Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas
Philippine Army Emblem
|Founded||March 22, 1897|
|Country||Republic of the Philippines|
|Size||approximately 113,500 regular
approximately 120,000 reserve
|Part of||Armed Forces of the Philippines|
|Garrison/HQ||Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City, Metro Manila|
|Motto||"At your service, across the land"|
World War II
Persian Gulf War
|Commander of the Philippine Army||LG REYNALDO B MAPAGU AFP|
The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Its official name in Filipino is Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas. As of 2008, General Hermogenes Esperon Jr. served as Chief of Staff of the AFP. Lieutenant General Victor Ibrado replaced Lieutenant General Alexander Yano, former commanding general of the Philippine Army, who took over from Hermogenes Esperon on May 12, 2008. Ibrado is the former chief of the Armed Forces Central Command (Centcom), Visayas. On April 30, 2009 President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appointed Lt. Gen. Delfin N. Bangit as the new commanding general to succeed Lt. Gen. Victor Ibrado who became the 39th chief of staff of armed forces.
The Philippine Army does not have a strong collective military tradition. In earlier times, Spain and the United States had been ruling the Philippine Islands. Neither allowed the Filipino troops to gain control of responsibility.
After the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth on November 15, 1935, President Manuel L. Quezon sought the services of General Douglas MacArthur to evolve a national defense plan. The official birth of the Philippine Army occurred with the passage of Commonwealth Act No. 1, approved on December 21, 1935, which effected the organization of a Council of National Defense and an Army of the Philippines. The act set forth the organizational structure of the army in some detail, set forth enlistment procedures, and established mobilization procedures. The act specified that in so far as may be practicable, original appointments by the President in grades above third lieutenant shall be made from among those formerly holding Reserve Commissions in the United States Army, from among former officers of the Philippine Scouts and Constabulary, from among former officers of the National Guard and from such others who possess exceptional ability or special training and skill.
A decade later, with the threat of war with Japan imminent, on 1941-07-26, a new U.S. command in the Far East was created, known as the United States Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). On the same date, President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, issued Presidential Order (6 Fed. Reg. 3825) which called the Philippine Commonwealth Army into the service of the Armed Forces of the United States. With an annual appropriation of 16 million pesos, it trained new Filipino members in defending the nation and protecting its people.
The Presidential Order of July 26, 1941 did not order all the military forces of the Philippine government into the service of the United States Armed Forces. Only those units and personnel indicated in orders issued by a general officer of the United States Army were mobilized and made an integral part of the United States Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). Only those members of a unit who physically reported for duty were inducted. (Inductions were not automatic, nor were personnel inducted into the Army of the United States) .
When World War II broke out in 1941, two regular and ten reserve divisions of the Philippine Army undertook the defense of the Philippines. These divisions were incorporated into the United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. The equipment of these units included: Canon de 155mm GPF; 75 mm Gun M1917; 2.95 inch QF Mountain gun; Stokes Mortar; Brandt mle 27/31; M2 Browning machine gun; M1917 Browning machine gun; M1919 Browning machine gun; M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle; M1917 Enfield rifle; M1903 Springfield rifle; Thompson submachine gun; and the M1911 pistol.
After the surrender of the Filipino and American forces in the Philippines in May 1942, independent guerrilla groups, composed of both civilian and military personnel, began to form throughout the Islands. Many of these groups worked under the control of General Douglas MacArthur's General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area. A recognized military force is defined as a force under a commander who has been appointed, designated or recognized by a general officer of the United States Army.
Service of the Philippine Commonwealth Army in the service of the United States Armed Forces terminated as of midnight, 1947-06-30, by authority of General Order #168, Army Forces Western Pacific.
After the war, four military areas were activated to take the place of military districts. The Armed Forces was reorganized which gave birth to the four major services of the Armed Forces.
Headquarters National Defense Forces was renamed General Headquarters Armed Forces of the Philippines.
In the early fifties and the mid-sixties, the Philippine government extended a helping hand to war-torn countries as part of its commitment as member of the United Nations. The army spared five battalions which comprised the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea (PEFTOK) to fulfill its pledge to uphold the struggle for democracy. The Philippine Civic Action Group to Vietnam (PhilCAGV) was sent to South Vietnam on a mission of peace, where army engineers helped build communities and army doctors and nurses provided medical services to the people.
