Philippine mythology and folklore include a collection of tales and superstitions about magical creatures and entities. Some Filipinos, even though heavily westernized and Christianized, still believe in such entities. The prevalence of belief in the figures of Philippines mythology is strong in the provinces.
Because the country has many islands and is inhabited by different ethnic groups, Philippine mythology and superstitions are very diverse. However, certain similarities exist among these groups, such as the belief in Heaven (kaluwalhatian, kalangitan, kamurawayan), Hell (impiyerno, kasanaan), and the human soul (kaluluwa).
Philippines mythology is derived from Philippine folk literature, which is the traditional oral literature of the Filipino people. This refers to a wide range of material due to the ethnic mix of the Philippines. Each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell.
While the oral and thus changeable aspect of folk literature is an important defining characteristic, much of this oral tradition had been written into a print format. To point out that folklore in a written form can still be considered folklore, Utely pointed out that folklore "may appear in print, but must not freeze into print." It should be pointed out that all the examples of folk literature cited in this article are taken from print, rather than oral sources.
University of the Philippines professor, Damiana Eugenio, classified Philippines Folk Literature into three major groups: folk narratives, folk speech, and folk songs. Folk narratives can either be in prose: the myth, the alamat (legend), and the kuwentong bayan (folktale), or in verse, as in the case of the folk epic. Folk speech includes the bugtong (riddle) and the salawikain (proverbs). Folk songs that can be sub-classified into those that tell a story (folk ballads) are a relative rarity in Philippine folk literature. These form the bulk of the Philippines' rich heritage of folk songs.
The stories of ancient Philippine mythology include deities, creation stories, mythical creatures, and beliefs. Ancient Philippine mythology varies among the many indigenous tribes of the Philippines. Some groups during the pre-Spanish conquest era believed in a single Supreme Being who created the world and everything in it, while others chose to worship a multitude of tree and forest deities (diwatas). Diwatas came from the Sanskrit word devata which means "deity", one of the several significant Hindu influences in the Pre-Hispanic religion of the ancient Filipinos. Below are some of the gods and goddesses of the various ancient Philippine tribes:
Ancient Tagalog Deities:
Bathala/Batala - the Supereme Being and Creator, also addressed as Maykapal (Meicapal-Creator) or Bathalang Maykapal. Some authorities claim that his name was originated from Sanskrit word “bhatarra” which means “noble or great”. During the Spanish Colonization Bathala was identified by the friars to the Christian God while the anitos who served him were demonized and replaced by saints, he was the only ancient Tagalog deity that was never demonized. The Filipino fatalistic expression “bahala na” which was believed to have been derived from his name and his identification to a mythical omen bird called Tigmamanukin signify his absolute power over fortune, fate or destiny.
Lakampati (Laca Pati/Lacanpate) - also called Ikapati, was a goddess or androgynous deity who presides over the land, agriculture, harvest and agricultural fertility. Ancient Tagalog farmers with their children brought offerings for her at the fields and invoke her to protect them from famine. Her name literally means “giver of food” according to Patricia Telesco author of the book 365 Goddess- A Daily Guide of the Magic and Inspiration of the Goddess. Her syncretization to the Holy Spirit was actually a hoax since the Christianized Tagalogs/Filipinos never practiced this; also Bathala was identified by Spanish friars themselves due to his close characteristics with the Christian God. Lakampati was often called “the hermaphrodite devil” by the friars.
Lakambakod (Lachan Bacor) – the god of the growing crops. His name literally means “great/noble fence”, from Lakan (a title of nobility) + bakod (fence) according to Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles by J.V. Panganiban.
Dimangan – the deity of good harvest identified to Dumanga the deity of the Negritos of Zambales who made the grain grow abundantly.
Idiyanale (Idianale) – the god of animal husbandry and aquaculture (fish farming), he was often mistaken as an agricultural deity.
Amansinaya (Aman Sinaya) – the patron god of fishermen, he was appealed when the fishing net were cast.
Amanikable (Ama ni Caable/Aman Ikabli) – the patron god of hunters, he was often mistaken as a sea deity.
Diyan Masalanta (Dian Masalanta) – The goddess of love and pregnancy, patroness goddess of lovers. Her name literally means “be destroyed there”.
Apolaki (Apolaqui) – the god of the sun, patron god of soldiers and warriors. His parents were Dumakulem and Anagolay, while his sister is Diyan Masalanta. His name literally means “big lord”, from Apo (Lord or a title of eminence) + laki (big). The ancient Ilocanos also worshipped him as their war deity, while the ancient Pangasinenses worshipped him as their supreme deity addressed as Ama-Gaoley (Supreme Father) whom they invoke for various matters such as war, trade and travel.
