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siliconphosphorussulfur
N

P

As
Appearance
colorless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black

waxy white (yellow cut), red, violet and black phosphorus
General properties
Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15
Element category nonmetal
Group, period, block 153, p
Standard atomic weight 30.973762(2)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.) (white) 1.823, (red) ≈ 2.2 – 2.34, (violet) 2.36, (black) 2.69 g·cm−3
Melting point (white) 44.2 °C, (black) 610 °C
Sublimation point (red) ≈ 416 – 590  °C, (violet) 620 °C
Boiling point (white) 280.5 °C
Heat of fusion (white) 0.66 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (white) 12.4 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (white)
23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (white)
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 279 307 342 388 453 549
Vapor pressure (red, bp. 431 °C)
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 455 489 529 576 635 704
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2[1], 1 [2], -1, -2, -3
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1011.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1907 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2914.1 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 107±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellanea
Magnetic ordering (white,red,violet,black) diamagnetic[3]
Thermal conductivity (300 K) (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa
CAS registry number 7723-14-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of phosphorus
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
31P 100% 31P is stable with 16 neutrons
32P syn 14.28 d β 1.709 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β 0.249 33S
Phosphorus (pronounced /ˈfɒsfərəs/, FOS-fər-əs) is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus is commonly found in inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus. Although the term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, derives from phosphorus, glow of phosphorus originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus and should be called chemiluminescence.
.Due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature on Earth.^ Due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature.
  • Phosphorus definition by Babylon's free dictionary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Phosphorus Analysis Testing Resources - Midwest Microlabs 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.midwestlab.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Due to its high reactivity, Phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This element is very widely distributed in nature in combination, but is never found free.

The first form of phosphorus to be discovered (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen — hence its name given from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus.
Phosphorus is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. It is, thus, an essential element for all living cells. The most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers.
Phosphorus compounds are also widely used in explosives, nerve agents, friction matches, fireworks, pesticides, toothpaste, and detergents.

Contents

Physical properties

Glow from white phosphorus

In 1669, German alchemist Hennig Brand attempted to create the philosophers stone from his urine, and in the process he produced a white material that glowed in the dark.[4] The phosphorus had been produced from inorganic phosphate, which is a significant component of dissolved urine solids. White phosphorus is highly reactive and gives off a faint greenish glow upon uniting with oxygen. The glow observed by Brand was caused by the very slow burning of the phosphorus, but as he neither saw flame nor felt any heat he did not recognize it as burning.
.It was known from early times that the glow would persist for a time in a stoppered jar but then cease.^ It was known from early times that the glow would persist for a time in a stoppered jar but then cease.

^ The reaction is slow and only very little of the intermediates is required to produce the luminescence, hence the extended time the glow continues in a stoppered jar.

Robert Boyle in the 1680s ascribed it to "debilitation" of the air; in fact, it is oxygen being consumed. By the 18th century, it was known that in pure oxygen, phosphorus does not glow at all;[5] there is only a range of partial pressure at which it does. .Heat can be applied to drive the reaction at higher pressures.^ Heat can be applied to drive the reaction at higher pressures.

[6]
.In 1974, the glow was explained by R. J. van Zee and A. U. Khan.^ In 1974 the glow was explained by R. J. van Zee and A. U. Khan.

[7] .A reaction with oxygen takes place at the surface of the solid (or liquid) phosphorus, forming the short-lived molecules HPO and P2O2 that both emit visible light.^ But it does not take the place of phosphorus binders.
  • Phosphorus and chronic kidney disease - DaVita 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.davita.com [Source type: General]

^ A reaction with oxygen takes place at the surface of the solid (or liquid) phosphorus, forming short-lived molecules HPO and P 2 O 2 and they both emit visible light.

^ A reaction with oxygen takes place at the surface of the solid (or liquid) Phosphorus, forming short-lived molecules HPO and P 2 O 2 and they both emit visible light.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

.The reaction is slow and only very little of the intermediates are required to produce the luminescence, hence the extended time the glow continues in a stoppered jar.^ Stool with pressing, only a little piece being discharged at a time.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Frequent micturition, but only a little at a time (aft.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Four times a day, a normal stool, but only a little at a time.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Although the term phosphorescence is derived from phosphorus, the reaction that gives phosphorus its glow is properly called chemiluminescence (glowing due to a cold chemical reaction), not phosphorescence (re-emitting light that previously fell onto a substance and excited it).
.Phosphorescence is the slow decay of a metastable electronic state to a lower energy state through emission of light.^ R Radiation : The movement of energy through any medium via heat, light or radio waves.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It gave the name to phosphorescence , which is the nonthermal emission of light after the stimulus has been removed, in distinction to fluorescence .
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is used in life-science laboratories in applications in which lower energy beta emissions are advantageous such as DNA sequencing.

The decay is slow because the transition from the excited to the lower state requires a spin flip, making it classically forbidden. Often it involves a transition from an excited triplet state to a singlet ground state. .The metastable excited state may have been populated by thermal excitations or some light source.^ This was burning, but the light is not due to thermal excitation.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For skin exposure, visualization of phosphorus particles may be enhanced under an ultraviolet (UV) light source (black light, Woods lamp).
  • The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systemic Agent: WHITE PHOSPHORUS 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that the wind conditions need to be considered both before and after the sampling, which may help to explain some, if any, problems that arise.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since phosphorescence is slow, it persists for some time after the exciting source is removed.^ Natural replenishment of phosphorus is very slow, since it is a scarce mineral, so all farming land, arable or grazing, becomes depleted in time.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus in bone is mobilized to some extent to maintain normal concentration in blood but at a slow rate since there is no direct mobilizing mechanism for phosphorus as there is for calcium.
  • CIR849/DS165: Phosphorus Nutrition and Excretion by Dairy Animals 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since that time, phosphorescence has been used to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning.

.In contrast, chemiluminescence occurs when the product molecules of a chemical reaction (HPO and P2O2 in this case) leave the reaction in an electronically excited state.^ Chemical Equilibrium : Concentrations of reactants and products at which a reaction is in balance; there is no net exchange because the rate of the forward reaction is taking place at the same rate of the reverse reaction.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen Bond: A type of chemical bond caused by electromagnetic forces, occurring when the positive pole of one molecule (e.g., water) is attracted to and forms a bond with the negative pole of another molecule (e.g., another water molecule).
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The triphenylphosphine oxide produced in reactions 1 & 3 is a very stable polar compound, and in most cases it is easily removed from the other products.
  • Chemical Reactivity 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.These excited molecules then release their excess energy in the form of light.^ It is found primarily in solid or liquid state and it plays a key role in DNA (the genetic material of most life) and the energy-releasing molecule ATP. .
  • Short-circuiting the Global Phosphorus Cycle | Worldwatch Institute 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO 4 3- plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural backbone of these molecules.

