diabetic patients.
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines.^ The severity of mucositis was evaluated according to World Health Organization classification.

A sampling of classes of medicine includes:
  1. Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia/pyresis)
  2. Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers)
  3. Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria
  4. Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth
  5. Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns, cuts and wounds

Types of medications (type of pharmacotherapy)

For the gastrointestinal tract (digestive system)

For the cardiovascular system

For the central nervous system

.Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: hypnotics, anaesthetics, antipsychotics, antidepressants (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, anticonvulsants/antiepileptics, anxiolytics, barbiturates, movement disorder (e.g., Parkinson's disease) drugs, stimulants (including amphetamines), benzodiazepines, cyclopyrrolones, dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, cholinergics, anticholinergics, emetics, cannabinoids, and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists.^ Older antidepressant medications include tricyclics, tetracyclics, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other types of antidepressants are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act as mood stabilizers for bipolar II disorder .
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For pain & consciousness (analgesic drugs)

.The main classes of painkillers are NSAIDs, opioids and various orphans such as paracetamol, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants.^ Take simple painkillers such as paracetamol if needed.
  • Chemotherapy - A guide for patients and their families 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.christie.nhs.uk [Source type: General]

^ There are a number of possible side effects with tricyclic antidepressants that vary, depending on the medication.
  • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For musculo-skeletal disorders

.The main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are: NSAIDs (including COX-2 selective inhibitors), muscle relaxants, neuromuscular drugs, and anticholinesterases.^ Then tense and relax the rest of the muscle groups in your body, including those in your scalp.

^ COX inhibitors belong to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ COX-2 inhibitors are being studied in the prevention of colon polyps, and as anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

For the eye

.

For the ear, nose and oropharynx

For the respiratory system

For endocrine problems

For the reproductive system or urinary system

For contraception

For obstetrics and gynecology

For the skin

For infections and infestations

For the immune system

For allergic disorders

For nutrition

tonics, iron preparations, electrolytes, parenteral nutritional supplements, vitamins, anti-obesity drugs, anabolic drugs, haematopoietic drugs, food product drugs

For neoplastic disorders

cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins, G-CSF, erythropoietin

For diagnostics

For euthanasia

An euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.
.Euthanasia is not permitted by law in many countries, and consequently medicines will not be licensed for this use in those countries.^ The herbal medicine St. John's wort has been used for centuries in many folk and herbal remedies.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Legal considerations

.Medications may be divided into over-the-counter drugs (OTC) which may be available without special restrictions, and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner.^ Only 8 (6%) respondents indicated that they would prescribe marijuana much more frequently--if there were no legal barriers associated with its medical use.

^ Since there is no certain way of determining beforehand which medication will be effective, the doctor may have to prescribe first one, then another, until an effective one is found.
  • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people have reported side effects with these medications, and when bipolar patients are prescribed an antipsychotic, side effects may be added.
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The precise distinction between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction. .A third category, behind-the-counter medications (BTMs), is implemented in some jurisdictions.^ The chemical is also in some medications, including decongestants and over-the-counter cold medicine.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

BTMs do not require a prescription, but must be kept in the dispensary, not visible to the public, and only be sold by a pharmacist or pharmacy technician.
.The International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations imposes a world law of prohibition of certain medications.^ Funds awarded to certain U.S. institutions by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for them to become cancer centers in the United States, based on scientific merit.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

They publish a lengthy list of chemicals and plants whose trade and consumption (where applicable) is forbidden. .OTC medications are sold without restriction as they are considered safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves accidentally by taking it as instructed.^ Do not take acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen, or any other over-the-counter medications without your doctor's advice.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

^ On the flip side, women who stop taking their antidepressant medication during pregnancy may get depression again and may put both themselves and their infant at risk.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heartworm treatment medications cause death in 1 to 2% of patients - a far greater risk than most medications, but when the effects of not treating for heartworms are considered, this seems like a small risk.
  • Medication - Side Effects 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many countries, such as the United Kingdom have a third category of pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist.^ Note: Many chemotherapeutic agents are covered under individual topics by drug name or class, such as adriamycin , cisplatin or cyclophosphamide , methotrexate.

