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Phencyclidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine
Identifiers
CAS number 77-10-1
ATC code none
PubChem 6468
ChemSpider 6224
Chemical data
Formula C17H25N 
Mol. mass 243.387 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Half life 7-46 hours
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Schedule I (CA) ? (UK) Schedule II (US)
Routes Smoked, Insufflated, Oral
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine, commonly initialised as PCP), also known as angel dust and other street names, is a recreational, dissociative drug formerly used as an anaesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects.^ Ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) are chemical congeners belonging to a class of pharmacological agents known as dissociative anesthetics.
  • Ketamine, But Not Phencyclidine, Selectively Modulates Cerebellar GABAA Receptors Containing {alpha}6 and {delta} Subunits -- Hevers et al. 28 (20): 5383 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Angel Dust Angel Dustis slang for phencyclidine .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Slang (A-M) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC vets.com [Source type: General]

^ Phencyclidine, also known as PCP or Angel Dust, is a hallucinogen that was first marketed as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950s.
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Pass Marijuana Drug Test - Marijuana Detox 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC pass-marijuana-drug-test.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Developed in 1926,[2] it was first patented in 1952 by the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company and marketed under the brand name Sernyl.^ HISTORY Phencyclidine (PCP) was synthesized by the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company and initially patented in 1958 as an intravenous general anesthetic (Sernyl).
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Barbital was then marketed by Bayer under the trade name Veronal.
  • Barbiturates Test - Barbiturates Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC barbituratestest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pyridinium chlorochromate (sold under the brand name UrineLuck) is a commonly used adulterant.
  • Specific Gravity Test - Urine Specific Gravity Testing Analysis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC specific-gravity-test.com [Source type: Academic]

.In chemical structure, PCP is an arylcyclohexylamine derivative, and, in pharmacology, it is a member of the family of dissociative anesthetics.^ PCP has an unusual chemical structure that makes it extremely fat-soluble, so it is rapidly absorbed and passes quickly into the brain.
  • Behavioral Management: De-escalating PCP-Intoxicated Clients in Acute Settings 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.counselormagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although PCP's anesthetic effects might be included here, it is clear that the dissociative anesthesia produced by PCP-like drugs differs qualitatively from anesthesia produced by depressant drugs and volatile anesthetics.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine are dissociative anesthetics capable of inducing analgesia, psychomimetic behavior, and a catatonic state of unconsciousness.
  • Ketamine, But Not Phencyclidine, Selectively Modulates Cerebellar GABAA Receptors Containing {alpha}6 and {delta} Subunits -- Hevers et al. 28 (20): 5383 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.PCP works primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist, which blocks the activity of the NMDA receptor and, like most antiglutamatergic hallucinogens, is significantly more dangerous than other categories of hallucinogens.^ Subtypes of NMDA/PCP receptors.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Separating PCP-like effects from therapeutic effects of NMDA antagonists.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurotoxicity of NMDA receptor antagonists: an overview.
  • http://ecstasy.org/info/kket7.html 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasy.org [Source type: Academic]

[3][4] .Other NMDA receptor antagonists include ketamine, tiletamine, and dextromethorphan.^ Other NMDA receptor antagonists include ketamine, tiletamine, and dextromethorphan.
  • PCP | Phencyclidine | Angel Dust | Moon Dust 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tclondon.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other dissociative drugs include ketamine and dextromethorphan.
  • Behavioral Management: De-escalating PCP-Intoxicated Clients in Acute Settings 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.counselormagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neurotoxicity of NMDA receptor antagonists: an overview.
  • http://ecstasy.org/info/kket7.html 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasy.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although the primary psychoactive effects of the drug lasts for a few hours, the total elimination rate from the body typically extends 8 days or longer.^ The effects of Methamphetamine generally last 2- 4 hours and the drug has a half- life of 9- 24 hours in the body.

^ The effects of Methamphetamine generally last 2-4 hours and the drug has a half-life of 9-24 hours in the body.
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]
  • THC Device - Marijuana Drug Test - Drug Screen Test Device - pot - weed testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.thcdevice.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Ecstasy Drug Screen - MDMA drug test - Ecstasy Drug Testing, rave, club drug 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasydrugscreen.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DOA Tests - Drug of Abuse Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.doatests.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Barbiturates Test - Barbiturates Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC barbituratestest.com [Source type: Academic]
  • UA Testing - UA Drug Tests - Urine Drug Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC uatesting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Specific Gravity Test - Urine Specific Gravity Testing Analysis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC specific-gravity-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug And Alcohol Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-and-alcohol-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Urine Dip Drug Test - Urine Dip Strip 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC urinedip.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DOT Drug Screen - DOT Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC dot-drug-screen.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How Drug Testing Works - Drug Test Instructions - Instructions for drug test - drug testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC howdrugtestingworks.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Pass Urine Test - Pass Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC how-to-pass-urine-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pass Marijuana Drug Test - Marijuana Detox 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC pass-marijuana-drug-test.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of rate of drug administration on the extent and time course of phencyclidine distribution in rat brain, testis, and serum.
  • Behavioral Management: De-escalating PCP-Intoxicated Clients in Acute Settings 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.counselormagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Biochemistry and pharmacology

Biochemical action

.The N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a type of ionotropic receptor, is found on the dendrites of neurons and receives signals in the form of neurotransmitters.^ The N-methyl-L-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a type of ionotropic receptor , is found on the dentrites of neurons and receives signals in the form of neurotransmitters.
  • Phencyclidine at AllExperts 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a type of ionotropic receptor, is found on the dendrites of neurons and receives signals in the form of neurotransmitters.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Phencyclidine | D2R Server publishing the DrugBank Database 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, binds to two types of receptors: Ionotropic receptors form ion channel pores and include NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors.

.It is a major excitatory receptor in the brain.^ It is a major excitatory receptor in the brain.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Phencyclidine | D2R Server publishing the DrugBank Database 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, binds to two types of receptors: Ionotropic receptors form ion channel pores and include NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors.

