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.A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid.^ Polymers of amino acids formed spontaneously from inorganic molecules; have enzyme -like properties and can catalyze chemical reactions.

.In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid.^ V: Environmental fate of organic phosphoric acid triesters.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally, phosphate esters are resistant to hydrolysis in acid or neutral waters(6).

^ Generally, phosphate esters are resistant to hydrolysis in acid or neutral waters(4).

Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology. .Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry.^ USDA RESEARCHER PHIL Bauer explains the use of low phosphate chicken litter at a recent field day at the Pee Dee Agricultural Research Center.
  • New phosphate extraction technology promising 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2][3] At elevated temperatures in the solid state, phosphates can condense to form pyrophosphates.

Contents

Chemical properties

The general chemical structure of an organophosphate.
.
This is the structural formula of the phosphoric acid functional group as found in a weakly acidic aqueous solution.
^ Under strong acidic conditions and at high temperature (100 C), TPP readily hydrolyses to give phosphoric acid (Barnard et al., 1966).
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

In more basic aqueous solutions, the group donates the two hydrogen atoms and ionizes as a phosphate group with a negative charge of 2. [4]
The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion with the empirical formula PO3−4 and a molar mass of 94.973 g/mol. .It consists of one central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.^ A chemical group composed of a central phosphorous bonded to three or four oxygens.

.The phosphate ion carries a negative three formal charge and is the conjugate base of the hydrogen phosphate ion, HPO2−4, which is the conjugate base of H2PO4, the dihydrogen phosphate ion, which in turn is the conjugate base of H3PO4, phosphoric acid.^ TPP yielded diphenyl phosphate, but further hydrolysis to monophenyl phosphate and phosphoric acid was not observed under the experimental conditions used.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

It is a hypervalent molecule (the phosphorus atom has 10 electrons in its valence shell). Phosphate is also an organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(OR)3. .A phosphate salt forms when a positively-charged ion attaches to the negatively-charged oxygen atoms of the ion, forming an ionic compound.^ The resulting molecule has regions with positive and negative charges.

^ A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom that carries a positive charge.

.Many phosphates are not soluble in water at standard temperature and pressure.^ Etoposide phosphate is a water soluble ester of etoposide (commonly known as VP-16), a semi-synthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin.
  • ETOPOPHOS®(etoposide phosphate)for INJECTION 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The water solubility of etoposide phosphate lessens the potential for precipitation following dilution and during intravenous administration.
  • ETOPOPHOS®(etoposide phosphate)for INJECTION 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ OFSTAD, E.B. & SLETTEN, T. (1985) Composition and water solubility determination of a commercial tricresyl phosphate.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and ammonium phosphates are all water soluble.^ Monoammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate, either alone or with some added potassium, makes excellent starter fertilizers because of their high P-to-N ratios, high water solubility, and low free ammonia.
  • New phosphate extraction technology promising 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Etoposide phosphate is a water soluble ester of etoposide (commonly known as VP-16), a semi-synthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin.
  • ETOPOPHOS®(etoposide phosphate)for INJECTION 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The good news is all these materials are highly water soluble, which is bad news from an environmental standpoint.
  • New phosphate extraction technology promising 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most other phosphates are only slightly soluble or are insoluble in water.^ HOLLIFIELD, H.C. (1979) Rapid nephelometric estimate of water solubility of highly insoluble organic chemicals of environmental interest.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alaska is the only other state that has as much water as this beautiful state.
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^ OFSTAD, E.B. & SLETTEN, T. (1985) Composition and water solubility determination of a commercial tricresyl phosphate.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

As a rule, the hydrogenphosphates and the dihydrogenphosphates are slightly more soluble than the corresponding phosphates. The pyrophosphates are mostly water soluble.
.In dilute aqueous solution, phosphate exists in four forms.^ It is found that at these low supersaturated solutions HAP will form directly without being preceded by another calcium phosphate phase.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Bennett A.C. and Adams F. Solubility and solubility product of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate in aqueous solutions and soil solutions Soil science of America journal, vol.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The pharmaceutical forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions.
  • CARVEDILOL PHOSPHATE SALTS AND/OR SOLVATES THEREOF, CORRESPONDING COMPOSITIONS, AND/OR METHODS OF TREATMENT - Patent application 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

