From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Philosophical logic is the study of the more
specifically philosophical aspects of logic. The term contrasts
with philosophy of logic, metalogic, and mathematical
logic; and since the development of mathematical logic in
the late nineteenth century, it has come to include most of those
topics traditionally treated by logic in general. It is concerned with
characterizing notions like inference, rational thought, truth, and
contents of thoughts, in the most fundamental ways possible, and
trying to model them using modern formal logic.
The notions in question include reference, predication, identity, truth, negation, quantification, existence, necessity, definition and entailment.
Philosophical logic is not concerned with the
psychological processes connected with thought, or with emotions,
images and the like. It is concerned only with those entities —
thoughts, sentences, or propositions — that are capable of being
true and false. To this extent, though, it does intersect with philosophy of
mind and philosophy of language. Gottlob Frege is
regarded by many as the founder of modern philosophical logic.
Not all philosophical logic, however, applies formal logical
techniques. A good amount of it (including Grayling's and Colin McGinn's books
cited below) is written in natural language. One definition,
popular in Britain, is that philosophical logic is the attempt to
solve general philosophical problems that arise when we use or
think about formal logic: problems about existence, necessity,
analyticity, a prioricity, propositions, identity,
predication, truth. Philosophy of logic, on the other
hand, would tackle metaphysical and epistemological problems about entailment,
validity, and proof. So it could be said that philosophy of logic
is a branch of philosophy but philosophical logic belongs to the
domain of logic (though logic is itself a branch of philosophy).
Main article: Truthbearer
Main article: Presupposition
Formal and Natural
Main article: Probability
- Goble, Lou, ed., 2001. (The Blackwell Guide to)
Philosophical Logic. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20693-0.
- Grayling, A.
C., 1997. An Introduction to
Philosophical Logic. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN
- Jacquette, Dale, ed., 2002. A Companion to
Philosophical Logic. Oxford Blackwell. ISBN
- Sainsbury, Mark, 2001. Logical Forms: An
Introduction to Philosophical Logic. 2nd ed. Oxford:
Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21679-0.
- McGinn, Colin. 2000. Logical Properties: Identity,
Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN
- Wolfram, Sybil, 1989. Philosophical Logic: An
Introduction. London: Routledge.
- Journal of Philosophical
Logic, Springer Science+Business