.Normal physiological function requires that the activated receptor fluxes positive through the channel part of the receptor.^ Normal physiological function requires that the activated receptor fluxes positive through the channel part of the receptor.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP enters the ion channel from the outside of the neuron and binds, reversibly, to a site in the channel pore, blocking the flux of positive ions into the cell.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dual functional activity of semaphorin 3B is required for positioning the anterior commissure.
  • PLoS ONE: Transcriptional Changes Common to Human Cocaine, Cannabis and Phencyclidine Abuse 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.PCP enters the ion channel from the outside of the neuron and binds, reversibly, to a site in the channel pore, blocking the flux of positive ions into the cell.^ PCP enters the ion channel from the outside of the neuron and binds, reversibly, to a site in the channel pore, blocking the flux of positive ions into the cell.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, binds to two types of receptors: Ionotropic receptors form ion channel pores and include NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors.

^ Blaustein M. P. and Ickowicz R K (1983) Phencyclidine, in nanomolar concentrations, binds to synaptosomes and blocks potassium channels.
  • SpringerProtocols: Abstract: Phencyclidine (PCP) and Amphetamine Receptor Binding Sites 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.springerprotocols.com [Source type: Academic]

.PCP therefore inhibits depolarization of neurons and interferes with cognitive and other functions of the nervous system.^ PCP therefore inhibits depolarization of neurons and interferes with cognitive and other functions of the nervous system.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects include stimulation of the central nervous system, a sense of well-being and higher energy, a release of social inhibitions, and feelings of cleverness, competence and power.
  • C3 Intelligence | Leader in Pre-Employment Screening 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.c3intel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find this article online Pfrieger FW (2003) Cholesterol homeostasis and function in neurons of the central nervous system.
  • PLoS ONE: Transcriptional Changes Common to Human Cocaine, Cannabis and Phencyclidine Abuse 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.In a similar manner, PCP and analogues also inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels (nAChR).^ In a similar manner, PCP and analogues also inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels (nAChR).
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free Full Text] Yamakura T, Chavez-Noriega LE, Harris RA (2000) Subunit-dependent inhibition of human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and other ligand-gated ion channels by dissociative anesthetics ketamine and dizocilpine.
  • Ketamine, But Not Phencyclidine, Selectively Modulates Cerebellar GABAA Receptors Containing {alpha}6 and {delta} Subunits -- Hevers et al. 28 (20): 5383 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar to PCP, MK-801 produced no significant change in the magnitude of GABA-evoked currents of the 6β2 receptors.
  • Ketamine, But Not Phencyclidine, Selectively Modulates Cerebellar GABAA Receptors Containing {alpha}6 and {delta} Subunits -- Hevers et al. 28 (20): 5383 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some analogues have greater potency at nAChR than at NMDAR. In some brain regions, these effects act synergistically to inhibit excitatory activity.^ Some analogues have greater potency at nAChR than at NMDAR. In some brain regions, these effects act synergistically to inhibit excitatory activity.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Implication of these findings are discussed in terms of a drug-induced imbalance of the catecholaminergic-cholinergic systems in those regions of the brain where activity has been correlated with emotional expression.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maybe these posts speak of some sort of brain impairment, maybe from long term drug abuse.
  • CASE NUMBER: 06-1837 « Who Murdered Robert Wone? 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC whomurderedrobertwone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.PCP is retained in fatty tissue and is broken down by the human metabolism into PCHP, PPC and PCAA.^ PCP is retained in fatty tissue and is broken down by the human metabolism into PCHP, PPC and PCAA. .
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The research into the relationship between rat brain metabolism and the creation of Olney's Lesions has been discredited and may not apply to humans, as has been shown with ketamine.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, THC (marijuana's active ingredient) and PCP are known to accumulate in fatty lipid tissue.
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most troubling clinical effects are most likely produced by the indirect action of phencyclidine on the presynaptic dopamine receptor (DA-2).^ These compounds also produce a behavioral syndrome with phencyclidine-like effects.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most troubling clinical effects are likely produced by the indirect action of phencyclidine on the presynaptic dopamine receptor (DA-2).
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ogawa SI, Okuyama S, Araki H, Otomo S (1994) Effect of NE-100, a novel  receptor ligand, on phencyclidine-induced cognitive dysfunction.
  • Corticolimbic Dopamine Neurotransmission Is Temporally Dissociated from the Cognitive and Locomotor Effects of Phencyclidine -- Adams and Moghaddam 18 (14): 5545 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.This has been suggested to account for most of the psychotic features.^ This has been suggested to account for most of the psychotic features.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode Manic Severe without psychotic features .
  • ICD-10-AM to DSM-IV 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.nzhis.govt.nz [Source type: Academic]
  • DSM-IV to ICD-10-AM valid 1 July 2004 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.nzhis.govt.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode Depressed Severe without psychotic features .
  • ICD-10-AM to DSM-IV 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.nzhis.govt.nz [Source type: Academic]
  • DSM-IV to ICD-10-AM valid 1 July 2004 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.nzhis.govt.nz [Source type: Academic]

[5] .The relative immunity to pain is likely produced by indirect interaction with the endogenous endorphin and enkephalin system in rats.^ The relative immunity to pain is likely produced by indirect interaction with the endogenous endorphin and enkephalin system in rats.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Robertson H. A. (1982) Chronic phencyclidine, like amphetamine, produces a decrease in [ 3 H]-spiroperidol binding in rat striatum.
  • SpringerProtocols: Abstract: Phencyclidine (PCP) and Amphetamine Receptor Binding Sites 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.springerprotocols.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like cocaine, BTCP produced generalization in cocaine-discriminating rats only.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]