In strongly-basic conditions, the phosphate ion (PO3−4) predominates, whereas in weakly-basic conditions, the hydrogen phosphate ion (HPO2−4) is prevalent. .In weakly-acid conditions, the dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2PO4) is most common.^ Brown J.L.* Calcium phosphate precipitation effects of common and foreign ions on hydroxylapatite crystal growth.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ TPP yielded diphenyl phosphate, but further hydrolysis to monophenyl phosphate and phosphoric acid was not observed under the experimental conditions used.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In strongly-acid conditions, aqueous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is the main form.^ Under strong acidic conditions and at high temperature (100 C), TPP readily hydrolyses to give phosphoric acid (Barnard et al., 1966).
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ TPP yielded diphenyl phosphate, but further hydrolysis to monophenyl phosphate and phosphoric acid was not observed under the experimental conditions used.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

More precisely, considering the following three equilibrium reactions:
H3PO4 is in equilibrium with H+ + H2PO4
H2PO4 is in equilibrium with H+ + HPO2−4
HPO2−4 is in equilibrium with H+ + PO3−4
the corresponding constants at 25°C (in mol/L) are (see phosphoric acid):
 K_{a1}=\frac{[\mbox{H}^+][\mbox{H}_2\mbox{PO}_4^-]}{[\mbox{H}_3\mbox{PO}_4]}\simeq 7.5	imes10^{-3} (pKa1 2.12)
K_{a2}=\frac{[\mbox{H}^+][\mbox{HPO}_4^{2-}]}{[\mbox{H}_2\mbox{PO}_4^-]}\simeq 6.2	imes10^{-8} (pKa2 7.21)
 K_{a3}=\frac{[\mbox{H}^+][\mbox{PO}_4^{3-}]}{[\mbox{HPO}_4^{2-}]}\simeq 2.14	imes10^{-13} (pKa3 12.67)
Phosphoric acid speciation.png
The speciation diagram obtained using these pK values shows three distinct regions. .In effect H3PO4, H2PO4 and HPO2−4 behave as separate weak acids.^ The effect of other components such as weak acids and a strong electrolyte were investigated.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

This is because the successive pK values differ by more than 4. For each acid the pH at half-neutralization is equal to the pK value of the acid. .The region in which the acid is in equilibrium with its conjugate base is defined by pH ≈ pK ± 2. Thus the three pH regions are approximately 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14. This is idealized as it assumes constant ionic strength, which will not hold in reality at very low and very high pH values.^ The homogenous nucleation of hydroxylapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAP) was studied in low supersaturated solutions (degree of supersaturation between 10 5 to 10 9 ) with the pH-stat method.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The levels of TPP in environmental samples are low (Table 8), although moderately high levels have often been found in sediment collected near heavily industrialized areas (Table 9 and 10).
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

For a neutral pH as in the cytosol, pH=7.0
 \frac{[\mbox{H}_2\mbox{PO}_4^-]}{[\mbox{H}_3\mbox{PO}_4]}\simeq 7.5	imes10^4 \mbox{ , }\frac{[\mbox{HPO}_4^{2-}]}{[\mbox{H}_2\mbox{PO}_4^-]}\simeq 0.62 \mbox{ , } \frac{[\mbox{PO}_4^{3-}]}{[\mbox{HPO}_4^{2-}]}\simeq 2.14	imes10^{-6}
so that only .H2PO4 and HPO2−4 ions are present in significant amounts (62% H2PO4, 38% HPO2−4 Note that in the extracellular fluid (pH=7.4), this proportion is inverted (61% HPO2−4, 39% H2PO4).^ Both H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 -- also form such ion pairs, but to lesser extents.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This general ion effect, however, does not fully explain the large amount of PO 4 -- present.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relatively large proportion of PO 4 -- is important and may surprise many people, as less than 0.1 percent would be present in freshwater at pH 8.1.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phosphate can form many polymeric ions such as diphosphate (also known as pyrophosphate), P2O4−7, and triphosphate, P3O5−10.^ Both H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 -- also form such ion pairs, but to lesser extents.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently an individual phosphate ion will probably take all of these forms faster than you can say phosphate.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such molecules as DNA, ATP, phospholipids such as lecithin, and many proteins contain phosphate.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The various metaphosphate ions (which are usually long linear polymers) have an empirical formula of PO3 and are found in many compounds.^ ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, AND TRANSFORMATION Summary TPP has been found in various environmental media, but usually at low levels.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Biochemistry of phosphates