^ Respiration : The metabolic process by which organic carbon molecules are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water with a net release of energy.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

The frequency (colour) of the light emitted is proportional to the energy difference of the two electronic states involved.[8]

Allotropes

P4 molecule
Phosphorus has several forms (allotropes) that have strikingly different properties.[9] .The two most common allotropes are white phosphorus and red phosphorus.^ Very red urine, smelling of sulphur ; this deposited after two hours much thick white mucous sediment.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Red phosphorus is an intermediate phase between white and violet phosphorus. Another form, scarlet phosphorus, is obtained by allowing a solution of white phosphorus in carbon disulfide to evaporate in sunlight. Black phosphorus is obtained by heating white phosphorus under high pressures (about 12,000 atmospheres). In appearance, properties, and structure, it resembles graphite, being black and flaky, a conductor of electricity, and has puckered sheets of linked atoms. Another allotrope is diphosphorus; it contains a phosphorus dimer as a structural unit and is highly reactive.[10]
P4O10 molecule
White phosphorus has two forms, low-temperature β form and high-temperature α form. They both contain a phosphorus P4 tetrahedron as a structural unit, in which each atom is bound to the other three atoms by a single bond. This P4 tetrahedron is also present in liquid and gaseous phosphorus up to the temperature of 800 °C when it starts decomposing to P2 molecules.[11] White phosphorus is the least stable, the most reactive, more volatile, less dense, and more toxic than the other allotropes. .The toxicity of white phosphorus led to its discontinued use in matches.^ White phosphorus is extremely toxic.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is useful for making phosphorus compounds, and in matches.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have always used white phosphorus to kill them.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

White phosphorus is thermodynamically unstable at normal condition and will gradually change to red phosphorus. .This transformation, which is accelerated by light and heat, makes white phosphorus almost always contain some red phosphorus and therefore appear yellow.^ Red phosphorus is produced by heating white phosphorus in an airtight container.

^ We have always used white phosphorus to kill them.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, it is also known as yellow phosphorus.
  • Public Health Statement for White Phosphorus - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, it is also called yellow phosphorus.^ White phosphorus usually has a yellow tinge due to small amounts of red phosphorus, so it is sometimes called yellow phosphorus .
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus occurs in at least 10 allotropic forms, the most common (and reactive) of which is so-called White (or Yellow ) Phosphorus which looks like a waxy solid or plastic.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The three main allotropes are named for their colors: white phosphorus (also called yellow phosphorus), red phosphorus, and black phosphorus (also called violet phosphorus).
  • Phosphorus, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and naming, Physical properties, Chemical properties, Occurrence in nature, Isotopes 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It glows greenish in the dark (when exposed to oxygen), is highly flammable and pyrophoric (self-igniting) upon contact with air as well as toxic (causing severe liver damage on ingestion). Because of pyrophoricity, white phosphorus is used as an additive in napalm. The odour of combustion of this form has a characteristic garlic smell, and samples are commonly coated with white "(di)phosphorus pentoxide", which consists of P4O10 tetrahedra with oxygen inserted between the phosphorus atoms and at their vertices. .White phosphorus is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide.^ WATER SOLUBILITY Phosphorus is moderately soluble in water.
  • NDCRT Home Page 18 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.ndcrt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This non metal is not soluble in water , but it is soluble in carbon disulfide.

^ Water: White phosphorus can be used to contaminate water.
  • The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systemic Agent: WHITE PHOSPHORUS 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.The white allotrope can be produced using several different methods.^ The white allotrope can be produced using several different methods.

^ White, red and black: allotropes of phosphorus Phosphorus is one of the non-metals that shows distinctive allotropy: different forms of the same element but with different physical and chemical properties.
  • Phosphorus: fire from urine 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus forms several sulphides, among them P 4 S 3 , used as a fuel in pyrotechnic mixtures, such as in the tip of a strike-anywhere match, where it replaces the dangerous white phosphorus.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica.[13] .Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine.
Crystal structure of red phosphorus
In the red phosphorus, one of the P4 bonds is broken, and one additional bond is formed with a neighbouring tetrahedron resulting in a more chain-like structure. Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250 °C (482 °F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight.[4] Phosphorus after this treatment exists as an amorphous network of atoms that reduces strain and gives greater stability; further heating results in the red phosphorus becoming crystalline. Therefore red phosphorus is not a certain allotrope, but rather an intermediate phase between the white and violet phosphorus, and most of its properties have a range of values. Red phosphorus does not catch fire in air at temperatures below 260 °C, whereas white phosphorus ignites at about 30 °C.[14]
Violet phosphorus is a thermodynamic stable form of phosphorus that can be produced by day-long temper of red phosphorus above 550 °C. In 1865, Hittorf discovered that when phosphorus was recrystallized from molten lead, a red/purple form is obtained. Therefore this form is sometimes known as "Hittorf's phosphorus" (or violet or α-metallic phosphorus).[10]
Crystal structure of black phosphorus
Black phosphorus is the least reactive allotrope and the thermodynamic stable form below 550 °C. It is also known as β-metallic phosphorus and has a structure somewhat resembling that of graphite.[15][16] High pressures are usually required to produce black phosphorus, but it can also be produced at ambient conditions using metal salts as catalysts.[17]
The diphosphorus allotrope, P2, is stable only at high temperatures. The dimeric unit contains a triple bond and is analogous to N2. The diphosphorus allotrope (P2) can be obtained normally only under extreme conditions (for example, from P4 at 1100 kelvin). Nevertheless, some advancements were obtained in generating the diatomic molecule in homogeneous solution, under normal conditions with the use by some transitional metal complexes (based on, for example, tungsten and niobium).[18]
Properties of some allotropes of phosphorus[9][10]
Form white(α) white(β) violet black
Symmetry Body-centred cubic Triclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic
Pearson symbol aP24 mP84 oS8
Space group I43m P1 No.2 P2/c No.13 Cmca No.64
Density (g/cm3) 1.828 1.88 2.36 2.69
Bandgap (eV) 2.1 1.5 0.34
Refractive index 1.8244 2.6 2.4

Isotopes

Although twenty-three isotopes of phosphorus are known[19] (all possibilities from 24P up to 46P), only 31P, with spin 1/2, is stable and is therefore present at 100% abundance. The half-integer spin and high abundance of 31P make it useful for nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biomolecules, particularly DNA.
Two radioactive isotopes of phosphorus have half-lives that make them useful for scientific experiments. .32P has a half-life of 14.262 days and 33P has a half-life of 25.34 days.^ Phosphorus-32 is a beta-emitter (1.71 MeV) with a half-life of 14.3 days.