^ A child with ADHD should take a stimulant medication only on the advice and under the careful supervision of a physician.
  • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For patented medications, countries may have certain mandatory licensing programs which compel, in certain situations, a medication's owner to contract with other agents to manufacture the drug.^ Other health professionals who may prescribe a drug-such as a dentist or other medical specialist-should be told that the person is taking a specific antidepressant and the dosage.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cancer researchers, medical journals, and the popular media all have contributed to a situation in which many people with common malignancies are being treated with drugs not known to be effective.
  • Why Alternative Cancer Treatment(2): Chemotherapy, Cancer Diagnosing, Mammography, Thermography 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While ginger and other natural products, including Cannabis , may help alleviate adverse effects of chemotherapy they may not be adequate substitutes for prescription antinausea drugs.

.Such programs may deal with the contingency of a lack of medication in the event of a serious epidemic of disease, or may be part of efforts to ensure that disease treating drugs, such as AIDS drugs, are available to countries which cannot afford the drug owner's price.^ It is a very effective medication that treats psychotic symptoms, hallucinations, and breaks with reality, such as when a person believes he or she is the president.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types of medications used to treat mental disorders Side effects of medications Directions for taking medications Warnings about medications from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some drugs available that your doctor may prescribe to help maintain or restore blood counts.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

In some countries, government-regulated cannabis is available by prescription.

Blockbuster drug

.A blockbuster drug is a drug generating more than $1 billion of revenue for its owner each year.^ As Alternative Medicine has maintained for years, mammograms do far more harm than good.
  • Why Alternative Cancer Treatment(2): Chemotherapy, Cancer Diagnosing, Mammography, Thermography 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because some drugs work better together than alone, often two or more drugs are given to you at the same time.

^ We have followed the patient for more than one year.

[4] The search for blockbusters has been the foundation of the R&D strategy adopted by big pharmaceutical companies, but this looks set to change. .New advances in genomics, and the promise of personalized medicine, are likely to fragment the pharmaceutical market[citation needed].^ But since the discovery of lithium and its beneficial affects on bipolar patients, new drugs have entered the pharmaceutical market.
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A recent report from Urch Publishing estimated that about one third of the pharma market by value is accounted for by blockbusters.^ And the only reason the FDA is taking out some medications off the market is because those are the ones their getting sued about not because their concerened about your health.
  • Suzanne Somers on alternates to chemotherapy – The Joy Behar Show - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC joybehar.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one really knows since by some estimates as little as one in ten errors are reported (Pepper, 2002).
  • Medication Math for the Nursing Student 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.alysion.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

About 100 products are blockbusters. The top seller was Lipitor, a cholesterol-lowering medication marketed by Pfizer with sales of $12.2 billion.

Leading blockbuster drugs

Drug Trade name Company Sales[5][6] (billion $), year
Atorvastatin Lipitor Pfizer 12 (2007) <
Clopidogrel Plavix Bristol-Myers Squibb and sanofi-aventis 5.9 (2005)
Enoxaparin Lovenox or Clexane Sanofi-Aventis
Celecoxib Celebrex Pfizer 2.3 (2007)
Omeprazole Losec/Prilosec AstraZeneca 2.6 (2004)
Esomeprazole Nexium AstraZeneca 3.3 (2003)
Fexofenadine Telfast/Allegra Aventis 1.87 (2004)
Quetiapine Seroquel AstraZeneca 1.5 (2003)
Metoprolol Seloken/Toprol AstraZeneca 1.3 (2003)
Budesonide Pulmicort/Rhinocort AstraZeneca 1.3 (2003) (plus some fraction of the $0.6bn sales of Symbicort)

