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A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), therefore preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).

Contents

History

The different forms or subtypes of phosphodiesterase were initially isolated from rat brains by Uzunov and Weiss in 1972[1] and were soon afterwards shown to be selectively inhibited in the brain and in other tissues by a variety of drugs.[2][3] The potential for selective phosphodisterase inhibitors as therapeutic agents was predicted as early as 1977 by Weiss and Hait.[4] This prediction meanwhile has proved to be true in a variety of fields.

Classification

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Nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Methylated xanthines and derivatives: [5]

Methylated xanthines act as both

  1. competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors [5] which raise intracellular cAMP, activate PKA, inhibit TNF-alpha [6] [7] and leukotriene [8] synthesis, and reduce inflammation and innate immunity [8] and
  2. nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists [9]

But different analogues show varying potency at the numerous subtypes, and a wide range of synthetic xanthine derivatives (some nonmethylated) have been developed in the search for compounds with greater selectivity for phosphodiesterase enzyme or adenosine receptor subtypes.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

PDE1 selective inhibitors

PDE2 selective inhibitors

PDE3 selective inhibitors

PDE3 is sometimes referred to as cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase.

PDE4 selective inhibitors

  • Mesembrine, an alkaloid from the herb Sceletium tortuosum
  • Rolipram, used as investigative tool in pharmacological research
  • Ibudilast, a neuroprotective and bronchodilator drug used mainly in the treatment of asthma and stroke. It inhibits PDE4 to the greatest extent, but also shows significant inhibition of other PDE subtypes, and so acts as a selective PDE4 inhibitor or a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, depending on the dose.
  • Piclamilast, a more potent inhibitor than rolipram. [23]
  • Luteolin, supplement extracted from peanuts that also possesses IGF-1 properties.[24]


PDE4 is the major cAMP-metabolizing enzyme found in inflammatory and immune cells. PDE4 inhibitors have proven potential as anti-inflammatory drugs, especially in inflammatory pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, and rhinitis. They suppress the release of cytokines and other inflammatory signals, and inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species. PDE4 inhibitors may have antidepressive effects[25] and have also recently been proposed for use as antipsychotics.[26][27]

On October 26, 2009, The University of Pennsylvania reported that researchers at their institution had discovered a link between elevated levels of PDE4 (and therefore decreased levels of cAMP) in sleep deprived mice. Treatment with a PDE4 inhibitor raised the deficient cAMP levels and restored some functionality to Hippocampus-based memory functions.[28]