^ Phosphorus-33 is a beta-emitter (0.25 MeV) with a half-life of 25.4 days.

^ Radioactive isotopes of phosphorus include: 32 P; a beta-emitter (1.71 MeV) with a half-life of 14.3 days which is used routinely in life-science laboratories, primarily to produce radiolabeled DNA and RNA probes, e.g.

Biomolecules can be "tagged" with a radioisotope to allow for the study of very dilute samples.
Radioactive isotopes of phosphorus include
  • 32P, a beta-emitter (1.71 MeV) with a half-life of 14.3 days, which is used routinely in life-science laboratories, primarily to produce radiolabeled DNA and RNA probes, e.g. for use in Northern blots or Southern blots. Because the high energy beta particles produced penetrate skin and corneas, and because any 32P ingested, inhaled, or absorbed is readily incorporated into bone and nucleic acids, Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, and similar institutions in other developed countries require that a lab coat, disposable gloves, and safety glasses or goggles be worn when working with 32P, and that working directly over an open container be avoided in order to protect the eyes. Monitoring personal, clothing, and surface contamination is also required. In addition, due to the high energy of the beta particles, shielding this radiation with the normally used dense materials (e.g. lead), gives rise to secondary emission of X-rays via a process known as Bremsstrahlung, meaning braking radiation. Therefore shielding must be accomplished with low density materials, e.g. Plexiglas, Lucite, plastic, wood, or water.[20]
  • 33P, a beta-emitter (0.25 MeV) with a half-life of 25.4 days. It is used in life-science laboratories in applications in which lower energy beta emissions are advantageous such as DNA sequencing.

Chemical properties

Chemical bonding

.Because phosphorus is just below nitrogen in the periodic table, the two elements share many of their bonding characteristics.^ Since the two elements are combined in bone, the mobilization of calcium, as a result of parathyroid gland action, is accompanied by the incidental mobilization of phosphorus.
  • CIR849/DS165: Phosphorus Nutrition and Excretion by Dairy Animals 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Periodic Table of Elements Provides comprehensive data for each element of the periodic table of elements including up to 40 properties, names in 10 languages and common chemical compounds.
  • Chemical Database: Phosphorous Acid (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) 18 September 2009 11:50 UTC environmentalchemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The periodic table is a chart that that shows how chemical elements are related to each other.
  • Phosphorus, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and naming, Physical properties, Chemical properties, Occurrence in nature, Isotopes 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, phosphine, PH3, is an analogue of ammonia, NH3.^ Phosphorus forms phosphine , PH 3 , which is more like arsine than ammonia.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is trivalent in this molecule.
The "trivalent" or simple 3-bond view is the pre-quantum mechanical Lewis structure, which although somewhat of a simplification from a quantum chemical point of view, illustrates some of the distinguishing chemistry of the element. In quantum chemical valence bond theory, the valence electrons are seen to be in mixtures of four s and p atomic orbitals, so-called hybrids. In this view, the three unpaired electrons in the three 3p orbitals combine with the two electrons in the 3s orbital to form three electron pairs of opposite spin, available for the formation of three bonds. The remaining hybrid orbital contains two paired non-bonding electrons, which show as a lone pair in the Lewis structure.
The phosphorus cation is very similar to the nitrogen cation. In the same way that nitrogen forms the tetravalent ammonium ion, phosphorus can form the tetravalent phosphonium ion, and form salts such as phosphonium iodide [PH4]+[I ].
.Like other elements in the third or lower rows of the periodic table, phosphorus atoms can expand their valence to make penta- and hexavalent compounds.^ It is useful for making phosphorus compounds, and in matches.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table .
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Elemental phosphorus is phosphorus as an element, not combined with other elements.
  • Phosphorus, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and naming, Physical properties, Chemical properties, Occurrence in nature, Isotopes 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The phosphorus chloride molecule is an example. When the phosphorus ligands are not identical, the more electronegative ligands are located in the apical positions and the least electronegative ligands are located in the axial positions.
With strongly electronegative ions, in particular fluorine, hexavalency as in PF6 occurs as well. This octahedral ion is isoelectronic with SF6. .In the bonding the six octahedral sp3d2 hybrid atomic orbitals play an important role.^ Sediments play an important role in the overall cycling of nutrients in freshwater system such as lakes and reservoirs.
  • Phoslock is a modified clay product which is capable of efficiently removing phosphorus from natural and industrial waterways, process waters & waste water streams. 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.phoslock.com.au [Source type: Academic]

Before extensive computer calculations were feasible, it was generally assumed that the nearby d orbitals in the n = 3 shell were the obvious cause of the difference in binding between nitrogen and phosphorus (i.e., phosphorus had 3d orbitals available for 3s and 3p shell bonding electron hybridisation, but nitrogen did not). However, in the early eighties the German theoretical chemist Werner Kutzelnigg[21] found from an analysis of computer calculations that the difference in binding is more likely due to differences in character between the valence 2p and valence 3p orbitals of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. .The 2s and 2p orbitals of first row atoms are localized in roughly the same region of space, while the 3p orbitals of phosphorus are much more extended in space.^ Look at the algae forming on a local farm pond, for example, and you're seeing the result of a process-the phosphorus cycle-that extends far beyond that farm.
  • Short-circuiting the Global Phosphorus Cycle | Worldwatch Institute 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus is a third row element, and has five empty 2d-orbitals that may be used for p-d bonding in a fashion similar to p-p (π) bonding.
  • Chemical Reactivity 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ That means there is more phosphorus in a lake and that, in turn, means that algae begin to grow much faster.
  • Phosphorus, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and naming, Physical properties, Chemical properties, Occurrence in nature, Isotopes 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The violation of the octet rule observed in compounds of phosphorus is then due to the size of the phosphorus atom, and the corresponding reduction of steric hindrance between its ligands. In modern theoretical chemistry, Kutzelnigg's analysis is generally accepted.
The simple Lewis structure for the trigonal bipyramidal PCl5 molecule contains five covalent bonds, implying a hypervalent molecule with ten valence electrons contrary to the octet rule.
An alternate description of the bonding, however, respects the octet rule by using 3-centre-4-electron (3c-4e) bonds. .In this model, the octet on the P atom corresponds to six electrons, which form three Lewis (2c-2e) bonds to the three equatorial Cl atoms, plus the two electrons in the 3-centre Cl-P-Cl bonding molecular orbital for the two axial Cl electrons.^ Febrile heat, in the afternoon from two to three, and from six to seven o'clock, especially in the face (aft.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

The two electrons in the corresponding nonbonding molecular orbital are not included because this orbital is localized on the two Cl atoms and does not contribute to the electron density on the phosphorus atom. (However, it should always be remembered that the octet rule is not some universal rule of chemical bonding, and while many compounds obey it, there are many elements to which it does not apply).