Under the leadership of Brigadier General Leoncio S. Tan the Philippine Army established its separate headquarters on July 10, 1957. The onset of the sixties ushered an expansion of the army's roles, which include participation in the socio-economic programs of the country, among others.
To achieve greater flexibility and effectiveness, infantry divisions took the place of the military areas in the seventies. On September 21, 1972, the Martial Law era began. During the decade, military operations supported by civic action blocked the escalation of insurgency.
The onset of the eighties saw the birth of the Special Operations Team (SOT) strategy which is aimed to isolate the insurgents from the civilian population, and dismantle the communist political organizations, neutralizing and denying them control of barangays all over the country.
Aside from counterinsurgency campaigns, the SOT plays an additional role in national development. Together with local government officials, SOT identifies problems and helps provide assistance in areas that lack needed vital facilities and service like roads, bridges, schools, health and sanitation, livelihood, etc. Because of its effectiveness in quelling insurgency, this strategy is being adopted not only by the Army but by the entire Armed Forces of the Philippines.
|FV101 Scorpion CVR(T) - 42 units received.|
|Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle IFV - 45 units received|
|M113 APC - Received over 100 units. At least one unit has been modified with the addition of a turret from a Scorpion CVR(T) to act as a fire support vehicle, while some vehicles have been provided with ACAV sets.|
|ACV-300 APC - Received 6 units, commissioned January 2010|
|Armored Recovery Vehicle - based on the AIFV, purchased in 2005 as part of the AFP modernization program.|
|FV104 Samaritan - Ambulance - 6 units received|
|FV106 Samson - Amoured Recovery Vehicle - 3 units received|
|GKN Simba APC- 150 units received|
|V-100/V-150 Commando APC - 150 units received|
|M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck|
|Mitsubishi Fuso Fighter FK Series|
|Delta Mini Cruiser|
|Beechraft 80 Queen Air - 3 units received|
|Cessna 421 Golden Eagle - 2 units received|
|Cessna 206 Super Skylane - 2 units received|
|Cessna 172 Skyhawk - 1 units received|
|Polaris Motor SRL - 2 units received|
|M114 155 mm howitzer - 12 units received|
|M30 107 mm Mortar|
|OTO Melara Mod 56|
|M40 recoilless rifle|
|M67 recoilless rifle|
|M20 recoilless rifle|
|Light Infantry Weapons|
|M16 Rifle- Assault Rifle|
|M4 Carbine- Assault Carbine|
|M14 Rifle- Assault Rifle|
|CAR15- Assault Rifle|
|Steyr AUG - Assault Rifle|
|Heckler & Koch MP5 - Submachine Gun|
|Heckler & Koch G36 - Assault Rifle|
|M60- General Purpose Machine Gun|
|Daewoo K3 - Light Machine Gun|
|Ultimax 100 - Light Machine Gun|
|M249 SAW - Light Machine Gun|
|M21- Sniper Weapon System|
|M203- Rifle-mounted Grenade Launcher|
|M79- Standalone Grenade Launcher|
|Barrett M82A1 & M107 - Anti-material Rifle|
|Beretta 92 - Semiautomatic Pistol|
|Benelli M1 Super 90 - Shotgun|
|Benelli M3 - Shotgun|
|M1911 - Semiautomatic Pistol|
|Remington 11-87 - Shotgun|
|Remington 1100 - Shotgun|
The M16A1 is the main rifle of the Philippine Army.
M1911 Main sidearm of the Philippine Army.
M60 machine gun.
M24 rifle Main sniper weapon used by the Philippine Army and Marines.
M-113 Armoured Personal Carrier.
Alvis Scorpion Light Tank.
Humvee widely used by the Philippine Army.
The M151 MUTT jeep is still being widely used by the Philippine Army.
The functions of the Philippine Army are to:
The Philippine Army has several regular units dedicated to counter-insurgency and conventional army operations.
The Philippine Army has a number of units dedicated to special operations. These units report directly to the Philippine Army Special Operations Command