Structural analogs

Possible Analogues of PCP
.More than 30 different analogues of PCP were reported as being used on the street during the 1970s and 1980s, mainly in the USA. The best known of these are PCPy (rolicyclidine, 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine); PCE (eticyclidine, N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine); and TCP (tenocyclidine, 1-(1-(2-Thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine).^ There was a greater difference between doses that produced drug-appropriate responding and doses that suppressed response rates for PCP than for any of the forms of ketamine.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine (used more than 100 times) and amphetamine (used about 15 times) worstened the thoughts, so that he would spend hours touching the walls 22 times.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ECT. Two case reports described ECT as being of benefit in antipsychotic resistant PCP intoxications.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These compounds were never widely-used and did not seem to be as well-accepted by users as PCP itself, however they were all added onto Schedule I of the Controlled Substance Act because of their putative similar effects.^ Because all they do is kill.
  • Reasons Marijuana should be legal. - Page 3 - General [M]ayhem 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.genmay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schedule II controlled substance.
  • zyrtec synthroid pravachol bontril amaryl phencyclidine - Cheapest Prices for Generic Drugs 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC eb23pol.esb.ucp.pt [Source type: General]

^ The compound should not be previously scheduled as a controlled substance.
  • Structure Activity of PCP analogs 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][citation needed]
.The generalized structural motif required for PCP-like activity is derived from structure-activity relationship studies of PCP analogues, and summarized below.^ The generalized structural motif required for PCP-like activity is derived from structure-activity relationship studies of PCP analogues, and summarized below.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Structure Activity of PCP analogs Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) of PCP analogs: .
  • Structure Activity of PCP analogs 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In chemical structure, PCP is an arylcyclohexylamine derivative, and, in pharmacology, it is a member of the family of dissociative anesthetics .
  • Phencyclidine | Tobacco Facts. 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tobacco-facts.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of these analogues would have somewhat similar effects to PCP itself, although, with a range of potencies and varying mixtures of anesthetic, dissociative and stimulant effects depending on the particular substituents used.^ PCP depending on the particular assay used.
  • Structure Activity of PCP analogs 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these analogues would have somewhat similar effects to PCP itself, although, with a range of potencies and varying mixtures of anesthetic, dissociative and stimulant effects depending on the particular substituents used.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of PCP Background: Use and effects of PCP: .
  • Effects of PCP 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some countries such as the USA, Australia, and New Zealand, all of these compounds would be considered controlled substance analogues of PCP, and are hence illegal drugs, even though many of them have never been made or tested.^ PCP is an illegal, common street drug.
  • Adult Health Advisor 2009.1: Phencyclidine Hydrochloride (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: General]
  • Dean Health System: Phencyclidine Hydrochloride (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.deancare.com [Source type: General]

^ These tests come in many configurations and can test for a multitude of abused drugs .
  • Urine Dip Drug Test - Urine Dip Strip 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC urinedip.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some countries such as the USA, Australia, and New Zealand, all of these compounds would be considered controlled substance analogues of PCP, and are hence illegal drugs, even though many of them have never been made or tested.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

[8][9]

Brain effects

.Like other NMDA receptor antagonists, it is postulated that phencyclidine can cause a certain kind of brain damage called Olney's lesions.^ Neurotoxicity of NMDA receptor antagonists: an overview.
  • http://ecstasy.org/info/kket7.html 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like other NMDA receptor antagonists, it is postulated that phencyclidine can cause a certain kind of brain damage called Olney's lesions.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies conducted on rats showed that high doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 caused irreversible vacuoles to form in certain regions of the rats' brains, and experts say that it is possible that similar brain damage can occur in humans.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

[10][11] .Studies conducted on rats showed that high doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 caused irreversible vacuoles to form in certain regions of the rats' brains, and experts say that it is possible that similar brain damage can occur in humans.^ Comparison of the behavioral and biochemical effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 and phencyclidine.
  • Altered excitatory-inhibitory balance in the NMDA-hypofunction model of schizophrenia 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC frontiersin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies conducted on rats showed that high doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 caused irreversible vacuoles to form in certain regions of the rats' brains, and experts say that it is possible that similar brain damage can occur in humans.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurotoxicity of NMDA receptor antagonists: an overview.
  • http://ecstasy.org/info/kket7.html 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasy.org [Source type: Academic]

.November 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] All studies of Olney's Lesions have only been performed on animals and may not apply to humans.^ All studies of Olney's Lesions have only been performed on animals and may not apply to humans.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is some concern that PCP may cause neurotoxicity in humans, but most of the scientific evidence for CNS damage is presently found in studies of mice, rats, and other laboratory animals.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders: eMedicine Psychiatry 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The research into the relationship between rat brain metabolism and the creation of Olney's Lesions has been discredited and may not apply to humans, as has been shown with ketamine.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.The research into the relationship between rat brain metabolism and the creation of Olney's Lesions has been discredited and may not apply to humans, as has been shown with ketamine.^ The research into the relationship between rat brain metabolism and the creation of Olney's Lesions has been discredited and may not apply to humans, as has been shown with ketamine.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All studies of Olney's Lesions have only been performed on animals and may not apply to humans.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioural Brain Research; 1986 Dec Vol 22(3) 257-264 Following chronic phencyclidine (PCP) or ketamine (KET), female Sprague-Dawley rats received challenge injections with the treatment substance.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[12][13]
.Phencyclidine has also been shown to cause schizophrenia-like changes in the rat brain, which are detectable both in living rats and upon necropsy examination of brain tissue.^ Quirion R. and Pert C B (1982b) Amantadine modulates phencyclidine binding sites sensitivity in rat brain.
  • SpringerProtocols: Abstract: Phencyclidine (PCP) and Amphetamine Receptor Binding Sites 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.springerprotocols.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of rate of drug administration on the extent and time course of phencyclidine distribution in rat brain, testis, and serum.
  • Behavioral Management: De-escalating PCP-Intoxicated Clients in Acute Settings 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.counselormagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phencyclidine-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats: a possible animal model of schizophrenia.
  • Altered excitatory-inhibitory balance in the NMDA-hypofunction model of schizophrenia 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC frontiersin.org [Source type: Academic]