Phosphine, diphosphine and phosphonium salts

Phosphine (PH3) and arsine (AsH3) are structural analogues with ammonia (NH3) and form pyramidal structures with the phosphorus or arsenic atom in the centre bound to three hydrogen atoms and one lone electron pair. Both are colourless, ill-smelling, toxic compounds. Phosphine is produced in a manner similar to the production of ammonia. Hydrolysis of calcium phosphide, Ca3P2, or calcium nitride, Ca3N2 produces phosphine or ammonia, respectively. .Unlike ammonia, phosphine is unstable and it reacts instantly with air giving off phosphoric acid clouds.^ With water it gives phosphoric and hydrochloric acids.

^ Exposure to air gives phosphorous and phosphoric acids, and on heating it gives phosphine and phosphoric acid.

^ Water gives hydrofluoric and phosphoric acids.

Arsine is even less stable. Although phosphine is less basic than ammonia, it can form some phosphonium salts (like PH4I), analogues of ammonium salts, but these salts immediately decompose in water and do not yield phosphonium (PH4+) ions. Diphosphine (P2H4 or H2P-PH2) is an analogue of hydrazine (N2H4) that is a colourless liquid that spontaneously ignites in air and can disproportionate into phosphine and complex hydrides.

Halides

The trihalides PF3, PCl3, PBr3 and PI3 and the pentahalides, PCl5 and PBr5 are all known and mixed halides can also be formed. The trihalides can be formed simply by mixing the appropriate stoichiometric amounts of phosphorus and a halogen. For safety reasons, however, PF3 is typically made by reacting PCl3 with AsF5 and fractional distillation because the direct reaction of phosphorus with fluorine can be explosive. The pentahalides, PX5, are synthesized by reacting excess halogen with either elemental phosphorus or with the corresponding trihalide. .Mixed phosphorus halides are unstable and decompose to form simple halides.^ Phosphorus forms halides like PCl 3 and PCl 5 .
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It decomposes when heated, hydrogen and red phosphorus being formed.

Thus 5PF3Br2 decomposes into 3PF5 and 2PBr5.

Oxides and oxyacids

Phosphorus(III) oxide, P4O6 (also called tetraphosphorus hexoxide) and phosphorus(IV) oxide, P4O10 (or tetraphosphorus decoxide) are acid anhydrides of phosphorus oxyacids and hence readily react with water. P4O10 is a particularly good dehydrating agent that can even remove water from nitric acid, HNO3. .The structure of P4O6 is like that of P4 with an oxygen atom inserted between each of the P-P bonds.^ Bonding of sulfur to the alcohol oxygen atom then follows.
  • Chemical Reactivity 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Covalent: Refers to the chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The structure of P4O10 is like that of P4O6 with the addition of one oxygen bond to each phosphorus atom via a double bond and protruding away from the tetrahedral structure.^ A small quantity of the phosphorus combines with the oxygen in the vessel, and after this the operation is practically conducted in an atmosphere of nitrogen with the additional safety from any risk of explosion.

^ October 9, 2008 - 7:53pm Like you say, we can't "run out" of phosphorus atoms, because the atoms never leave our planet.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus can form a diatomic molecule P 2 with a triple bond, like N 2 , but only at higher temperatures and in the gas phase.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Phosphorous oxyacids can have acidic protons bound to oxygen atoms and nonacidic protons that are bonded directly to the phosphorus atom. Although many oxyacids of phosphorus are formed, only six are important (see table), and three of them, hypophosphorous acid, phosphorous acid and phosphoric acid are particularly important ones.
Oxidation state Formula Name Acidic protons Compounds
+1 H3PO2 hypophosphorous acid 1 acid, salts
+3 H3PO3 (ortho)phosphorous acid 2 acid, salts
+5 (HPO3)n metaphosphoric acids n salts (n=3,4)
+5 H5P3O10 triphosphoric acid 3 salts
+5 H4P2O7 pyrophosphoric acid 4 acid, salts
+5 H3PO4 (ortho)phosphoric acid 3 acid, salts

Spelling and etymology

The name Phosphorus in Ancient Greece was the name for the planet Venus and is derived from the Greek words (φως = light, φορέω = carry), which roughly translates as light-bringer or light carrier.[4] (In Greek mythology, Hesperus (evening star) and Eosphorus (dawnbearer) are close homologues, and also associated with Phosphorus-the-planet).
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the correct spelling of the element is phosphorus. The word phosphorous is the adjectival form of the P3+ valence: so, just as sulfur forms sulfurous and sulfuric compounds, phosphorus forms phosphorous compounds (see, e.g., phosphorous acid) and P5+ valency phosphoric compounds (see, e.g., phosphoric acids and phosphates).

History and discovery

.The discovery of phosphorus is credited to the German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669, although other chemists might have discovered phosphorus around the same time.^ In cases where the potentized phosphorus was homopathically indicated, it also removed the following ailments if they happened to be present at the same time.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] Brand experimented with urine, which contains considerable quantities of dissolved phosphates from normal metabolism.[4] Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to create the fabled philosopher's stone through the distillation of some salts by evaporating urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark and burned brilliantly. His process originally involved letting urine stand for days until it gave off a terrible smell. Then he boiled it down to a paste, heated this paste to a high temperature, and led the vapours through water, where he hoped they would condense to gold. .Instead, he obtained a white, waxy substance that glowed in the dark.^ The phosphorus used in the British pharma copoeia is obtained from calcium phosphate, and is a waxlike non-metallic substance soluble in oils and luminous in the dark.

.Brand had discovered phosphorus, the first element discovered since antiquity.^ The element appears to have been first obtained in 1669 by Brand of Hamburg ; Krafft bought his secret and in 1677 exhibited specimens in England , where it created an immense sensation.

