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Philippine revolts against Spain
Date 1567-1872
Location Philippines
Result Most revolts failed
Belligerents
Flag of New Spain.svg Spain
Flag of New Spain.svg Filipino Loyalists
Flag of New Spain.svg Spanish Colonial Loyalists
Flag of Bohol Province, Philippines.svg Dagohoy rebel group
other Filipino rebel groups
United Kingdom British supporters
Commanders
Flag of New Spain.svg Santiago de Vera
Flag of New Spain.svg Francisco de Tello de Guzman
Flag of New Spain.svg other Spanish governor-generals and military commanders
Flag of Bohol Province, Philippines.svg Francisco Dagohoy
other Filipino rebel commanders
The Cross of Burgundy served as the flag of New Spain

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, several revolts occurred that were instigated for a number of reasons. It can be agreed upon that the common underlying cause of these revolts were the generally repressive policies of the Spanish colonial government against native-born Filipinos. Most of these revolts failed however.

At various times during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Chinese population rose in revolt against the Spaniards. These events led to the expulsion of the Chinese from Manila and the entire country by virtue of the decrees that were made by the Spanish authorities to that effect. However, later reconciliations nearly always permitted the continuation of the Chinese community in the city.

Contents

16th century

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Dagami Revolt (1567)

The Dagami Revolt was a revolt against Spanish colonial rule led by the Filipino rebel, Dagami, in the island of Cebu in the Philippines, in 1567.[1]

Manila Revolt (1574)

The Manila Revolt, also known as the Lakandula Revolt, or the Sulayman Revolt, was an uprising in 1574 against Spanish colonial rule led by Rajah Lakandula and Rajah Sulayman, in Manila, in the Philippines. The revolt occurred in the same year when the Chinese pirate, Limahong attacked the palisaded, yet poorly-defended enclosure of Intramuros.

Before the death of Governor-General Miguel López de Legazpi, Lakandula was baptized as Carlos Lacandola, and he and his descendants (along with Sulayman), were justly compensated with exemption from tribute and forced labor, which their families enjoyed until 1884. The Lakandula and Sulayman families also received the exclusive right to keep their family names. Legazpi's successor, however, Governor-General Guido de Lavezaris, sequestered their properties, and even tolerated the abuse and oppression of their people by Spanish encomienderos. With the help of Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, Governor-General Lavezaris was able to quell the rebellion and restore order in Manila.

Pampangos Revolt (1585)

The Pampangos Revolt, or the First Pampangos Revolt, was an uprising in 1585 by native Kapampangan leaders against Spanish landowners, or encomienderos, in the Philippines. It began due to the abuses inflicted by the encomienderos on the natives of Pampanga. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros. However, the conspiracy was foiled before it could even be implemented, after a Filipino woman who was married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and the leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed.

Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587-1588)

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, or the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the kin-related noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga, in the Philippines. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to rise up in arms by anointing their necks with a split egg. The uprising failed when they were betrayed to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.[2]

Revolts Against the Tribute (1589)

The Revolts Against the Tribute occurred in the present-day provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur in 1589. The natives, which included Ilocanos, Ibanags and others, rose in revolt over alleged abuses by tax collectors, including the collection of unjust taxes. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. They were eventually pardoned, and reforms on the Philippine tax system were made.

Magalat Revolt (1596)

The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in the Philippines in 1596, led by Magalat, a Filipino rebel from Cagayan. He had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish, and after he was released on the importunities of some Dominican priests, he returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he incited the whole country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities upon his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged.

The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán, sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men, who apparently had been promised a reward by the Spaniards.[5]

17th century

Igorot Revolt (1601)

The Igorot Revolt was a religious revolt in 1601 against Spanish attempts to Christianize the Igorot people of northern Luzon, in the Philippines. Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, who successfully crushed the Igorot rebellion.[6]

Chinese revolt of 1602

In 1602, the Chinese inhabitants of Manila set fire to Quiapo and Tondo, and for a time threatened to capture Intramuros.

Irraya (GADDANG) Revolt (1621)

(1621) The Irraya revolt came to be because of the cruelty of the Spaniards to the Gaddangs, leading to a revolt under the leadership of Gabriel Dayag and his brother named Felix Cutabay.[7]

Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622)

The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was a religious uprising in the island of Bohol, led by Tamblot in 1621. The Jesuits first came to Bohol in 1596, and eventually governed the island and converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow Boholanos to return to the old native religion of their forefathers.[8]

The revolt began on the day when the Jesuits were in Cebu, celebrating the feast day of St. Francis Xavier. It was finally crushed on New Year's Day, in 1622.

balaw Revolt (1621-1622)

The balaw Revolt was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by balaw, the datu of Kan Gara , in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte.

balaw had warmly received Miguel López de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Christian in his youth, he abandoned his faith in later years. With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess, and pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Similar to the Tamblot Uprising, Pagali used magic to attract followers, and claimed that they could turn the Spaniards into clay by hurling bits of earth at them.

Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo, with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. balaw's severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing squad. Other historical sources/accounts reports The balaw Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign colonization. The (1621-1622) dates may be inaccurate. Carigara was evangelized only a decade after Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising may well have taken place towards the end of 1500s. It is important to note the dagami revolt 1567) actually happened well after the balaw revolt. Carigara was founded more than fifty years before dagami. both towns are in Leyte and is still called Dagami.

Isneg Revolt (1625-1627)

The Isneg Revolt, or the Mandaya Revolt, was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Miguel Lanab and Alababan, two Christianized Filipinos from the Isneg or Mandaya tribe of Capinatan, in northwestern Cagayan, in the Philippines. The region is now part of the landlocked province of Apayao. GAGO ANJANETTEban murdered, beheaded and mutilated two Dominican missionaries, Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao, who were sent by the Spanish colonial government to convert the Isneg people to Christianity. After cutting Father Garcia's body into pieces, they fed his flesh to a herd of pigs. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Isnegs to loot, desecrate Christian images, set fire to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains.

In 1626, Governor-General anjanette de Silva sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to suppress the rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Isnegs, and forced them to surrender in 1627.

Cagayan Revolt (1639)

As a result of the British invasion and the revolutionary propaganda of Silang and Palaris, the flames of rebellion spread to Cagayan. The people of Ilagan proclaimed their independence on February 2, 1763, defying the tribute collectors and Spain. The insurrection spread to Cabagan and Tuguegarao. Under their chieftains named Dabo and Juan Marayac, the rebels committed various acts of violence on the Spanish officials and the friars. But the revolt did not last long, for Don Manuel de Arza and his loyal Filipino troops came and quelled it.The leaders were executed.

Ladia Revolt (1643)

Ladia was a Bornean and a descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643. At that time, the Filipinos were suffering from oppression and he thought that it was about time that they stage an uprising. This was despite the fact that a parish priest tried to convince him not to pursue his plans. Upon his capture, he was brought to Manila where he was executed.

Zambales Revolt (1645)

Pampanga Revolt (1645)

Sumuroy Revolt (1649-50)

In what is today the town of Palapag in Northern Samar, Juan Ponce Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo system being undertaken in Samar. This is known as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Juan Ponce Sumuroy.

The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors, Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar.

The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt. His trusted co conspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of a fierce battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants, one of who was the great great grandfather of current Northern Samar Governor Raul Daza[1].The capture of Dula marked the end of the revolt in its operational center in Northern Samar but the sporadic skirmises and hatred with the Spanish authorities started by Sumuroy and Dula in some parts of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao continues, and pursued by new faces in the rebellion fronts.This is marked as the beginning of the end of the long Spanish rule in the country.

Pintados Revolt (1649-1650)

Zambal Revolt (1660)

Maniago Revolt (1660)

MANIAGO REVOLT (was actually a non-revolt) led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives' protest against the polo and bandala, later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara's cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal.[9]

The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660's. It was a revolt against the Spanish during the colonial period and was named Maniago its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time, Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them. Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards wre busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly depleted by the Kapampangans. Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims. He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there. However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them. Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Manrique de Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the "divide and rule" trick. He began with a "show of force" directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in Mexico, Pampanga. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier revolt in Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of Maniago to revolt against the Spaniards.

Malong Revolt (1660-1661)

This revolt was led by Andres Malong.

The Filipinos revolted against Spanish rule due to the oppressive treatment given them by the Spaniards. One of these revolts was the Malong Revolt. The people were suffering from forced labor and the non-payment of the timber used in the construction of galleons as well as rice and other foodstuffs.

The Malong Revolt was influenced by the Pampanga revolt because the prevailing conditions then at Pampanga and Pangasinan were almost the same. Andres Malong led the People in Pangasinan to take up arms against the Spaniards. The revolt spread throughout the province with great success so that he proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan.

Thousands of Filipinos joined this revolt and Malong was tempted to extend it to Pampanga, Ilocos, and Cagayan. The dispersal of his forces, however, proved to be his undoing. It weakened his own defenses in Pangasinan, enabling the Spaniards to capture him and suppress his revolt before reinforcements could arrive from the other provinces. Malong was subsequently executed.