Mayari (Mayaari) – the goddess of the moon, sister of Hanan. She is identified to Malyari the lunar deity of the ancient Pampanga and chief deity of the Negritos of Zambales whom the “bayoc” (high priest) was the only one allowed to make offerings and sacrifices to him/her. In Tagalog language her name literally means “be made or done”. There is an ancient custom of suitors giving a corsage of sampaguita to the maiden that they were courting, the maiden show the acceptance of their suitor as their lover by wearing the corsage that has been offered to them. Then on the night of full moon the new lovers would pledge their love for each other (the moon as their witness) saying “sumpa kita” hence the name of “sampaguita” has been derived, this custom somewhat linked her to Dian Masalanta.
Lakambini (Lacambui) – An obscure deity often called by the Spaniards as “abogado de la garganta” (the throat advocate). In Noceda-Sanlucar vocabulary Lakambini was describe as the deity of kapurihan (honor/fame?). Lakambini literally means “great/noble dame”, from Lakan (a title of nobility) + bini (dame) according to Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles by J.V. Panganiban. Lakambini became a Filipino word equivalent to English “muse” or “princess”.
Bibit (Vibit) – the deity who was offered food by the people who became sick, for failing to greet the deity before the deity had greeted them. The Filipino word “kuwentong bibit” stories about enchanted or magical beings, was obviously derived from the name of this deity.
Tumanod (Tumano) – according to the Spanish friars this god wanders at night in human habitations and groaned when passing underneath the houses, by striking the floor or throwing ashes and cried out “iri, iri” the people could scare him away being a cowardly devil (ancient Tagalogs would rather placate the anger of evil spirits/deities than exorcising them). His ill-famed reputation was uncertain, however he is obviously identified to a Manuvu god named Tumanud who taught the god Mokotod how to make a clay cooking pot and send him to teach it to humans, for he pitied them for their ways of cooking. His name literally means “to guard”, some Filipino Dictionaries has Tumanog or Timanog which was described as a mischievous and ugly spirit or imp, probably linked (for his ill-famed reputation) but should not be confused with Tumanod.
Lingga (Linga) – the god who was the center of Kasilonawan, a fertility rite and festivity which existed in this generation in Christianized form. He was also said to be invoke to cure diseases. His name was probably derived from Sanskrit linga (pronounced Lin-ga), which means “mark or characteristic”.
Manggagaway (Mangagauay) – the goddess responsible for the occurrence of diseases. She is said to disguise herself as a healer, roaming the countryside not to heal but to induce maladies with her charms. Her name is a Tagalog word for “witch”. In the story of the legendary bandit Manuelito the leader of the Tulisanes, Manggagaway was described as the giver of life and death, she is also the one who gave Manuelito a powerful amulet that renders him invincible and invulnerable.
Mangkukutod (Mancucutor) – the patron god of a particular class of ancient Tagalogs, but the traditions were very obscure. His name was probably from an old Tagalog word with its root word kutod, the Pampangan (a neighboring ethnicity which some of its word similar to the Tagalog especially old Tagalog) kutud/cutud means “slice or chop” and their term “Magkukutud” (a type of demon) is their equivalent to the Tagalog Magtatanggal or Manananggal.
Manganganay- one of 4 agents of Sitan, who kills with a magic wand.
Hayo – the god of the sea, some sources mentioned about Haik (Hayc) as the sea deity of the Tagalogs.
Hanan (Hana) – a morning deity.
Tala – the morning star.
Anitong Tabo (Anitun Tabu) – the deity of the wind and of rain (weather). The name literally means “scoop deity/spirit”, was also identified to Anitong a deity of the Negritos of Zambales who sent them rains and favorable winds.
Lakandaytan – a goddess mentioned in Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles by J.V. Panganiban (see Lakan, unknown page).
Lakandanum – the god of the seas and oceans. Mentioned in Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles by J.V. Panganiban, although it didn’t explain if he is an ancient Tagalog deity or if he is really was a deity (see Lakan, unknown page).
The Tigmamanuquin (Tigmamanukin) – a fairy blue bird, an omen bird identified to Bathala the supreme god.
Maylupa (Meilupa) – a crow/raven (or kite) venerated as the lord of the earth and the agricultural fields, its name literally means “owner of the land”.
The Buaya (Buwaya) – a crocodile/alligator venerated by the ancient Tagalogs and addressed as “nuno” the same address to ancestral spirits which means grandparent, probably because crocodiles or alligators are believed to be connected to the afterworld (because of its association to water). Also the ancient Filipinos used to think that the back of the alligator/crocodile resembles coffin or cadaver carrier.
There are many different creation myths in Philippine mythology, originating from various ethnic groups.
Malakas and Maganda
When the world first began, there was no land, only the sea and the sky, and between them was a crow. One day this bird, which has no where to land, grew tired of flying around, so she stirred up the sea until it threw its waters against the sky. The sky, in order to restrain the sea, showered upon it many islands until it could no longer raise but instead flow back and forth, making a tide. Then the sky ordered the crow to land on one of the islands to build her nest and to leave the sea and the sky in peace. From then on the crow lived peacefully, so as the other birds in islands between the sea and the sky.