^ These appear to be the first matches, but they were only a curiosity, since the phosphorus paper had to be fresh, and was inconvenient to prepare from the rare substance.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

We now know that Brand produced ammonium sodium hydrogen phosphate, (NH4)NaHPO4. While the quantities were essentially correct (it took about 1,100 L of urine to make about 60 g of phosphorus), it was unnecessary to allow the urine to rot. Later scientists would discover that fresh urine yielded the same amount of phosphorus.
Since that time, phosphors and phosphorescence were used loosely to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning. However, as mentioned above, even though the term phosphorescence was originally coined as a term by analogy with the glow from oxidation of elemental phosphorus, is now reserved for another fundamentally different process—re-emission of light after illumination.
Brand at first tried to keep the method secret,[23] but later sold the recipe for 200 thaler to D Krafft from Dresden,[4] who could now make it as well, and toured much of Europe with it, including England, where he met with Robert Boyle. The secret that it was made from urine leaked out and first Johann Kunckel (1630–1703) in Sweden (1678) and later Boyle in London (1680) also managed to make phosphorus. Boyle states that Krafft gave him no information as to the preparation of phosphorus other than that it was derived from "somewhat that belonged to the body of man". This gave Boyle a valuable clue, however, so that he, too, managed to make phosphorus, and published the method of its manufacture.[4] Later he improved Brand's process by using sand in the reaction (still using urine as base material),
4 NaPO3 + 2 SiO2 + 10 C → 2 Na2SiO3 + 10 CO + P4
Robert Boyle was the first to use phosphorus to ignite sulfur-tipped wooden splints, forerunners of our modern matches, in 1680.
In 1769 Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is found in bones, and they obtained phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.[24] Bone ash was the major source of phosphorus until the 1840s. Phosphate rock, a mineral containing calcium phosphate, was first used in 1850 and following the introduction of the electric arc furnace in 1890, this became the only source of phosphorus. .Phosphorus, phosphates and phosphoric acid are still obtained from phosphate rock.^ Most phosphorus is obtained from mining phosphate rock.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A multiple buffered phosphorus fertilizer comprising: (i) a first buffer system comprising a phosphorous acid and a salt of a phosphorous acid; and .
  • Formulation of phosphorus fertilizer for plants (US7160349) 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

.Phosphate rock is a major feedstock in the fertilizer industry.^ Not all phosphate rocks are used for production of fertilizers.
  • Phosphorus Matters | Permaculture Research Institute of Australia 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC permaculture.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philip H. Abelson writes in Science : The current major use of phosphate is in fertilizers.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem with the lack of phosphate fertilizers does not start, however, when all phosphate rock reserves are gone.
  • Phosphorus Matters | Permaculture Research Institute of Australia 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC permaculture.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early matches used white phosphorus in their composition, which was dangerous due to its toxicity.^ We have always used white phosphorus to kill them.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ The old French oil of turpentine is the best antidote to use in phosphorus poisoning, delaying the toxic effects; but ordinary oils are not only useless but harmful.

^ Let’s subpoena God and see what he has to say about the use of White Phosphorus.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

Murders, suicides and accidental poisonings resulted from its use. .(An apocryphal tale tells of a woman attempting to murder her husband with white phosphorus in his food, which was detected by the stew giving off luminous steam).^ During lactation, the phosphorus economy of a woman does not differ detectably from the nonlactating state.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[7] .In addition, exposure to the vapours gave match workers a severe necrosis of the bones of the jaw, the infamous "phossy jaw". When a safe process for manufacturing red phosphorus was discovered, with its far lower flammability and toxicity, laws were enacted, under the Berne Convention (1906), requiring its adoption as a safer alternative for match manufacture.^ Tearing in the jaw-bones, in the evening when lying down ; it is quiescent while eating and moving the lower jaw.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Occurrence

.Due to its reactivity with air and many other oxygen-containing substances, phosphorus is not found free in nature but it is widely distributed in many different minerals.^ Due to its high reactivity, Phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is usually found in nature combined with oxygen as phosphate.

^ Due to its reactivity to air and many other Oxygen containing substances, Phosphorus is not found free in nature but it is widely distributed in many different minerals.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

Phosphate rock, which is partially made of apatite (an impure tri-calcium phosphate mineral), is an important commercial source of this element. .About 50 percent of the global phosphorus reserves are in the Arab nations.^ Only about 50% of the phosphorus from phytate is available to humans because we lack enzymes (phytases) that liberate it from phytate ( 8 ).

^ Although there is not much phosphorus on Earth (only about 0.1 percent of the Earth's crust is phosphorus), it is an essential nutrient for all life forms on our planet.
  • Short-circuiting the Global Phosphorus Cycle | Worldwatch Institute 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These uses account for about 10 percent of all the phosphorus produced.
  • Phosphorus, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and naming, Physical properties, Chemical properties, Occurrence in nature, Isotopes 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] Large deposits of apatite are located in China, Russia, Morocco, Florida, Idaho, Tennessee, Utah, and elsewhere. Albright and Wilson in the United Kingdom and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Connetable, Tennessee and Florida; by 1950 they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa.[13] In the early 1990s Albright and Wilson's purified wet phosphoric acid business was being adversely affected by phosphate rock sales by China and the entry of their long-standing Moroccan phosphate suppliers into the purified wet phosphoric acid business.[26]
.In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years.^ In the literature, estimates before we "run out" of phosphorus range from 50 to 130 years .
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yellow phosphorus industry has developed rapidly in China in the past few years with the average capacity growth rate of 16.94% annually during ...
  • Yellow Phosphorus, China Yellow Phosphorus, Yellow Phosphorus Manufacturers, China Yellow Phosphorus Suppliers 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.made-in-china.com [Source type: Academic]

^ August 18, 2007 - 9:23pm we're running out of nothing.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years."^ Reserves in the U.S. are calculated to be depleted within 30 years.
  • Phosphorus Matters II – Keeping Phosphorus on Farms | Permaculture Research Institute of Australia 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC permaculture.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. .
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As far as I know, the handful of studies done this year and last are the first that apply the "peak" idea to phosphorus.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]

Production

.White phosphorus was first made commercially, for the match industry in the 19th century, by distilling off phosphorus vapour from precipitated phosphates, mixed with ground coal or charcoal, which was heated in an iron pot, in retort.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .The precipitated phosphates were made from ground-up bones that had been de-greased and treated with strong acids.^ It consists of ground up bone and scales that aren't digestible to most fish.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precipitation of Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate in the Presence of Organic Acids” Soil Science Society of America Jour .
  • Formulation of phosphorus fertilizer for plants (US7160349) 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

Carbon monoxide and other flammable gases produced during the reduction process were burnt off in a flare stack.
This process became obsolete when the submerged-arc furnace for phosphorus production was introduced to reduce phosphate rock.[30][31] Calcium phosphate (phosphate rock), mostly mined in Florida and North Africa, can be heated to 1,200–1,500 °C with sand, which is mostly SiO2, and coke (impure carbon) to produce vaporized tetraphosphorus, P4, (melting point 44.2 °C), which is subsequently condensed into a white powder under water to prevent oxidation. Even under water, white phosphorus is slowly converted to the more stable red phosphorus allotrope (melting point 597 °C). .Both the white and red allotropes of phosphorus are insoluble in water.^ Water: White phosphorus can be used to contaminate water.
  • The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systemic Agent: WHITE PHOSPHORUS 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White Phosphorus is insoluble in water but soluble in Carbon Disulfide, CS 2 .
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Elemental Phosphorus as prepared artificially exists in several allotropes, most commonly white, red and black.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