[14] .It also induces symptoms in humans that are virtually indistinguishable from schizophrenia.^ It also induces symptoms in humans that are virtually indistinguishable from schizophrenia.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, recent uncontrolled experimentation in humans shows that the effects are at most only subtly different from PCP, and for the most part virtually indistinguishable ( ref.
  • Structure Activity of PCP analogs 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PCP is known to produce a syndrome in previously nonpsychiatrically ill humans that is similar to schizophrenia, and it can worsen the psychotic symptoms in people who have a schizophrenic or other psychotic illness.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders: eMedicine Psychiatry 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[15]

History and medicinal use

.PCP was first synthesized in 1926, and later tested after World War II as a surgical anesthetic.^ PCP was first synthesized in 1926, and later tested after World War II as a surgical anesthetic.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phencyclidine, also known as PCP or Angel Dust, is a hallucinogen that was first marketed as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950s.
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]
  • THC Device - Marijuana Drug Test - Drug Screen Test Device - pot - weed testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.thcdevice.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Use Drug Tests - Instructions for drug test - drug testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC howtousedrugtests.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ecstasy Drug Screen - MDMA drug test - Ecstasy Drug Testing, rave, club drug 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasydrugscreen.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DOA Tests - Drug of Abuse Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.doatests.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Barbiturates Test - Barbiturates Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC barbituratestest.com [Source type: Academic]
  • UA Testing - UA Drug Tests - Urine Drug Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC uatesting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Specific Gravity Test - Urine Specific Gravity Testing Analysis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC specific-gravity-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Urine Dip Drug Test - Urine Dip Strip 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC urinedip.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How Drug Testing Works - Drug Test Instructions - Instructions for drug test - drug testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC howdrugtestingworks.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Pass Urine Test - Pass Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC how-to-pass-urine-test.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HISTORY Phencyclidine (PCP) was synthesized by the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company and initially patented in 1958 as an intravenous general anesthetic (Sernyl).
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Because of its adverse side effects, such as hallucinations, mania, delirium, and disorientation, it was shelved until the 1950s.^ Because of its adverse side effects, such as hallucinations, mania, delirium, and disorientation, it was shelved until the 1950s.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1953, it was patented by Parke-Davis and named Sernyl (referring to serenity), but was withdrawn from the market two years later because of side-effects.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical testing as an anesthetic revealed disturbing behavioral side effects during postoperative emergence, including dysphoria, confusion, delirium, and psychosis ( 8 , 51 , 66 ).
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1953, it was patented by Parke-Davis and named Sernyl (referring to serenity), but was withdrawn from the market two years later because of side-effects.^ In 1953, it was patented by Parke-Davis and named Sernyl (referring to serenity), but was withdrawn from the market two years later because of side-effects.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HISTORY Phencyclidine (PCP) was synthesized by the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company and initially patented in 1958 as an intravenous general anesthetic (Sernyl).
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of these adverse effects, Parke-Davis discontinued all human testing in 1965.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was renamed Sernylan in 1967, and marketed as a veterinary anesthetic, but again discontinued.^ It was renamed Sernylan in 1967, and marketed as a veterinary anesthetic, but again discontinued.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This research stopped when clinical trials were terminated in 1965, although PCP was later marketed for a time as a veterinary anesthetic ( 86 ).
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in 1967, phencyclidine became commercially available as a veterinary anesthetic (Sernylan).
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Its side effects and long half-life in the human body made it unsuitable for medical applications.^ Its side effects and long half-life in the human body made it unsuitable for medical applications.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long term side effects may include depression or even a loss of short term memory.
  • Passages Guide to Identifying & Recognizing Illegal Drugs - Passages Malibu Drug Rehab & Alcohol Rehab Addiction Treatment Cure Center 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.passagesmalibu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All NMDA antagonists tested to date that act at the PCP site in the channel are very likely to produce PCP-like side effects in humans.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

.When smoked, some of it is broken down by heat into 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (PC) and piperidine.^ When smoked, some of it is broken down by heat into 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (PC) and piperidine.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP is retained in fatty tissue and is broken down by the human metabolism into PCHP, PPC and PCAA. .
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inhalation introduces a new set of compounds by pyrolysis of PCP to 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (PC) and piperidine, which then undergo their own oxidative metabolism ( 41 ).
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

Conversion of PCP into PC and piperidine by heat. (Image in the PD)

Recreational use

Illicit PCP seized by the DEA in several forms.
.PCP comes in both powder and liquid forms (PCP base is dissolved most often in ether), but typically it is sprayed onto leafy material such as cannabis, mint, oregano, parsley, or ginger leaves, then smoked.^ PCP usually comes as a white powder but can also come as a liquid or in a pill.

^ PCP comes in both powder and liquid forms (PCP base is dissolved most often in ether), but typically it is sprayed onto leafy material such as marijuana, mint, oregano, parsley, or ginger leaves, then smoked.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For smoking, PCP is often applied to a leafy material such as mint, parsley, oregano, or marijuana.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PCP (Phencyclidine) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

.PCP is a Schedule II substance in the United States, a List II drug of the Opium Law in the Netherlands and a Class A substance in the United Kingdom.^ Amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance available by prescription (Dexedrine) and is also available on the illicit market.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]
  • THC Device - Marijuana Drug Test - Drug Screen Test Device - pot - weed testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.thcdevice.com [Source type: Academic]
  • E Z Drug Test - E Z Cup - E Z Split Drug Cup 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ezdrugtest.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Use Drug Tests - Instructions for drug test - drug testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC howtousedrugtests.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ecstasy Drug Screen - MDMA drug test - Ecstasy Drug Testing, rave, club drug 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasydrugscreen.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DOA Tests - Drug of Abuse Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.doatests.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Barbiturates Test - Barbiturates Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC barbituratestest.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Specific Gravity Test - Urine Specific Gravity Testing Analysis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC specific-gravity-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Urine Dip Drug Test - Urine Dip Strip 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC urinedip.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How Drug Testing Works - Drug Test Instructions - Instructions for drug test - drug testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC howdrugtestingworks.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Pass Urine Test - Pass Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC how-to-pass-urine-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pass Marijuana Drug Test - Marijuana Detox 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC pass-marijuana-drug-test.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of all drugs in Canada, including PCP, is similar to use in the United States, except that the relative percentages are usually smaller there.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders: eMedicine Psychiatry 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Judicial law clerk to the Honorable Howard T. Snyder, United States Magistrate Judge, United States District Court, Middle District of Florida.
  • July - September 2007 News 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC www.pcpbar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Method of absorption