In the 18th century the people of Binalatongan (now San Carlos City), Pangasinan, took arms demanding the removal of the tribute and the Alcalde-Mayor, Joaquin Gamboa who had been making illegal collections of the tribute. The defeat of the Spaniards in Manila by the British during the Seven Years' War and the occupation of the city by the British, contributed to the outbreak of the revolt.

The realization that the Spaniards could be defeated encouraged the Filipinos, who took advantage of the preoccupation of the Spaniards with their British enemies. But a Spanish force defeated the rebels in Bayambang.

Later, Juan dela Cruz Palaris, a native of Binalatongan, led a renewal of the revolt. It spread throughout the province, especially in the towns of Calasiao, Dagupan,Manaoag, Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Bayambang, Malasiqui, Santa Barbara, and Paniqui. As a concession, the Spanish authorities required the alcalde-mayor of Pangasinan to resign. The people of Pangasinan continued their resistance nonetheless, but were finally defeated in March, 1764. Palaris was captured and hanged. [10]

Almazan Revolt (January 1661)

A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King of Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms ignited the long-nourished ill feelings of the Ilocanos against the unjust practices and atrocities of the Spanish authorities. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan was proclaimed "King of Ilocos".

Unfortunely, before the revolt could spread to other provinces, Almazan was captured and executed.

Chinese revolt of 1662

Fearing an invasion of Chinese leaded by the famous crusader Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila area without the Spaniards intervening to stop the carnage.

Panay Revolt (1663)

The Panay Revolt was a religious uprising in 1663, that stemmed from the prevalent misdemeanors of Spanish friars that alienated countless Filipino natives from the Catholic faith. Tapar a native of the island of Panay, in the Philippines, wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted many followers with his stories about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish against Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. Their corpses were impaled in stakes.

Sambal Revolt (1681-1683)

After suppressing the Malong revolt in Pangasinan, the Spanish moved to exterminate the roots of the rebellion. Chief tumalang fought bitterly, but was captured and converted to Catholicism. The Zambals retaliated by killing Rf. Domingo Perez, a Dominican Friar, after which the Spanish sent additional troops and defeated the rebels.[11]

Tingco plot (1686)

In 1686, a Chinese conspiracy led by Tingco plotted to kill all the Spaniards.

Rivera Revolt (1718)

Magtanĝaga Revolt (1718)

Caragay Revolt (1719)

Dagohoy Rebellion (1744-1829)

In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and some of his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only Philippine revolt completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike the Tamblot Uprising before it, it is not a complete religious rebellion.

After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Ararca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well.

Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao).

Agrarian Revolt (1745-1746)

The Agrarian Revolt was a revolt undertaken between the years 1745 and 1746 in much of the present-day CALABARZON (specifically in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite) and in Bulacan, with its first sparks in the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas. Filipino landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of Spanish friars, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain.

Silang Revolt (1762-63)

Arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history is the Silang Revolt from 1762 to 1763, led by the couple of Diego and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place during the British occupation of the Philippines.

On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of Ilocandia, naming the state "Free Ilocos" and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly-independent state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish.

However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her husband's struggle, earning the title "Joan of Arc of the Ilocanos" because of her many victories in battle. The battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos.

Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.

Palaris Revolt (1762-1765)

On November 3, 1762, with the Spanish at war with Britain and a British invasion of the Philippines in progress, a Pangasinense leader named Juan de la Cruz Palaris (also known as Pantaleon Perez) rebelled against Spanish imposition of the tribute. The revolt lasted two years, spreading across Pangasinan and affecting other provinces. The report ended in 1764, when Spanish forces along with some Ilocanos loyal to Spain led by Manuel de Azar hunted Palaris down and executed him publicly.[12]

Camarines Revolt (1762-1764)

Cebu Revolt (1762-1764)

Dabo and Marayac Revolt (1763)

Isabela Revolt (1763)

Lagutao Revolt (1785)

Ilocos Norte Revolt (1788)

Magtanong and Malibiran Revolt (1787)

18th century

Nueva Vizcaya Revolt (1805)

Ambaristo Revolt (1807)

The Ambaristo Revolt, also known as the Basi Revolt, was a revolt undertaken from September 16-September 28 or 28, 1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine.

In 1786, the Spanish colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with the revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. Spanish troops eventually quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side.