.The electric furnace method allowed production to increase to the point where phosphorus could be used in weapons of war.^ October 10, 2008 - 6:26am While we may not run out of phosphorus any time soon, supply could be interrupted, and prices could limit its use.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White phosphorus is a WEAPON. We use weapons to kill the enemy.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ In other words, the Pentagon does refer to white phosphorus rounds as chemical weapons — at least if they’re used by our enemies.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[7][13] In World War I it was used in incendiaries, smoke screens and tracer bullets.[13] A special incendiary bullet was developed to shoot at hydrogen-filled Zeppelins over Britain (hydrogen being highly inflammable if it can be ignited).[13] During World War II, Molotov cocktails of benzene and phosphorus were distributed in Britain to specially selected civilians within the British resistance operation, for defence; and phosphorus incendiary bombs were used in war on a large scale. Burning phosphorus is difficult to extinguish and if it splashes onto human skin it has horrific effects (see precautions below).[12]
.Today phosphorus production is larger than ever.^ However, tissue calcification virtually never occurs at ECF calcium × phosphorus ion products less than ~4 (mmol/liter)2 [~1 (mg/dl)2].
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In a future in which all phosphorus comes from renewable sources and flow-rates are smaller than today, like oil, phosphorus efficiency will be the order of the day.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is used as a precursor for various chemicals,[32] in particular the herbicide glyphosate sold under the brand name Roundup. .Production of white phosphorus takes place at large facilities and it is transported heated in liquid form.^ It decomposes when heated, hydrogen and red phosphorus being formed.

^ Chemical Equilibrium : Concentrations of reactants and products at which a reaction is in balance; there is no net exchange because the rate of the forward reaction is taking place at the same rate of the reverse reaction.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hittorf's phosphorus is another crystalline allotrope formed by heating phosphorus with lead in a sealed tube to redness, and removing the lead by boiling the product with nitric and hydrochloric acid .

Some major accidents have occurred during transportation, train derailments at Brownston, Nebraska and Miamisburg, Ohio led to large fires. The worst accident in recent times was an environmental one in 1968 when phosphorus spilled into the sea from a plant at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland.[33]

Applications

Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. (The glass is used to increase the friction.)
Widely used compounds Use
Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O Baking powder & fertilizers
CaHPO4·2H2O Animal food additive, toothpowder
H3PO4 Manufacture of phosphate fertilizers
PCl3 Manufacture of POCl3 and pesticides
POCl3 Manufacturing plasticizer
P4S10 Manufacturing of additives and pesticides
Na5P3O10 Detergents
.Phosphorus, being an essential plant nutrient, finds its major use as a constituent of fertilizers for agriculture and farm production in the form of concentrated phosphoric acids, which can consist of 70% to 75% P2O5.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Global demand for fertilizers led to large increase in phosphate (PO43–) production in the second half of the 20th century. Due to the essential nature of phosphorus to living organisms, the low solubility of natural phosphorus-containing compounds, and the slow natural cycle of phosphorus, the agricultural industry is heavily reliant on fertilizers that contain phosphate, mostly in the form of superphosphate of lime. .Superphosphate of lime is a mixture of two phosphate salts, calcium dihydrogen phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2 and calcium sulfate dihydrate CaSO4•2H2O produced by the reaction of sulfuric acid and water with calcium phosphate.^ Now, phosphate rock is mined and treated with sulphuric acid to make superphosphate , through the reaction Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 2H 2 SO 4 + 5H 2 O → Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 ·2H 2 O + 2(CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O).
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chemical reactions are as follows: the treatment of the calcium phosphate with the acid gives phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4, which at a red heat loses water to give metaphosphoric acid, HP03; this at a white heat reacts with carbon to give hydrogen , carbon monoxide and phosphorus, thus: 2HP06+ 6C= H2 +6CO+P2.

^ Within the “ionic 90%,” approximately 5% exists as a divalent phosphate salt (Mg or Ca), 30% exists as a Na + salt, and 65% is free phosphate ion.
  • Calcium & Phosphorus Metabolism - R&D Systems 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.rndsystems.com [Source type: Academic]

  • Phosphorus is widely used to make organophosphorus compounds, through the intermediates phosphorus chlorides and two phosphorus sulfides: phosphorus pentasulfide, and phosphorus sesquisulfide.[13] Organophosphorus compounds have many applications, including in plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, extraction agents, and water treatment.[12]
  • Phosphorus is also an important component in steel production, in the making of phosphor bronze, and in many other related products.
  • Phosphates are utilized in the making of special glasses that are used for sodium lamps.[34]
  • Bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used in the production of fine china.[34]
  • Sodium tripolyphosphate made from phosphoric acid is used in laundry detergents in some countries, but banned for this use in others.[34]
  • .
  • Phosphoric acid made from elemental phosphorus is used in food applications such as some soda beverages.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
    • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The acid is also a starting point to make food grade phosphates.^ Some investigators are concerned about the increasing amounts of phosphates in the diet which can be attributed to phosphoric acid in soft drinks and phosphate additives in a number of commercially prepared foods ( 4,5 ).

    ^ Now, phosphate rock is mined and treated with sulphuric acid to make superphosphate , through the reaction Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 2H 2 SO 4 + 5H 2 O → Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 ·2H 2 O + 2(CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O).
    • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How quickly can “unconventional” low-grade phosphate supplies be brought online to replace dwindling conventional supplies, and how will we grow food in the interim?
    • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [13] These include mono-calcium phosphate that is employed in baking powder and sodium tripolyphosphate and other sodium phosphates[13]. .Among other uses these are used to improve the characteristics of processed meat and cheese.^ If we are really going to use these resources, we need to start now doing the hard work of setting up plants to recover the nutrients from sewage, or using whatever other process we decide to use.
    • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These characteristics are a result not only of natural forces but of human use of the land as well.
    • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These salts are used in processed foods for nonnutrient functions, such as moisture retention, smoothness, and binding.
    • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Others are used in toothpaste.[13] Trisodium phosphate is used in cleaning agents to soften water and for preventing pipe/boiler tube corrosion.
  • White phosphorus, called "WP" (slang term "Willie Peter") is used in military applications as incendiary bombs, for smoke-screening as smoke pots and smoke bombs, and in tracer ammunition. It is also a part of an obsolete M34 White Phosphorus US hand grenade. This multipurpose grenade was mostly used for signalling, smoke screens and inflammation; it could also cause severe burns and had a psychological impact on the enemy.[35][36]
  • Red phosphorus is essential for manufacturing matchbook strikers, flares,[13] safety matches, pharmaceutical grade and street methamphetamine, and is used in cap gun caps.
  • Phosphorus sesquisulfide is used in heads of strike-anywhere matches.[13]
  • In trace amounts, phosphorus is used as a dopant for n-type semiconductors.
  • 32P and 33P are used as radioactive tracers in biochemical laboratories (see Isotopes).