.The term "embalming fluid" is often used to refer to the liquid PCP in which a cigarette is dipped, to be ingested through smoking, commonly known as "boat" or "water."^ Smoking PCP is known as "getting wet."
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "embalming fluid" is often used to refer to the liquid PCP in which a cigarette or joint is dipped, to be ingested through smoking, commonly known as "boat" or "water."
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP comes in both powder and liquid forms (PCP base is dissolved most often in ether), but typically it is sprayed onto leafy material such as marijuana, mint, oregano, parsley, or ginger leaves, then smoked.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.The name most likely originated from PCP's somatic "numbing" effect and the feeling of physical dissociation from the body, and has led to the widespread (mistaken) belief that the liquid is made up of or contains real embalming fluid.^ The slang term "embalming fluid" likely originated from PCP's somatic "numbing" effect and the feeling of physical dissociation from the body.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A paradox of PCP is that it does produce a energizing, numbing, consciousness-altering effect which the patient perceives as antidepressant.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Burn patients do show tolerance to the analgesic effects of ketamine, and up to fourfold tolerance to PCP's behavioral/psychological effects has been reported anecdotally in some abusers ( 1 , 8 ).
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Smoking actual formaldehyde will cause intoxication, but may cause serious adverse health consequences above and beyond those of consuming PCP, due to the toxicity of formaldehyde and other embalming chemicals.^ What other adverse effects do hallucinogens have on health?

^ Other Adverse Effects of PCP (phencyclidine) on Health .
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Smoking actual formaldehyde will cause intoxication, but may cause serious health consequences beyond those of consuming PCP, due to the toxicity of formaldehyde and other embalming chemicals.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

Smoking PCP is known as "getting wet", and a tobacco or cannabis cigarette dipped in PCP may be referred to on the street as a "sherm stick," "sherm," "fry stick," "amp," "toe tag", "dippa", "happy stick," or "wet stick." "Getting wet" is an increasingly popular method of using PCP, especially in the western United States where its is sold for about $10 to $25 per cigarette.
.In its pure (base) form, PCP is a yellow oil (usually dissolved in petroleum or diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran).^ In its pure (base) form, PCP is a yellow oil (usually dissolved in petroleum or diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran).
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP comes in both powder and liquid forms (PCP base is dissolved most often in ether), but typically it is sprayed onto leafy material such as marijuana, mint, oregano, parsley, or ginger leaves, then smoked.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Upon treatment with hydrogen chloride gas, or isopropyl alcohol saturated with HCl, this oil precipitates into white-tan crystals or powder (PCP hydrochloride) In this form, PCP can be insufflated, depending upon the purity.^ Treatment of PCP abuse/dependence.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PCP (Phencyclidine) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Upon treatment with hydrogen chloride gas, or HCL saturated isopropyl alcohol, this oil precipitates into white - tan crystals or powder (PCP hydrochloride) In this form, PCP can be insufflated, depending upon the purity.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, most PCP on the illicit market contains a number of contaminants as a result of makeshift manufacturing, causing the color to range from tan to brown, and the consistency to range from powder to a gummy mass.^ In its pure form, PCP is a white crystalline powder that readily dissolves in water; however, most PCP on the street contains a number of contaminates causing the color to range from tan to brown, with a consistency ranging from powder to a gummy mass.PCP is most commonly sold as a powder or liquid.PCP may also come in tablet or capsule form.
  • Hip Hop Artists Against Drugs on MySpace Films - New Films & Documentaries 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ However, most PCP on the illicit market contains a number of contaminants as a result of makeshift manufacturing, causing the color to range from tan to brown, and the consistency to range from powder to a gummy mass.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP is most commonly sold as a powder or liquid, and applied to a leafy material such as oregano, parsley, mint, or marijuana and then smoked.
  • Hip Hop Artists Against Drugs on MySpace Films - New Films & Documentaries 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

.These contaminants can range from unreacted piperidine and other precursors, to carcinogens like benzene and cyanide-like compounds such as PCC (piperidinocyclohexyl carbonitrile).^ These contaminants can range from unreacted piperidine and other precursors, to carcinogens like benzene and cyanide - like compounds such as PCC (piperidinocyclohexyl carbonitrile).
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In animals trained to discriminate PCP or another PCP-like drug such as ketamine, drugs from other classes, including stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens, fail to fully substitute ( 3 ).
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These compounds also produce a behavioral syndrome with phencyclidine-like effects.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

Effects

.Behavioural effects can vary by dosage.^ Behavioural effects can vary by dosage.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Small doses produce a numbness in the extremities and intoxication, characterized by staggering, unsteady gait, slurred speech, bloodshot eyes, and loss of balance.^ Small doses produce a numbness in the extremities and intoxication, characterized by staggering, unsteady gait, slurred speech, bloodshot eyes, and loss of balance.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other effects of barbiturate intoxication include drowsiness, lateral and vertical nystagmus, slurred speech and ataxia, decreased anxiety, a loss of inhibitions.
  • Barbiturates Test - Barbiturates Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC barbituratestest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At high doses, anesthesia, blurred vision, flicking up and down of the eyes, loss of balance, drooling and dizziness may occur.
  • Illinios Teratogen Information Service » Archive » The Effects of Hallucinogen Use During Pregnancy 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.fetal-exposure.org [Source type: Academic]

.Moderate doses (5–10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia.^ Moderate doses (5-10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dependence on PCP occurred after drug regimens requiring as little as 10 days of PCP infusion at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/hr.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NPC 12626 dose-dependently substituted for the training dose with an ED50 of 9.5 mg/kg.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