PDE5 selective inhibitors

References

  1. ^ Uzunov, P. and Weiss, B.: Separation of multiple molecular forms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in rat cerebellum by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 284:220-226, 1972.
  2. ^ Weiss, B.: Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Adv. Cycl. Nucl. Res. 5:195-211, 1975.
  3. ^ Fertel, R. and Weiss, B.: Properties and drug responsiveness of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat lung. Mol. Pharmacol. 12:678-687, 1976.
  4. ^ Weiss, B. and Hait, W.N.: Selective cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 17:441-477, 1977.
  5. ^ a b Essayan DM. (2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases.". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119555. PMID 11692087.  
  6. ^ a b Deree J, Martins JO, Melbostad H, Loomis WH, Coimbra R. (2008). "Insights into the regulation of TNF-alpha production in human mononuclear cells: the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition.". Clinics (Sao Paulo). 63 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1590/S1807-59322008000300006. PMID 18568240.  
  7. ^ Marques LJ, Zheng L, Poulakis N, Guzman J, Costabel U (February 1999). "Pentoxifylline inhibits TNF-alpha production from human alveolar macrophages". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 159 (2): 508–11. PMID 9927365. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9927365.  
  8. ^ a b Peters-Golden M, Canetti C, Mancuso P, Coffey MJ. (2005). "Leukotrienes: underappreciated mediators of innate immune responses.". J Immunol. 174 (2): 589-94. PMID 15634873. http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/full/174/2/589.  
  9. ^ Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D. (1987). "Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists.". Prog Clin Biol Res. 230 (1):  :41-63. PMID 3588607.  
  10. ^ MacCorquodale DW. THE SYNTHESIS OF SOME ALKYLXANTHINES. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1929 July;51(7):2245–2251. DOI: 10.1021/ja01382a042
  11. ^ WO patent 1985002540, Sunshine A, Laska EM, Siegel CE, "ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING XANTHINES AND METHODS OF USING SAME", granted 1989-03-22 , assigned to RICHARDSON-VICKS, INC.
  12. ^ Constantin Koulbanis, Claude Bouillon, Patrick Darmenton,"Cosmetic compositions having a slimming action", US patent 4288433, granted 1981-09-04 , assigned to L'Oreal  
  13. ^ Daly JW, Padgett WL, Shamim MT (July 1986). "Analogues of caffeine and theophylline: effect of structural alterations on affinity at adenosine receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 29 (7): 1305–8. doi:10.1021/jm00157a035. PMID 3806581.  
  14. ^ Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D (1987). "Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists". Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 230: 41–63. PMID 3588607.  
  15. ^ Choi OH, Shamim MT, Padgett WL, Daly JW (1988). "Caffeine and theophylline analogues: correlation of behavioral effects with activity as adenosine receptor antagonists and as phosphodiesterase inhibitors". Life Sciences 43 (5): 387–98. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(88)90517-6. PMID 2456442.  
  16. ^ Shamim MT, Ukena D, Padgett WL, Daly JW (June 1989). "Effects of 8-phenyl and 8-cycloalkyl substituents on the activity of mono-, di-, and trisubstituted alkylxanthines with substitution at the 1-, 3-, and 7-positions". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 32 (6): 1231–7. doi:10.1021/jm00126a014. PMID 2724296.  
  17. ^ Daly JW, Hide I, Müller CE, Shamim M (1991). "Caffeine analogs: structure-activity relationships at adenosine receptors". Pharmacology 42 (6): 309–21. doi:10.1159/000138813. PMID 1658821.  
  18. ^ Ukena D, Schudt C, Sybrecht GW (February 1993). "Adenosine receptor-blocking xanthines as inhibitors of phosphodiesterase isozymes". Biochemical Pharmacology 45 (4): 847–51. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(93)90168-V. PMID 7680859. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0006-2952(93)90168-V.  
  19. ^ Daly JW (July 2000). "Alkylxanthines as research tools". Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 81 (1-3): 44–52. doi:10.1016/S0165-1838(00)00110-7. PMID 10869699. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165183800001107.  
  20. ^ Daly JW (August 2007). "Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS 64 (16): 2153–69. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7051-9. PMID 17514358.  
  21. ^ González MP, Terán C, Teijeira M (May 2008). "Search for new antagonist ligands for adenosine receptors from QSAR point of view. How close are we?". Medicinal Research Reviews 28 (3): 329–71. doi:10.1002/med.20108. PMID 17668454.  
  22. ^ Baraldi PG, Tabrizi MA, Gessi S, Borea PA (January 2008). "Adenosine receptor antagonists: translating medicinal chemistry and pharmacology into clinical utility". Chemical Reviews 108 (1): 238–63. doi:10.1021/cr0682195. PMID 18181659.  
  23. ^ de Visser YP, Walther FJ, Laghmani EH, van Wijngaarden S, Nieuwland K, Wagenaar GT. (2008). "Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition attenuates pulmonary inflammation in neonatal lung injury.". Eur Respir J 31 (3): 633–644. doi:10.1183/09031936.00071307. PMID 18094015.  
  24. ^ Yu MC, Chen JH, Lai CY, Han CY, Ko WC. (2009). "Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced [(3)H]-rolipram from high-affinity rolipram binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia.". Eur J Pharmacol. ? (?):  ?. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031. PMID 19853596.  
  25. ^ Bobon D, Breulet M, Gerard-Vandenhove MA, Guiot-Goffioul F, Plomteux G, Sastre-y-Hernandez M, Schratzer M, Troisfontaines B, von Frenckell R, Wachtel H. (1988). "Is phosphodiesterase inhibition a new mechanism of antidepressant action? A double blind double-dummy study between rolipram and desipramine in hospitalized major and/or endogenous depressives.". Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 238 (1): 2–6. PMID 3063534.  
  26. ^ Maxwell CR, Kanes SJ, Abel T, Siegel SJ. (2004). "Phosphodiesterase inhibitors: a novel mechanism for receptor-independent antipsychotic medications.". Neuroscience. 129 (1): 101–7. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.07.038. PMID 15489033.  
  27. ^ Kanes SJ, Tokarczyk J, Siegel SJ, Bilker W, Abel T, Kelly MP. (2006). "Rolipram: A specific phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with potential antipsychotic activity.". Neuroscience. ? (?):  ?. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.09.026. PMID 17081698.  
  28. ^ Vecsey CG, Baillie GS, Jaganath D, Havekes R, Daniels A, Wimmer M, Huang T, Brown KM, Li XY, Descalzi G, Kim SS, Chen T, Shang YZ, Zhuo M, Houslay MD, Abel T. (2009). "Sleep deprivation impairs cAMP signalling in the hippocampus.". Nature. 461 (7267): 1122–1125. doi:10.1038/nature08488. PMID 19847264.  

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