Biological role

.Phosphorus is a key element in all known forms of life.^ Phosphorus (as phosphate) is an essential constituent of all known protoplasm and its content is quite uniform across most plant and animal tissues.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Of all the elements of critical importance to plants, phosphorus is the least commonly found, and sources are rarely available locally.
  • Phosphorus Matters II – Keeping Phosphorus on Farms | Permaculture Research Institute of Australia 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC permaculture.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This form is called white phosphorus (it is actually colorless), and is the form phosphorus usually takes when it is reduced to the pure element.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO43– plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework of these molecules. Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). .Nearly every cellular process that uses energy obtains it in the form of ATP. ATP is also important for phosphorylation, a key regulatory event in cells.^ Denitrification : Anaerobic bacterial process metabolism in which nitrate is used instead of oxygen during the oxidation of organic carbon compounds to yield energy (respiration).
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabolism: The chemical and physical processes continually going on in living organisms and cells, by which the energy is provided for cellular processes and activities, and new material is assimilated to repair waste.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Photosynthesis : The process by which green plants convert carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) dissolved in water to sugars and oxygen using sunlight for energy.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. .Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones.^ Also, the parathyroid hormone along with vitamin D is involved in the mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bone.
  • CIR849/DS165: Phosphorus Nutrition and Excretion by Dairy Animals 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Acid phosphate salts (such as primary calcium phosphate, Ca(HPO 4 ) 2 ) are used in baking powder instead of tartaric acid, and basic salts (such as TSP) are used in cleaning powders.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This method was generally adopted until 1775, when Scheele prepared it from bones, which had been shown by Gahn in 1769 to contain calcium phosphate.

[12]
Every cell has a membrane that separates it from its surrounding environment. .Biological membranes are made from a phospholipid matrix and proteins, typically in the form of a bilayer.^ Structurally, phosphorus occurs as phospholipids, which are a major component of most biological membranes, and as nucleotides and nucleic acids.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Phospholipids are derived from glycerol, such that two of the glycerol hydroxyl (OH) protons have been replaced with fatty acids as an ester, and the third hydroxyl proton has been replaced with phosphate bonded to another alcohol.^ For these and other reasons, alternative mild and selective methods for transforming such alcohols by nucleophilic substitution of the hydroxyl group have been devised.
  • Chemical Reactivity 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The carboxyl group is an outstanding example of the interaction of two functional groups (hydroxyl and carbonyl) when they are bonded together.
  • Chemical Reactivity 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Combined with one proton, it becomes Bicarbonate, HCO3- and with two protons, Carbonic Acid.
  • Water on the Web | Resources | Glossary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[12]
An average adult human contains about 0.7 kg of phosphorus, about 85-90% of which is present in bones and teeth in the form of apatite, and the remainder in soft tissues and extracellular fluids (~1%). The phosphorus content increases from about 0.5 weight% in infancy to 0.65-1.1 weight% in adults. Average phosphorus concentration in the blood is about 0.4 g/L, about 70% of that is organic and 30% inorganic phosphates.[37] .A well-fed adult in the industrialized world consumes and excretes about 1-3 g of phosphorus per day, with consumption in the form of inorganic phosphate and phosphorus-containing biomolecules such as nucleic acids and phospholipids; and excretion almost exclusively in the form of urine phosphate ion.^ At night, uninterrupted well-remembered dreams about the business of the day.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After meals, almost every day, qualmishness and discomfort like nausea, about the stomach.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

.Only about 0.1% of body phosphate circulates in the blood, but this amount reflects the amount of phosphate available to soft tissue cells.^ About 86% of the phosphorus in cattle is found in the skeleton and teeth and the remainder in soft tissues.
  • CIR849/DS165: Phosphorus Nutrition and Excretion by Dairy Animals 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus a block of granite one metre cubed may contain 6 kg or more of calcium phosphate if only it were readily available after weathering.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abnormalities of red blood cells include a decrease in 2,3-DPG and adenosine triphosphate, resulting in depression of P 50 values with a decreased release of oxygen to peripheral tissue.
  • Serum Inorganic Phosphorus -- Clinical Methods -- NCBI Bookshelf 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.In medicine, low-phosphate syndromes are caused by malnutrition, by failure to absorb phosphate, and by metabolic syndromes that draw phosphate from the blood (such as re-feeding after malnutrition) or pass too much of it into the urine.^ Heaviness and trembling of the hands, on letting the arms hand down, with redness and swollen veins, with a sensation as if much blood rushed into them.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

.All are characterized by hypophosphatemia (see article for medical details), which is a condition of low levels of soluble phosphate levels in the blood serum, and therefore inside cells.^ When the serum phosphate level is abnormally low, the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 in the renal tubule of the kidney is stimulated, causing enhanced phosphate absorption from the intestine.
  • CIR849/DS165: Phosphorus Nutrition and Excretion by Dairy Animals 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Under low flow conditions whatever phosphate is freed in an anaerobic reaction should remain near the point of the catalysis and suppress further reaction.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, if urinary phosphate is low in the setting of low serum phosphate (i.e., if the urinary phosphate excretion is less than 3.2 mmol/day or the fractional excretion is less than 10%) then nonrenal causes should be investigated.
  • Serum Inorganic Phosphorus -- Clinical Methods -- NCBI Bookshelf 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Symptoms of hypophosphatemia include muscle and neurological dysfunction, and disruption of muscle and blood cells due to lack of ATP. Too much phosphate can lead to diarrhoea and calcification (hardening) of organs and soft tissue, and can interfere with the body's ability to use iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc.[38]
Phosphorus is an essential macromineral for plants, which is studied extensively in edaphology in order to understand plant uptake from soil systems. In ecological terms, phosphorus is often a limiting factor in many environments; i.e. the availability of phosphorus governs the rate of growth of many organisms. In ecosystems an excess of phosphorus can be problematic, especially in aquatic systems, see eutrophication and algal blooms.