.High doses may lead to convulsions.^ High doses may lead to convulsions.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Large dose of morphine can produce higher tolerance levels, physiological dependency in users, and may lead to substance abuse.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]
  • THC Device - Marijuana Drug Test - Drug Screen Test Device - pot - weed testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.thcdevice.com [Source type: Academic]
  • E Z Drug Test - E Z Cup - E Z Split Drug Cup 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ezdrugtest.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Use Drug Tests - Instructions for drug test - drug testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC howtousedrugtests.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ecstasy Drug Screen - MDMA drug test - Ecstasy Drug Testing, rave, club drug 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC ecstasydrugscreen.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Barbiturates Test - Barbiturates Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC barbituratestest.com [Source type: Academic]
  • UA Testing - UA Drug Tests - Urine Drug Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC uatesting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Specific Gravity Test - Urine Specific Gravity Testing Analysis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC specific-gravity-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Urine Dip Drug Test - Urine Dip Strip 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC urinedip.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How To Pass Urine Test - Pass Drug Test 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC how-to-pass-urine-test.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pass Marijuana Drug Test - Marijuana Detox 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC pass-marijuana-drug-test.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All of the compounds except ketamine induced convulsions at high doses.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.Psychological effects include severe changes in body image, loss of ego boundaries, and depersonalization.^ Psychological effects include severe changes in body image, loss of ego boundaries, and depersonalization.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long term side effects may include depression or even a loss of short term memory.
  • Passages Guide to Identifying & Recognizing Illegal Drugs - Passages Malibu Drug Rehab & Alcohol Rehab Addiction Treatment Cure Center 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.passagesmalibu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychological effects include distinct changes in body awareness, similar to those associated with alcohol intoxication.
  • pcp (phencyclidine) information by Narconon Arrowhead & ecstasy addiction .com 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.ecstasyaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narconon Arrowhead pcp (phencyclidine) information 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.marijuanaaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hallucinations and euphoria are reported infrequently.^ Hallucinations and euphoria are reported infrequently.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.The drug has been known to alter mood states in an unpredictable fashion, causing some individuals to become detached, and others to become animated.^ The drug has been known to alter mood states in an unpredictable fashion, causing some individuals to become detached, and others to become animated.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana is also known as the “gateway drug”, leading many people to other harder and more addictive drugs down the road.
  • THC Device - Marijuana Drug Test - Drug Screen Test Device - pot - weed testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.thcdevice.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug abuse is a major problem not only in the United States, but around the world and has indeed become a world wide epidemic!
  • UA Testing - UA Drug Tests - Urine Drug Testing 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC uatesting.com [Source type: Academic]

.Intoxicated individuals may act in an unpredictable fashion, possibly driven by their delusions and hallucinations.^ Intoxicated individuals may act in an unpredictable fashion, driven by their delusions and hallucinations.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The drug has been known to alter mood states in an unpredictable fashion, causing some individuals to become detached, and others to become animated.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Included in the portfolio of behavioral disturbances are acts of self-injury including suicide, and attacks on others or destruction of property.^ Included in the portfolio of behavioral disturbances are acts of self-injury including suicide, and attacks on others or destruction of property.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical testing as an anesthetic revealed disturbing behavioral side effects during postoperative emergence, including dysphoria, confusion, delirium, and psychosis ( 8 , 51 , 66 ).
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Self- injurious behavior is one of the devastating effects of Phencyclidine.

.The analgesic properties of the drug can cause users to feel less pain, and persist in violent or injurious acts as a result.^ The analgesic properties of the drug can cause users to feel less pain, and persist in violent or injurious acts as a result.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of adulterants can cause false negative results in drug tests by either interfering with the screening test and/ or destroying the drugs present in the urine.
  • Specific Gravity Test - Urine Specific Gravity Testing Analysis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC specific-gravity-test.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Included in the portfolio of behavioral disturbances are acts of self-injury including suicide, and attacks on others or destruction of property.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recreational doses of the drug can also induce a psychotic state that resembles schizophrenic episodes which can last for months at a time with toxic doses.^ Recreational doses of the drug can also induce a psychotic state that resembles schizophrenic episodes which can last for months at a time with toxic doses.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The "length of time" (days, weeks, months) of your consistent drug use (prior to your drug test).
  • Drug Detection Window - How long do drugs stay in your system? - Drug Detection Times 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.drugdetectionwindow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second and third patients responded to four and nine ECTs respectively while the last patient refused ECT and was discharged from the hospital in a psychotic state.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Phencyclidine Intoxication 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Users generally report an "out-of-body" experience where they feel detached from reality, or one's consciousness seems somewhat disconnected from consensus reality.^ Users generally report an "out-of-body" experience where they feel detached from reality, or one's consciousness seems somewhat disconnected from consensus reality.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP is a sympathomimetic dissociative anesthetic — dissociative means that the user feels that his or her mind is separated from the body.
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders: eMedicine Psychiatry 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One major finding is that in five studies, UW-Madison researchers did not show that they tried to find an alternative to painful experiments on animals.” .
  • Even citizen reporters lose perspective « The Sconz 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC thesconz.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms are summarized by the mnemonic device RED DANES: rage, erythema (redness of skin), dilated pupils, delusions, amnesia, nystagmus (oscillation of the eyeball when moving laterally), excitation, and skin dryness.^ Symptoms are summarized by the mnemonic device RED DANES: rage, erythema (redness of skin), dilated pupils, delusions, amnesia, nystagmus (oscillation of the eyeball when moving laterally), excitation, and skin dryness.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

[17]