Environmental impact

Since the 1990s water contamination by pharmaceuticals has been an environmental issue of concern.[7] Most pharmaceuticals are deposited in the environment through human consumption and excretion, and are often filtered ineffectively by wastewater treatment plants which are not designed to manage them. Once in the water they can have diverse, subtle effects on organisms, although research is limited. Pharmaceuticals may also be deposited in the environment through improper disposal, runoff from sludge fertilizer and reclaimed wastewater irrigation, and leaky sewage.[7] In 2009 an investigative report by Associated Press concluded that U.S. manufacturers had legally released 271 million pounds of drugs into the environment, 92% of which was the antiseptics phenol and hydrogen peroxide. .It could not distinguish between drugs released by manufacturers as opposed to the pharmaceutical industry.^ UK pharmaceutical manufacturer AstraZeneca has released another set of data demonstrating the benefits of using its drug Seroquel (quetiapine fumarate) for the treatment of bipolar disorder, according to Reuters.
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please, please, please become familiar with the funding, education, advertising, and research ties between physicians, pharmaceutical companies, medical device manufacturers, etc.
  • Suzanne Somers on alternates to chemotherapy – The Joy Behar Show - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC joybehar.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also found that an estimated 250 million pounds of pharmaceuticals and contaminated packaging were discarded by hospitals and long-term care facilities.[8]

History

Ancient pharmacology

.Using plants and plant substances to treat all kinds of diseases and medical conditions is believed to date back to prehistoric medicine.^ Therefore, the doctor should be told about all medicines being taken, including over-the-counter medications and vitamin, mineral, and herbal supplements, and the extent of alcohol use.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical schools are highly funded by these billion dollar businesses, and teach that only drugs and surgery can treat disease.
  • Suzanne Somers on alternates to chemotherapy – The Joy Behar Show - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC joybehar.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus, the oldest known medical text of any kind, dates to about 1800 BCE and represents the first documented use of any kind of medication.^ To find the section of the text that describes a particular medication in the lists below, find the generic (chemical) name and look it up on the first list or find the trade (brand) name and look it up on the second list.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first medication specifically approved for use in the treatment of OCD was the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine ( Anafranil ).
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antipsychotic medications are sometimes used in the first several days of treatment to control manic symptoms until the lithium begins to take effect.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10] .It and other medical papyri describe Ancient Egyptian medical practices, such as using honey to treat infections.^ A drug used to treat bacterial infections.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An antibiotic drug used to treat infection.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat infection.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Ancient Babylonian medicine demonstrate the use of prescriptions in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Medicinal creams and pills were employed as treatments.[11]
.On the Indian subcontinent, the Atharvaveda, a sacred text of Hinduism whose core dates from sometime during the 2nd millenium BCE, although the hymns recorded in it are believed to be older, is the first Indic text dealing with medicine.^ The first written records of massage date back 3,000 years ago to China.

It describes plant-based medications to counter diseases.[12]. .The earliest foundations of ayurveda were built on a synthesis of selected ancient herbal practices, together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations, new nosologies and new therapies dating from about 400 BCE onwards.^ Pediatricians need to be aware that their patients may not tell them about AT practices they are using in addition to prescribed treatment.

[13]. The student of Āyurveda was expected to know ten arts that were indispensable in the preparation and application of his medicines: distillation, operative skills, cooking, horticulture, metallurgy, sugar manufacture, pharmacy, analysis and separation of minerals, compounding of metals, and preparation of alkalis.
.The Hippocratic Oath for physicians, attributed to 5th century BCE Greece, refers to the existence of "deadly drugs", and ancient Greek physicians imported medications from Egypt and elsewhere.^ Medical castration refers to the use of drugs to suppress the function of the ovaries or testicles.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14]
The first drugstores were created in Baghdad in the 8th century CE. The injection syringe was invented by Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili in 9th century Iraq. Al-Kindi's 9th century CE book, De Gradibus, developed a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs.[15]
.The Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina (Avicenna), who is considered the father of modern medicine,[16] reported 800 tested drugs at the time of its completion in 1025 CE. The Canon is considered the first pharmacopoeia, or organized list of medications and their preparation.^ To find the section of the text that describes a particular medication in the lists below, find the generic (chemical) name and look it up on the first list or find the trade (brand) name and look it up on the second list.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike some prescription drugs, which must be taken several times during the day, some antipsychotic medications can be taken just once a day.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of its potential for serious side effects affecting the liver, Cylert should not ordinarily be considered as first-line drug therapy for ADHD. .
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18] Ibn Sina's contributions include the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences.[19] Islamic medicine knew of at least 2,000 medicinal and chemical substances.[20]

Medieval pharmacology

Medieval medicine saw advances in surgery, but few truly effective drugs existed, beyond opium and quinine. .Folklore cures and potentially poisonous metal-based compounds were popular treatments.^ Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that the appropriate administration of antioxidant inhibitors and/or free-radical-generating compounds may be a useful strategy in the treatment of solid tumors.