.In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters.^ As if that weren’t enough, many types of seafood that can be bought at the grocery store have various inorganic phosphate salts intentionally added to them as preservatives.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this paper an attempt is made to study the effects of calcium, fluoride, phosphorus, magnesium and carbonate ions together with the effects of hydroxylapatite (HAP) seeding material on calcium phosphates precipitation.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, in seawater only 0.2 percent of the PO 4 -- is in the form of “free” phosphate ions.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and can be created by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, which is denoted PPi:
P2O4−7 + H2O is in equilibrium with 2 HPO2−4
.However, phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates, (AMP, ADP and ATP) and in DNA and RNA and can be released by the hydrolysis of ATP or ADP. Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates.^ It is found that at these low supersaturated solutions HAP will form directly without being preceded by another calcium phosphate phase.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Phosphoanhydride bonds in ADP and ATP, or other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, contain high amounts of energy which give them their vital role in all living organisms.^ There is no information on the toxicity of TPP to organisms living in or ingesting sediment and none on terrestrial species other than fungi.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Addition and removal of phosphate from ATP, for example, is a highly regulated process taking place in all organisms.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But much of the food that any organism consumes (including people) goes to provide energy, leaving a residue of CO 2 , phosphate and a variety of nitrogen-containing compounds.
  • Phosphate - What is it and why should you care? 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.fishchannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are generally referred to as high energy phosphate, as are the phosphagens in muscle tissue.^ INTERESTING CONTRAST WITH TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE, PRODUCING ANESTHETIC-LIKE PICTURE WITH CONSIDERABLE MUSCLE RELAXATION AT RELATIVELY HIGH DOSAGES. [Patty, F. (ed.

Compounds such as substituted phosphines, have uses in organic chemistry but do not seem to have any natural counterparts.
.The addition and removal of phosphate from proteins in all cells is a pivotal strategy in the regulation of metabolic processes.^ Human proteins in Inositol phosphate metabolism pathway There are 37 IPI Records from this pathway found in Homo sapiens .
  • View Pathway: Inositol phosphate metabolism 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC apropos.mcw.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mouse proteins in Inositol phosphate metabolism pathway There are 37 IPI Records from this pathway found in Mus musculus .
  • View Pathway: Inositol phosphate metabolism 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC apropos.mcw.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Location of Inositol phosphate metabolism proteins on Human Genome .
  • View Pathway: Inositol phosphate metabolism 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC apropos.mcw.edu [Source type: Academic]