Controversy

The American rapper Big Lurch was convicted of murdering an acquaintance and eating her lungs while on PCP.[18]
.In April 2009, 34-year-old Angel Vidal Mendoza Sr.^ In April 2009, a man in Bakersfield bit out his 4-year-old son's eye, and severely damaged the other, before attempting to chop off his own legs with an axe while under the influence of PCP. .
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

bit out his .4-year-old son's eye, and severely damaged the other, while on PCP, before attempting to chop off his own legs with an axe.^ In April 2009, a man in Bakersfield bit out his 4-year-old son's eye, and severely damaged the other, before attempting to chop off his own legs with an axe while under the influence of PCP. .
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This mailing list was running on the computer system of SUNY Binghamton, where our list administrator, Cliff Joslyn, worked several years ago when PCP was started.
  • PCP-news digest 1998-2000 18 September 2009 10:17 UTC pcp.lanl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adam, a 17-year-old white high school senior, had severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that had begun at age 8.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]
.In December 2009, a 23-year-old Indian woman, Meha Bahuguna, allegedly died after consuming an overdose of PCP at Sunburn, a music festival held in Goa.^ In April 2009, a man in Bakersfield bit out his 4-year-old son's eye, and severely damaged the other, before attempting to chop off his own legs with an axe while under the influence of PCP. .
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Concentrations of PCP that produced near-maximum contractile responses on cerebral arteries were similar to those in the blood and brain of human Ss who had died from PCP overdoses.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[20][21]

Management of intoxication

.Management of phencyclidine intoxication mostly consists of supportive care — controlling breathing, circulation, and body temperature — and, in the early stages, treating psychiatric symptoms.^ Management of phencyclidine intoxication mostly consists of supportive care—controlling breathing, circulation, and body temperature—and, in the early stages, treating psychiatric symptoms.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical management of phencyclidine intoxication is outlined.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychiatric symptoms from use of marihuana, opiates, sedative-hypnotics, amphetamines and other stimulants, phencyclidine, and LSD are described.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[22][23][24] .Benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam, are the drugs of choice to control agitation and seizures (when present).^ Benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam, are the drugs of choice to control agitation and seizures (when present).
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Occasionally, benzodiazepines are used to control extreme agitation or seizures.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific variables in use at the present time include drug-induced stimulus control, radial maze acquisition and performance, and conditioned place preference and aversion.

.Typical antipsychotics such as phenothiazines and haloperidol have been used to control psychotic symptoms, but may produce many undesirable side effects — such as dystonia — and their use is therefore no longer preferred; phenothiazines are particularly risky, as they may lower the seizure threshold, worsen hyperthermia, and boost the anticholinergic effects of PCP.[22][23] If an antipsychotic is given, intramuscular haloperidol has been recommended.^ Typical antipsychotics such as phenothiazines and haloperidol have been used to control psychotic symptoms, but may produce many undesirable side effects—such as dystonia—and their use is therefore no longer preferred; phenothiazines are particularly risky, as they may lower the seizure threshold, worsen hyperthermia, and boost the anticholinergic effects of PCP. If an antipsychotic is given, intramuscular haloperidol has been recommended.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These compounds were never widely-used and did not seem to be as well-accepted by users as PCP itself, however they were all added onto Schedule I of the Controlled Substance Act because of their putative similar effects.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists Counteract Sensorimotor Gating Deficits in the Phencyclidine Model of Psychosis 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[24][25][26]
.Forced acid diuresis (with ammonium chloride or, more safely, ascorbic acid) may increase clearance of PCP from the body, and was somewhat controversially recommended in the past as a decontamination measure.^ Glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens also increased in response to PCP. This effect was more variable and shorter in duration than the effect seen in the prefrontal cortex.
  • Corticolimbic Dopamine Neurotransmission Is Temporally Dissociated from the Cognitive and Locomotor Effects of Phencyclidine -- Adams and Moghaddam 18 (14): 5545 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP produced a significant increase in glutamate levels relative to preinjection values ( p   < 0.05, using ANOVA with time as the repeated measures).
  • Corticolimbic Dopamine Neurotransmission Is Temporally Dissociated from the Cognitive and Locomotor Effects of Phencyclidine -- Adams and Moghaddam 18 (14): 5545 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP increased dopamine and glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, as measured by microdialysis.
  • Corticolimbic Dopamine Neurotransmission Is Temporally Dissociated from the Cognitive and Locomotor Effects of Phencyclidine -- Adams and Moghaddam 18 (14): 5545 -- Journal of Neuroscience 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[22][23][24] .However, it is now known that only around 10% of a dose of PCP is removed by the kidneys, which would make increased urinary clearance of little consequence; furthermore, urinary acidification is dangerous, as it may induce acidosis and worsen rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown), which is not an unusual manifestation of PCP toxicity.^ However, it is now known that only around 10% of a dose of PCP is removed by the kidneys, which would make increased urinary clearance of little consequence; furthermore, urinary acidification is dangerous, as it may induce acidosis and worsen rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown), which is not an unusual manifestation of PCP toxicity.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Forced acid diuresis (with ammonium chloride or, more safely, ascorbic acid) may increase clearance of PCP from the body, and was somewhat controversially recommended in the past as a decontamination measure.
  • Drug PCP - Phencyclidine Information, Use, Testing and Treatment 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC drug-pcp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dependence on PCP occurred after drug regimens requiring as little as 10 days of PCP infusion at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/hr.
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Psychedelic Abstracts Online 16 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

