Phosphatidylserine: Wikis

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Phosphatidylserine
Phosphatidyl-Serine.png
Identifiers
CAS number 8002-43-5
PubChem 445141
Properties
Molecular formula C13H24NO10P
Molar mass 385.304
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid component, usually kept on the inner-leaflet, the cytosolic side, of cell membranes by an enzyme called flippase. When a cell undergoes apoptotic cell death phosphatidylserine is no longer restricted to the cytosolic part of the membrane, but becomes exposed on the surface of the cell.

Contents

Health benefits

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Memory and cognition

Early studies of phosphatidylserine distilled the chemical from bovine brain. Because of concerns about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, however, modern studies and commercially available products are made from soybeans. The fatty acids attached to the serine in the soy product are not identical to those in the bovine product, which is also impure. However, preliminary studies indicate that the soy product is at least as effective as that of bovine origin. [1][2]

On May 13, 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration stated "based on its evaluation of the totality of the publicly available scientific evidence, the agency concludes that there is not significant scientific agreement among qualified experts that a relationship exists between phosphatidylserine and reduced risk of dementia or cognitive dysfunction." FDA did, however give "qualified health claim" status to phosphatidylserine, stating that "Consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of dementia in the elderly" and "Consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly".

Sports nutrition

Phosphatidylserine has been demonstrated to speed up recovery, prevent muscle soreness, improve well-being, and might possess ergogenic properties in athletes involved in cycling, weight training and endurance running. Soy-PS, in a dose dependent manner (400 mg), has been reported to be an effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress by blunting the exercise-induced increase in cortisol levels.[3] PS supplementation promotes a desirable hormonal balance for athletes and might attenuate the physiological deterioration that accompanies overtraining and/or overstretching.[4] In recent studies, PS has been shown to enhance mood in a cohort of young people during mental stress and to improve accuracy during tee-off by increasing the stress resistance of golfers.[5]

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

First pilot studies indicate that PS supplementation might be beneficial for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[6][7]

Safety

Traditionally, PS supplements were derived from bovine cortex (BC-PS); however, due to the potential transfer of infectious diseases, soy-derived PS (S-PS) has been established as a safe alternative. Soy-derived PS is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) and is a safe nutritional supplement for older persons if taken up to a dosage of 200 mg three times daily. [8] Phosphatidylserine has been shown to reduce specific immune response in mice. [9][10]

Dietary sources

PS can be found in meat, but is most abundant in the brain and in innards such as liver and kidney. Only small amounts of PS can be found in dairy products or in vegetables, with the exception of white beans.

Table 1. PS content in different foods.[11]

Food PS Content in mg/100 g
Bovine brain 713
Atlantic mackerel 480
Chicken heart 414
Atlantic herring 360
Eel 335
Offal (average value) 305
Pig's spleen 239
Pig's kidney 218
Tuna 194
Chicken leg, with skin, without bone 134
Chicken liver 123
White beans 107
Soft-shell clam 87
Chicken breast, with skin 85
Mullet 76
Veal 72
Beef 69
Pork 57
Pig's liver 50
Turkey leg, without skin or bone 50
Turkey breast without skin 45
Crayfish 40
Cuttlefish 31
Atlantic cod 28
Anchovy 25
Whole grain barley 20
European hake 17
European pilchard (sardine) 16
Trout 14
Soy lecithin 10-20
Rice (unpolished) 3
Carrot 2
Ewe's Milk 2
Cow's Milk (whole, 3.5% fat) 1
Potato 1

The average daily PS intake from the diet in Western countries is estimated to be 130 mg.

Applications

Research

Annexin-A5 is a naturally-occurring protein with avid binding affinity for PS. Labeled-annexin-A5 enables visualization of cells in the early- to mid-apoptotic state in vitro or in vivo. Another PS binding protein is Mfge8.

Tumors

Technetium-labeled annexin-A5 enables distinction between malignant and benign tumours whose pathology includes a high rate of cell division and apoptosis in malignant compared with a low rate of apoptosis in benign tumors.

References

  1. ^ Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, Jolles J (October 1999). "Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS". Nutrition 15 (10): 778–83. PMID 10501292. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899900799001574.  
  2. ^ Crook, T. H.; R. M. Klatz (ed) (1998). Treatment of Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Effects of Phosphatidylserine in Anti-Aging Medical Therapeutics. 2. Chicago: Health Quest Publications. pp. 20–29.  
  3. ^ Jäger R, Purpura M, Kingsley M (7 2007). "Phospholipids and sports performance". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 4: 5. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-5. PMID 17908342.  
  4. ^ Starks MA, Starks SL, Kingsley M, Purpura M, Jäger R (7 2008). "The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 5: 11. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-11. PMID 18662395.  
  5. ^ Jäger R, Purpura M, Geiss KR, Weiß M, Baumeister J, Amatulli F, Schröder L, Herwegen H. (12 2007). "The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 4: 23. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-23. PMID 18053194.  
  6. ^ Hirayama S, Masuda Y, Rabeler R (September/October 2006). "Effect of phosphatidylserine administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children". Agro Food 17 (5): 32–36. http://www.lipamin-ps.com/ftp/agro_16_20.pdf.  
  7. ^ Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, Pelled D, Brichon G, Zwingelstein G, Bodennec J (2008). "Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids.". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (5): 1170–1180. PMID 18469236. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/87/5/1170.  
  8. ^ Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Riedel WJ (October 2002). "Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people". Nutr Neurosci 5 (5): 337–343. PMID 12385596.  
  9. ^ Hoffmann PR, Kench JA, Vondracek A, et al. (February 2005). "Interaction between phosphatidylserine and the phosphatidylserine receptor inhibits immune responses in vivo". J. Immunol. 174 (3): 1393–404. PMID 15661897. http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15661897.  
  10. ^ Carr DJ, Guarcello V, Blalock JE (September 1992). "Phosphatidylserine suppresses antigen-specific IgM production by mice orally administered sheep red blood cells". Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 200 (4): 548–54. PMID 1508948.  
  11. ^ Souci SW, Fachmann E, Kraut H (2008). Food Composition and Nutrition Tables. Medpharm Scientific Publishers Stuttgart.  

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