Reference ranges for blood tests, showing inorganic phosphorus in purple at right, being almost identical to the molar concentration of phosphate.
.Phosphate is useful in animal cells as a buffering agent.^ Finally, an increased number of docked secretory granules were observed in the beta-cells of DEX animals using transmission electron microscopy.
  • View Pathway: Inositol phosphate metabolism 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC apropos.mcw.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Phosphate salts that are commonly used for preparing buffer solutions at cell pHs include Na2HPO4 , NaH2PO4 , and the corresponding potassium salts.^ The results show that by using a higher amount of seeding material the removal rate of phosphate from solution is higher.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ KH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4 25 7 19 Mayer et days al.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.An important occurrence of phosphates in biological systems is as the structural material of bone and teeth.^ Carlsson* H. Aspegren H. Lee N. and Hilmer A. Calcium phosphate precipitation in biological phosphorus removal systems.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.These structures are made of crystalline calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite.^ Christoffersen M.R. Dohrup J. and Christoffersen J. Kinetics of growth and dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite in suspensions with variable calcium to phosphate ratio .
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It is found that at these low supersaturated solutions HAP will form directly without being preceded by another calcium phosphate phase.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In this paper an attempt is made to study the effects of calcium, fluoride, phosphorus, magnesium and carbonate ions together with the effects of hydroxylapatite (HAP) seeding material on calcium phosphates precipitation.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The hard dense enamel of mammalian teeth consists of fluoroapatite, an hydroxy calcium phosphate where some of the hydroxyl groups have been replaced by fluoride ions.^ The growth rate is explained by two steps, namely calcium ions entering their crystallographic sites followed by phosphate ions, which are delayed by a slow production of hydroxyl ions (by water dissociation) at the surface.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In this paper an attempt is made to study the effects of calcium, fluoride, phosphorus, magnesium and carbonate ions together with the effects of hydroxylapatite (HAP) seeding material on calcium phosphates precipitation.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Brown J.L.* Calcium phosphate precipitation effects of common and foreign ions on hydroxylapatite crystal growth.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Insect exoskeleta are constructed of chitin containing crystalline calcium phosphate as a strengthening material.^ In this paper an attempt is made to study the effects of calcium, fluoride, phosphorus, magnesium and carbonate ions together with the effects of hydroxylapatite (HAP) seeding material on calcium phosphates precipitation.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

Geochemistry of phosphates

.Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals.^ It is found that at these low supersaturated solutions HAP will form directly without being preceded by another calcium phosphate phase.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. .Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry.^ Ferrous iron is used for to induce precipitation of phosphate, and was dosed onto the top of the aerated filter at varying ratios of total phosphorus to iron.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[1][2][3]
.The largest phosphorite or rock phosphate deposits in North America lie in the Bone Valley region of central Florida, United States, the Soda Springs region of Idaho, and the coast of North Carolina.^ The ford yacht club has the largest grounds of any yacht club in the United States.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Michigan 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We both attended North Central Michigan College in Petoskey before going to Michigan State University.
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Smaller deposits are located in Montana, Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina near Charleston along Ashley Phosphate road. The small island nation of Nauru and its neighbor Banaba Island, which used to have massive phosphate deposits of the best quality, have been mined excessively. Rock phosphate can also be found in Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Navassa Island, Tunisia, Togo and Jordan, countries that have large phosphate mining industries.
Phosphorite mines are primarily found in:
.North America: United States of America, especially North Carolina, with lesser deposits in Florida, Idaho and Tennessee.^ North Carolina State .
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Africa: Morocco, mainly near Khouribga and Youssoufia; Senegal, Togo, Tunisia and Western Sahara.
Middle East: Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq, at the town of Akashat, near to the Jordanian borders.
In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years.[5] .However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years."^ They claim to have done this at least 50 times over the past 10 years or so.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Michigan 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Fremont - Old Applebrook Farm - Althaugh the home is owned by new owners now, the once-named Applebrook Farm is over 100 years old.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Michigan 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The current family I have been working for for the past several years now have school age children, cutting my hours way back.
  • Nanny and Family Classifieds, Nanny Services Michigan, MI 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.nannylocators.com [Source type: General]

[6]

Ecology of phosphates

.In ecological terms, because of its important role in biological systems, phosphate is a highly sought after resource.^ Carlsson* H. Aspegren H. Lee N. and Hilmer A. Calcium phosphate precipitation in biological phosphorus removal systems.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Once used, it is often a limiting nutrient in environments, and its availability may govern the rate of growth of organisms.^ Effects on organisms in the environment The growth of algae is completely inhibited at TPP concentrations of 1 mg/litre or more but is stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.05 mg/litre).
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore the rate of growth can be described by using a spiral or a polynuclear mechanism.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

This is generally true of freshwater environments, nitrogen is more often the limiting nutrient in marine (seawater) environments. .Addition of high levels of phosphate to environments and to micro-environments in which it is typically rare can have significant ecological consequences.^ To evaluate the level of phosphate in your blood and to aid in the diagnosis of conditions known to cause abnormally high or low levels When to Get Tested?