[22][23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Maisto, Stephen A.; Mark Galizio, Gerard Joseph Connors (2004). Drug Use and Abuse. Thompson Wadsworth. ISBN 0155085174. 
  2. ^ Development of PCP
  3. ^ Drugs and Behavior, 4th Edition, McKim, William A., ISBN 0-13-083146-8
  4. ^ Kapur, S. and P. Seeman. "NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and PCP have direct effects on the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2receptors¾implications for models of schizophrenia" Molecular Psychiatry. 7(8): 837–844 (2002)
  5. ^ Giannini AJ, Nageotte C, Loiselle RH, Malone DA, Price WA (1984). "Comparison of chlorpromazine, haloperidol and pimozide in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis: DA-2 receptor specificity". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology 22 (6): 573–9. doi:10.3109/15563658408992586. PMID 6535849. 
  6. ^ Castellani S, Giannini AJ, Adams PM (1982). "Effects of naloxone, metenkephalin, and morphine on phencyclidine-induced behavior in the rat". Psychopharmacology 78 (1): 76–80. doi:10.1007/BF00470593. PMID 6815700. 
  7. ^ PCP synthesis and effects: table of contents
  8. ^ Itzhak Y, Kalir A, Weissman BA, Cohen S. New analgesic drugs derived from phencyclidine. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 1981; 24(5):496–499
  9. ^ Chaudieu I, Vignon J, Chicheportiche M, Kamenka JM, Trouiller G, Chicheportiche R. Role of the aromatic group in the inhibition of phencyclidine binding and dopamine uptake by PCP analogs. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1989 Mar;32(3):699–705.
  10. ^ Olney J, Labruyere J, Price M (1989). "Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs". Science 244 (4910): 1360–2. doi:10.1126/science.2660263. PMID 2660263. 
  11. ^ Hargreaves R, Hill R, Iversen L (1994). "Neuroprotective NMDA antagonists: the controversy over their potential for adverse effects on cortical neuronal morphology". Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 60: 15–9. PMID 7976530. 
  12. ^ Jansen, Karl. Ketamine: Dreams and Realities. MAPS, 2004. ISBN 0966001974
  13. ^ Erowid DXM Vault : Response to "The Bad News Isn't In": Please Pass The Crow, by William E. White
  14. ^ Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Susan M. Cochran, Brian J. Morris, Judith A. Pratt and Gavin P. Reynolds (March 1, 2005). "Chronic phencyclidine administration induces schizophrenia-like changes in N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in rat brain". Schizophrenia Research 73 (2-3): 147–152. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.02.003. PMID 15653257. 
  15. ^ Murray JB (May 2002). "Phencyclidine (PCP): a dangerous drug, but useful in schizophrenia research". J Psychol 136 (3): 319–27. PMID 12206280. 
  16. ^ a b Diaz, Jaime. How Drugs Influence Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1996.
  17. ^ AJ Giannini. Drugs of Abuse--Second Edition. Los Angeles, Practice Management Information Corp.,1997,pg. 126. ISBN 1-57066-053-0.
  18. ^ "Big Lurch Ate His Girlfriend" (video). Liveleak. 18 Feb 2008. http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=b08_1203391329. Retrieved 16 Sept 2009. 
  19. ^ "Bakersfield dad accused of biting out son's eye". May 15, 2009. http://www.bakersfield.com/news/local/x339729128/Bakersfield-dad-accused-of-biting-out-sons-eye. 
  20. ^ http://ibnlive.in.com/news/girl-dies-of-alleged-drug-overdose-at-goa-music-fest/108009-3.html
  21. ^ Siyasat: Girl dies of alleged drug overdose at Goa
  22. ^ a b c d Helman RS, Habal R (October 6, 2008). "Phencyclidine Toxicity". eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC1813.HTM.  Retrieved on November 3, 2008.
  23. ^ a b c d Olmedo R (2002). "Chapter 69: Phencyclidine and ketamine". in Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (eds.). Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1034–41. ISBN 0-07-136001-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=HVYyRsuUEc0C&pg=PA1041.  Retrieved on November 3, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  24. ^ a b c Milhorn HT (April 1991). "Diagnosis and management of phencyclidine intoxication". American Family Physician 43 (4): 1293–302. PMID 2008817. 
  25. ^ Giannini AJ. Price WA. PCP: Management of acute intoxication. Medical Times. 1985;113(9):43-49
  26. ^ Giannini AJ, Eighan MS, Loiselle RH, Giannini MC (April 1984). "Comparison of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24 (4): 202–4. PMID 6725621. http://jcp.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6725621. 

External links


Simple English

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Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), shortened as PCP, is a dissociative drug that gives the user hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. It is commonly known as Angel Dust. The drug used to be used as an anesthetic.

PCP is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol. PCP or Angel Dust goes by names on the street such as angel hair, angel mist, aurora borealis, black whack, crystal, cyclones, devil dust, dummy dust, embalming fluid, hallucinogen, horse tranquilizer, jet fuel, magic dust, rocket fuel, or star dust. It is sometimes mixed with marijuana and referred to as Love Boat or Killer Weed, and it can even be mixed with crack, which is known as Space Basing. PCP/Angel Dust was created after WWII as a surgical anesthetic. It was efficient, but the side effects were brutal hallucinations, jumbled speech, and delirium. Around the mid-to-late 1960s, the drug sprang up on the streets of San Francisco as a "Peace Pill." It did not take long for word to spread that Angel Dust had generated many unpleasant experiences. Once it was realized that it was a very dangerous drug, its use died out before the 1970’s where its uses began to become more frequent in New York. Even though it spread quickly in New York it was the same as before, its use died out. “Legal use of the drug has been discontinued and it is no longer legally manufactured in the U.S., because of its effects.

The effects of PCP can be very unpredictable. It can affect the central nervous system, by causing it to create states of euphoria, loss of inhibitions, anxiety, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, or disorganized thinking. Other effects can also be distorted time, space, and body sensations, feelings of weightlessness, paranoia, and the feeling of being disassociated with the environment. Audial and visual hallucinations are common as well when using Angel Dust. The drug raises the heart rate and blood pressure in your body. External effects include but are not limited to: excess salivation, sweating, numbness, staggering, slurred speech, fever, and muscle rigidity.

PCP can be eaten, snorted, injected or smoked. There are Low, Medium, and High Doses of PCP\Angel Dust, which determine what kinds of effects you have. Low doses causes you to have feelings of euphoria (well-being), relaxation, numbness, sensory distortions, feelings of detachment from one's own body, anxiety, confusion, amnesia, illogical speech, blurred vision, blank stare. Medium doses can cause confusion, agitation, analgesia, fever, excessive salivation, "schizophrenic-type" behavior, while High doses can cause seizures, respiratory failure, coma, fever, stroke, or death. A physiological or psychological dependence might occur, and bring forth withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, chills, and tremors. PCP affects multiple neurotransmitter systems in the brain. For example, PCP inhibits the obliteration of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, serotonin, and also some types of opioid receptors in the brain. It also inhibits the action of glutamate by blocking NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) receptors. Prescription drugs like Diazepam, haloperidol, and phentolamine may be used to help relieve some of the effects of Angel Dust/PCP.


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Up to date as of December 22, 2010

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