.Theodoric Borgognoni, (1205-1296), one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period, responsible for introducing and promoting important surgical advances including basic antiseptic practice and the use of anaesthetics.^ Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer.

^ Prayer, exercise, and spiritual healing were three AT practices most often used by the cancer group, and prayer, massage, and spiritual healing by the control group.

^ One of the most important detrimental factors is the generation and activation of highly reactive oxygen species which are leading factors implicated in the process of tissue damage.

.Garcia de Orta described some herbal treatments that were used.^ They may be used as hormone replacement, to suppress the immune system, and to treat some side effects of cancer and its treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A quality of some drugs used in cancer treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Its extract is used with other treatments in some cultures to treat cancer and other conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Modern pharmacology

For most of the nineteenth century, drugs were not highly effective, leading Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. to famously comment in 1842 that "if all medicines in the world were thrown into the sea, it would be all the better for mankind and all the worse for the fishes".[21]:21
.During the First World War, Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation, Dakin's solution, a germicide which helped prevent gangrene.^ Monitoring of nutritional status by the treating physician can help patients prevent nutritional deficiencies.

^ Guidelines developed to help health care professionals and patients make decisions about screening, prevention, or treatment of a specific health condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy can be prescribed to help treat metastatic cancer or to try to prevent your cancer from metastasizing.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. .The Second World War saw the introduction of widespread and effective antimicrobial therapy with the development and mass production of penicillin antibiotics, made possible by the pressures of the war and the collaboration of British scientists with the American pharmaceutical industry.^ It simply isn’t possible for a medical practitioner to fairly judge the effectiveness of a therapy from apparent clinical results.

^ One study compared cream made from calendula flowers with the standard treatment trolamine for protecting the skin during radiation therapy and found calendula more effective.

.Medicines commonly used by the late 1920s included aspirin, codeine, and morphine for pain; digitalis, nitroglycerin, and quinine for heart disorders, and insulin for diabetes.^ A component of certain plants, including cayenne and red pepper, used topically for peripheral nerve pain.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Other drugs included antitoxins, a few biological vaccines, and a few synthetic drugs.^ While ginger and other natural products, including Cannabis , may help alleviate adverse effects of chemotherapy they may not be adequate substitutes for prescription antinausea drugs.

In the 1930s antibiotics emerged: first sulfa drugs, then penicillin and other antibiotics. .Drugs increasingly became "the center of medical practice".[21]:22 In the 1950s other drugs emerged including corticosteroids for inflammation, rauwolfia alkloids as tranqulizers and antihypertensives, antihistamines for nasal allergies, xanthines for asthma, and typical antipsychotics for psychosis.^ Other health professionals who may prescribe a drug-such as a dentist or other medical specialist-should be told that the person is taking a specific antidepressant and the dosage.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While ginger and other natural products, including Cannabis , may help alleviate adverse effects of chemotherapy they may not be adequate substitutes for prescription antinausea drugs.

^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[21]:23-24 As of 2008, thousands of approved drugs have been developed. Increasingly, biotechnology is used to discover biopharmaceuticals.[21]
.In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, were designed in laboratories and slowly came into preferred use.^ Cell cultures may be used to diagnose infections, to test new drugs, and in research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cultured cells may be used to diagnose infections, to test new drugs, and in research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the antiemetic drug preferences of practicing adult oncologists and to estimate the frequency of use of marijuana smoke as an antiemetic agent.

.Although often accepted as an advance in some ways, there was some opposition, due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia.^ Abstract: BACKGROUND: Antioxidants protect the body against cellular oxidative damage and thus some of the adverse effects induced by cisplatin and other cytostatic drugs.

Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the drugs when not subject to psychiatric control.
Governments have been heavily involved in the development and sale of drugs. .In the U.S., the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration, and the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act required manufacturers to file new drugs with the FDA. The 1951 Humphrey-Durham Amendment required certain drugs to be sold by prescription.^ You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch , or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
  • Xubex | Medication List 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.xubex.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1962 a subsequent amendment required new drugs to be tested for efficacy and safety in clinical trials.^ Phase I/II trial of the safety and efficacy of shark cartilage in the treatment of advanced cancer.