For example, booms in the populations of some organisms at the expense of others, and the collapse of populations deprived of resources such as oxygen (see eutrophication) can occur. .In the context of pollution, phosphates are one component of total dissolved solids, a major indicator of water quality.^ If released into water, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc.

^ Borgerding J. Phosphate deposits in digestion systems Journal of the water pollution control federation, vol.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Trioctyl phosphate was the major component in the carcass meat, offal, and poultry groups, and there were significant amounts of TPP and TBP. Total phosphate intake was estimated to be between 0.07 and 0.1 mg per person per day.
  • Triphenyl phosphate (EHC 111, 1991) 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Calcium hydroxyapatite and calcite precipitates can be found around bacteria in alluvial topsoil.^ The study found that competition between calcium phosphate phases to precipitate is determined by the degree of supersaturation and can be influenced by the concentration of inoculating seeds.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It was found that co-precipitation only takes place at P concentrations lower than 0.3 mg/l, a pH higher than 8.5 and the presence of calcite crystals.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ At low phosphate concentrations it was found that phosphate adsorbes to calcite particles, while at higher phosphate levels a calcium phosphate precipitated as dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4).
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[7] .As clay minerals promote biomineralization, the presence of bacteria and clay minerals resulted in calcium hydroxyapatite and calcite precipitates.^ V71 1545 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED** Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate was not mutagenic to bacteria in the absence of an exogenous metabolic system but gave equivocal results in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system.

^ It was found that co-precipitation only takes place at P concentrations lower than 0.3 mg/l, a pH higher than 8.5 and the presence of calcite crystals.
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ At low phosphate concentrations it was found that phosphate adsorbes to calcite particles, while at higher phosphate levels a calcium phosphate precipitated as dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4).
  • Phosphate recovery at The Natural History Museum 3 February 2010 17:49 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.Phosphate deposits can contain significant amounts of naturally occurring heavy metals.^ River waters in Japan were found to contain small amounts of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate(2,3).

^ Sewage sludge in Japan was found to contain small amounts of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate(2).

Mining operations processing phosphate rock can leave tailings piles containing elevated levels of cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, chromium, and uranium. Unless carefully managed, these waste products can leach heavy metals into groundwater or nearby estuaries. Uptake of these substances by plants and marine life can lead to concentration of toxic heavy metals in food products.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Phosphate Primer". http://fipr1.state.fl.us/PhosphatePrimer. 
  2. ^ a b Lynn A. Kuntz (June 2006). "Figuring Out Phosphates". http://www.foodproductdesign.com/articles/661ingredient2.html. 
  3. ^ a b Lynn A. Kuntz (June 2006). "Food Product Design". http://www.foodproductdesign.com/articles/661ingredient2.html. 
  4. ^ Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology (Seventh ed.). San Francisco, California: Benjamin Cummings. pp. 65. ISBN 0-8053-7171-0. 
  5. ^ "How Long Will it Last?". New Scientist 194 (2605): 38–9. May 26, 2007. ISSN 4079 0262 4079. 
  6. ^ Leo Lewis (2008-06-23). "Scientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand". The Times. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/natural_resources/article4193017.ece. 
  7. ^ a b Schmittner KE, Giresse P (1999). "Micro-environmental controls on biomineralization: superficial processes of apatite and calcite precipitation in Quaternary soils, Roussillon, France". Sedimentology 46 (3): 463–76. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3091.1999.00224.x. 
  8. ^ Gnandil, K.; Tchangbedjil, G.; Killil, K.; Babal, G.; Abbel, E. (March). "The Impact of Phosphate Mine Tailings on the Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Marine Fish and Crustaceans from the Coastal Zone of Togo". Mine Water and the Environment 25 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1007/s10230-006-0108-4. 

External links


Simple English

A phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. Phosphates are important in biochemistry. Phosphates have the formula PO43- and a molar mass of 94.973 g/mol. An example of a phosphate is sodium phosphate. Three different types of phosphates are known. They are orthophosphate, PO43-; metaphosphate, PO32-; and pyrophosphate, P2O73-.

Structure

Phosphates are made of one phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Many phosphates do not dissolve in water.


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