Now at this time the land wind and the sea wind were married, and they had a child which was a bamboo. One day when this bamboo was floating beside the seashore when it struck the feet of the crow who was on the beach. Shocked, hurt and angered; the crow hysterically pecked at the bamboo until it split into two section, and out one section came out a man named Malakas (Strong), and from the other a woman named Maganda (Beautiful).
Then the earthquake called on all the birds and fishes to see what should be done with these two, and it was decided that they should marry. Many children were born to the couple, and from them came all the different races of people.
After a while the parents grew very tired of having so many idle and useless children around. They wished to be rid of them, but they knew of no place to send them. Time went on, and the children became so numerous that the parents enjoyed no peace. One day, in desperation, the father seized a stick and began beating them.
This so frightened the children that they fled in different directions, seeking hidden rooms in the house. Some concealed themselves in the walls, some ran outside, others hid in the earthen stove, and several fled to the sea.
Now it happened that those who went into the hidden rooms of the house later became the chiefs of the islands, and those who concealed themselves in the walls became slaves, while those who ran outside were free men. Those who hid in the stove became the dark-skinned and curled haired aetas or negritos. Those who fled to the sea were gone many years, and when their children came back, they were the foreigners.
The Story of Bathala
In the beginning of time there were three powerful gods who lived in the universe. Bathala was the caretaker of the earth, Ulilang Kaluluwa (lit. Orphaned Spirit), a huge serpent who lived in the clouds, and Galang Kaluluwa (lit. Wandering spirit), the winged god who loves to travel. These three gods did not know each other.
Bathala often dreamt of creating mortals but the empty earth stops him from doing so. Ulilang Kaluluwa who was equally lonely as Bathala, liked to visit places and the earth was his favorite. One day the two gods met. Ulilang Kaluluwa, seeing another god rivalling him, was not pleased. He challenged Bathala to a fight to decide who would be the ruler of the universe. After three days and three nights, Ulilang Kaluluwa was slain by Bathala. Instead of giving him a proper burial, Bathala burned the snake's remains. A few years later the third god, Galang Kaluluwa, wandered into Bathala's home. He welcomed the winged god with much kindness and even invited him to live in his kingdom. They became true friends and were very happy for many years.
Galang Kaluluwa became very ill. Before he died he instructed Bathala to bury him on the spot where Ulilang Kaluluwa’s body was burned. Bathala did exactly as he was told. Out of the grave of the two dead gods grew a tall tree with a big round nut, which is the coconut tree. Bathala took the nut and husked it. He noticed that the inner skin was hard. The nut itself reminded him of Galang Kaluluwa’s head. It had two eyes, a flat nose, and a round mouth. Its leaves looked so much like the wings of his dear winged friend. But the trunk was hard and ugly, like the body of his enemy, the snake Ulilang Kaluluwa.
Bathala realized that he was ready to create the creatures he wanted with him on earth. He created the vegetation, animals, and the first man and woman. Bathala built a house for them out of the trunk and leaves of the coconut trees. For food, they drank the coconut juice and ate its delicious white meat. Its leaves, they discovered, were great for making mats, hats, and brooms. Its fiber could be used for rope and many other things.
This is an ancient Visayan account of creation:
A popular Filipino myth is the legend of Maria Makiling, a fairy who lives on Mount Makiling.
Filipinos also believed in mythological creatures. The Aswang is one the most famous of these Philippine mythological creatures. The aswang is a ghoul or vampire, an eater of the dead, and the werewolf. There is also the (Agta) a black tree spirit or man. Filipinos also believed in the Dila (The Tongue), a spirit that passes through the bamboo flooring of provincial houses, then licks certain humans to death. Filipino mythology also have fairies (Diwata and Engkanto), dwarfs (Duwende), Kapre (a tree-residing giant), Manananggal (a self-segmenter), witches (Mangkukulam), spirit-summoners (Mambabarang), goblins (Nuno sa Punso), ghosts (Multo), fireballs (Santelmo), mermaids (Sirena), mermen (Siyokoy), demon-horses (Tikbalang), (Hantu Demon), demon-infants (Tiyanak), and the (Wakwak) a night bird belong to a witch or vampire or the witch or vampire itself in the form of a night bird.
The Philippines has cultural ties with India through the other Indianized kingdoms of Southeast Asia.  Ancient Filipino literature and folklore show the impress of India. The Agusan legend of a man named Manubo Ango, who was turned into stone, resembles the story of Ahalya in the Hindu epic Ramayana. The tale of the Ifugao legendary hero, Balituk, who obtained water from the rock with his arrow, is similar to Arjuna's adventure in Mahabharata, another Hindu epic. The Ramayana have different versions among the many Philippine ethnic groups. The Ilocanos have the story of Lam-Ang. The Darangan, or Mahariada Lawana, is the Maranao version of the Ramayana.