^ Cultured cells may be used to diagnose infections, to test new drugs, and in research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In a clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[21]:24-26
Until the 1970s, drug prices were not a major concern for doctors and patients. .As more drugs became prescribed for chronic illnesses, however, costs became burdensome, and by the 1970s nearly every U.S. state required or encouraged the substitution of generic drugs for higher-priced brand names.^ Some people might think that the higher the dose of medication prescribed, the more serious the illness; but this is not always true.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INDEX OF MEDICATIONS To find the section of the text that describes a particular medication in the lists below, find the generic (chemical) name and look it up on the first list or find the trade (brand) name and look it up on the second list.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other drugs are not as potent and a higher dose may be prescribed.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This also led to the 2006 U.S. law, Medicare Part D, which offers Medicare coverage for drugs.[21]:28-29
.As of 2008, the United States is the leader in medical research, including pharmaceutical development.^ A shocking number of patients die every year in United States hospitals as the result of medication errors, and many more are harmed.
  • Medication Math for the Nursing Student 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.alysion.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please, please, please become familiar with the funding, education, advertising, and research ties between physicians, pharmaceutical companies, medical device manufacturers, etc.
  • Suzanne Somers on alternates to chemotherapy – The Joy Behar Show - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC joybehar.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Institutes of Health and the FDA are examining the issue of medication research in children and are developing new research approaches.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U.S. drug prices are among the highest in the world, and drug innovation is correspondingly high. In 2000 U.S. based firms developed 29 of the 75 top-selling drugs; firms from the second-largest market, Japan, developed eight, and the United Kingdom contributed 10. France, which imposes price controls, developed three. Throughout the 1990s outcomes were similar.[21]:30-31

See also

References

  1. ^ US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, SEC. 210., (g)(1)(B). Accessed 17 August 2008.
  2. ^ Directive 2004/27/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 amending Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Article 1. Published March 31, 2004. Accessed 17 August 2008.
  3. ^ www.epgonline.org database of prescription pharmaceutical products including drug classifications [1]
  4. ^ ""Blockbuster medicine" is defined as being one which achieves annual revenues of over US$ 1 billion at global level." in European Commission, Pharmaceutical Sector Inquiry, Preliminary Report (DG Competition Staff Working Paper), 28 November 2008, page 17 (pdf, 1.95 MB).
  5. ^ Pharmaceutical Market Trends, 2006-2010, from Urch Publishing
  6. ^ Blockbuster Drugs 2006: Executive Overview, from Report Buyer
  7. ^ a b Doerr-MacEwen NA, Haight ME (November 2006). "Expert stakeholders' views on the management of human pharmaceuticals in the environment". Environ Manage 38 (5): 853–66. doi:10.1007/s00267-005-0306-z. PMID 16955232. 
  8. ^ Donn J. (2009). Tons of Released Drugs Taint U.S. Water. AP.
  9. ^ Griffith, F. Ll. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob
  10. ^ The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus
  11. ^ H. F. J. Horstmanshoff, Marten Stol, Cornelis Tilburg (2004), Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine, p. 99, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004136665.
  12. ^ See Atharvaveda XIX.34.9
  13. ^ Kenneth G. Zysk, Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery, Oxford University Press, rev. ed. (1998) ISBN 0195059565
  14. ^ Heinrich Von Staden, Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 1-26.
  15. ^ Felix Klein-Frank (2001), Al-Kindi, in Oliver Leaman and Hossein Nasr, History of Islamic Philosophy, p. 172. Routledge, London.
  16. ^ Cas Lek Cesk (1980). "The father of medicine, Avicenna, in our science and culture: Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037)", Becka J. 119 (1), p. 17-23.
  17. ^ Hitti, Philip K. (cf. Ajram, Kasem (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).
  18. ^ Idrisi, Z. (2005). The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.
  19. ^ Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), p. 475-479 [476]. Oxford University Press.
  20. ^ S. Hadzovic (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development", Med Arh. 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Finkelstein S, Temin P (2008). Reasonable Rx: Solving the drug price crisis. FT Press. 

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