Bayot Revolt (1822)

This revolt, headed by brothers Joaquin, Manuel and Jose Bayot. Sons of Francisco Bayot, a Spanisn Army Colonel based in Manila. The rebellion was triggered by Spanish favoritism of Peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain) over Insulares (Spaniards born in the Philippines). The Bayot brothers were insulares, and planned to take up arms, overthrow the government, and proclaim an independent Philippines with Francisco Bayot as King. The Bayot brothers were arrested before the plan could be put into action and, after trial, sentenced to life imprisonment. Their father, Francisco, was acquitted due to insufficient evidence but was forced to resign from the army.[13]

The Novales Mutiny (1823)

On June 1, 1823, newly installed Governor General Juan Antonio Martinez ordered the reassignment to Mindinao of Captain Andres Novales of the Spanish Army, who had expressed discontent with Insulares in the military were treated. When a strong typhoon caused cancellation of the reassignment, Novales and supporters seized the opportunity to take up arms, killing former Governor General Folgueras and several other officials. Government troops slowly decimated Novalis' troops, forcing his surrender in the early morning of June 2, 1823. After the surrender, an immediately convened Court Martial found Novales guilty of mutiny and ordered his execution ar five in the afternoon of June 2, 1823. this revolt can be considered as the shortest in philippine history.[14]

Ilocos Norte Revolt (1811)

Sarat Revolt (1815)

Bayot Revolt (1822)

cause: Feeling of distrust between the peninsulares and the creoles.

Parang and Upay Revolt (1822-1835)

Pule Revolt (1840-1841)

One of the most famous religious revolts is the Pule Revolt, more formally known as the Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule. Undertaken between June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led by Apolinario de la Cruz, otherwise known as "Hermano Pule".

De la Cruz started his own religious order, the Confraternity of Saint Joseph (Spanish: Confradia de San José) in Lucban, located in the present-day province of Quezon (then called Tayabas), in June 1840. However, there were two types of priests in the Philippines then: secular priests, or parish priests, which were usually Filipino, and religious priests, or convent priests, which were usually Spanish. Due to the concentration of Spanish religious power and authority in the already-established religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans to name a few) and the concept that Filipino priests should only stay in the church and not the convent and vice-versa (although this was not always followed), the Spanish government banned the new order, especially due to its deviation from original Catholic rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals suited for Filipinos.

However, thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila already joined. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with the order's last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October 1841. The Spaniards eventually won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas.

It did not end there, though. Many members of the Spanish armed forces' Tayabas regiment, based in Malate in Manila, had relatives that were members of the order, of which many of those relatives were also killed in the ensuing violence. On January 20, 1843, the regiment, led by Sergeant Irineo Samaniego, rose in mutiny, eventually capturing Fort Santiago in Intramuros. The next day, however, the gates of Fort Santiago were opened by loyalist soldiers. After a bloody battle, the mutineers were defeated by loyalist troops, resulting in the execution of Samaniego and 81 of his followers the same day.

Camerino Revolt (1865-1869)

Labios Revolt (1870-1871)

Cavite Mutiny (1872)

See also

arekiW!

References

  1. ^ Central and Eastern Visayas Dagami and Eugenio S. Daza, msc.edu.ph, http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/hero/cev/page2.html, retrieved 2008-07-04  
  2. ^ Señor Enrique, Wish You Were Here, http://senorenrique.blogspot.com/2006/10/brunei-connection.html, retrieved 2008-07-14  
  3. ^ Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, Alfonso S. Quilala Jr., http://www.bibingka.com/phg/ilocos/default.htm, retrieved 2008-07-17  
  4. ^ Electronic Kabalen, J. Reylan Bustos Viray -- JOE MARK, http://eksite.com/x.html?http://eksite.com/viray.071029.html, retrieved 2008-07-17  
  5. ^ Bartleby, The Philippines 1500-1800, http://www.bartleby.com/67/867.html, retrieved 2008-07-04  
  6. ^ Aklasan ng mga Igorot nuong 1601, elaput.org, http://www.elaput.org/chrm1601.htm, retrieved 2008-07-04  
  7. ^ Duka 2008, p. 98
  8. ^ The Revolts before the Revolution www.nhi.gov.ph Retrieved 21 November, 2006.
  9. ^ Rowena Reyes-Boquiren, HISTORY OF COLONIALISM AND STRUGGLE : LOCAL STREAMS IN PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM, (Prepared for the 1999 Ibon Philippine Educators Training, Baguio City), self-published.
  10. ^ The Andress Malong Revolt, pangasinan.gov.ph
  11. ^ Duka 2008, p. 102
  12. ^ Duka 2008, p. 104
  13. ^ Duka 2008, p. 105
  14. ^ Duka 2008, p. 106

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