Precautions

Hazard F.svg
Skull and crossbones.svg
.Organic compounds of phosphorus form a wide class of materials, some of which are extremely toxic.^ Leblanc stated that the average rate of movement of the phosphorus is significantly slowed, relative to other things such as chloride, or volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus forms measured as MRP are predominantly dissolved inorganic phosphorus, but also include phosphorus associated with small particles dissolved by the acid molybdate reagent, and some amount of organic phosphorus hydrolyzed during the analytical procedure.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Those other compounds (particularly silica and some organics) can pretty quickly foul the material and ruin it's capacity to remove phosphate.
  • Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fluorophosphate esters are among the most potent neurotoxins known. A wide range of organophosphorus compounds are used for their toxicity to certain organisms as pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) and weaponised as nerve agents. Most inorganic phosphates are relatively nontoxic and essential nutrients. For environmentally adverse effects of phosphates see eutrophication and algal blooms.[12]
.The white phosphorus allotrope should be kept under water at all times as it presents a significant fire hazard due to its extreme reactivity with atmospheric oxygen, and it should only be manipulated with forceps since contact with skin can cause severe burns.^ Internal chill, for several afternoons, for a half or a full hour, and at times a sensation as of hot water in the scrobiculus cordis and the back.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stitches in the right hypochondrium, and sometimes into it, at times with burning of the skin, which goes off by rubbing, or with a sensation as if it stuck fast there.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Severe shaking chill, at night, with four times purging ; then great heat and perspiration all over, and since then for several nights, perspiration before midnight.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Chronic white phosphorus poisoning leads to necrosis of the jaw called "phossy jaw". Ingestion of white phosphorus may cause a medical condition known as "Smoking Stool Syndrome".[39]
When the white form is exposed to sunlight or when it is heated in its own vapour to 250 °C, it is transmuted to the red form, which does not chemoluminesce in air. .The red allotrope does not spontaneously ignite in air and is not as dangerous as the white form.^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ One would not get the opportunity to eat or drink weaponized white phosphorus either, it ignites on contact with air.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus occurs in white (extremely dangerous), red (safer and common in matches) and black (rare, most stable) forms.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

Nevertheless, it should be handled with care because it reverts to white phosphorus in some temperature ranges and it also emits highly toxic fumes that consist of phosphorus oxides when it is heated.[12]
Phosphorus explosion
Upon exposure to elemental phosphorus, in the past it was suggested to wash the affected area with 2% copper sulfate solution to form harmless compounds that can be washed away. .According to the recent US Navy's Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries: FM8-285: Part 2 Conventional Military Chemical Injuries, "Cupric (copper(II)) sulfate has been used by U.S. personnel in the past and is still being used by some nations.^ So, since American troops have used land mines in the past, it’s still A-OK? Please enlighten us.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Just because WP was used in the past by American troops doesn’t make it any less of a chemical weapon now.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Any use of White Phosphorus against personnel is considered a war crime according to the the CWC. .
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

However, copper sulfate is toxic and its use will be discontinued. Copper sulfate may produce kidney and cerebral toxicity as well as intravascular hemolysis."[40]
The manual suggests instead "a bicarbonate solution to neutralize phosphoric acid, which will then allow removal of visible white phosphorus. Particles often can be located by their emission of smoke when air strikes them, or by their phosphorescence in the dark. In dark surroundings, fragments are seen as luminescent spots." Then, "Promptly debride the burn if the patient's condition will permit removal of bits of WP (white phosphorus) that might be absorbed later and possibly produce systemic poisoning. DO NOT apply oily-based ointments until it is certain that all WP has been removed. Following complete removal of the particles, treat the lesions as thermal burns."[note 1] .As white phosphorus readily mixes with oils, any oily substances or ointments are not recommended until the area is thoroughly cleaned and all white phosphorus removed.^ This is, for all intents and purposes, the result of White & Cordell’s model, however they use it to urge planning for a low-phosphorus future.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a future in which all phosphorus comes from renewable sources and flow-rates are smaller than today, like oil, phosphorus efficiency will be the order of the day.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not so white phosphorus: That has to be kept under water, or preferably not kept at all.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

US DEA List I status

Phosphorus can reduce elemental iodine to hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine.[41] .For this reason, two allotropes of elemental phosphorus—red phosphorus and white phosphorus—were designated by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as List I precursor chemicals under 21 CFR 1310.02 effective on November 17, 2001.[42] As a result, in the United States, handlers of red phosphorus or white phosphorus are subject to stringent regulatory controls pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act in order to reduce diversion of these substances for use in clandestine production of controlled substances.^ Very red urine, smelling of sulphur ; this deposited after two hours much thick white mucous sediment.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

[42][43][44]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This quote uses the word "phosphorescence", which is incorrect; WP, (white phosphorus), exhibits chemoluminescence upon exposure to air and if there is any WP in the wound, covered by tissue or fluids such as blood serum, it will not chemoluminesce until it is moved to a position where the air can get at it and activate the chemoluminescent glow, which requires a very dark room and dark adapted eyes to see clearly.

References

Notes

  1. ^ webelements
  2. ^ Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). "Phosphorus(I) Iodide:  A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds". Inorganic Chemistry 45: 6864. doi:10.1021/ic060186o. 
  3. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Parkes and Mellor, p. 717.
  5. ^ "Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956 - Presentation Speech by Professor A. Ölander (committee member)". http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1956/press.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  6. ^ "Phosphorus Topics page, at Lateral Science". http://www.lateralscience.co.uk/phos/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  7. ^ a b c Emsley, John (2000). The Shocking History of Phosphorus. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-39005-8. 
  8. ^ García-Campaña, Ana M.; Baeyens, Willy R. G. (2001). Chemiluminescence in analytical chemistry. CRC Press. pp. 2–12. ISBN 0824704649. http://books.google.com/books?id=-EPSISOfCxYC. 
  9. ^ a b A. Holleman, N. Wiberg (1985). "XV 2.1.3". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. de Gruyter. 
  10. ^ a b c Berger, L. I. (1996). Semiconductor materials. CRC Press. p. 84. ISBN 0849389127. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ty5Ymlg_Mh0C&pg=PA84. 
  11. ^ Simon, Arndt (1997). "On the Polymorphism of White Phosphorus". Chemische Berichte 130: 1235. doi:10.1002/cber.19971300911. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lewis R. Goldfrank, Neal Flomenbaum, Mary Ann Howland, Robert S. Hoffman, Neal A. Lewin, Lewis S. Nelson (2006). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 1486–1489. ISBN 0071437630. http://books.google.com/books?id=cvJuLqBxGUcC&pg=PA1487. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Threlfall, R.E. (1951). 100 years of Phosphorus Making: 1851 - 1951. Oldbury: Albright and Wilson Ltd. 
  14. ^ Parkes and Mellor, pp. 721-722.
  15. ^ A. Brown, S. Runquist (1965). "Refinement of the crystal structure of black phosphorus". Acta Crystallogr. 19: 684. doi:10.1107/S0365110X65004140. 
  16. ^ Cartz, L.;Srinivasa, S.R.;Riedner, R.J.;Jorgensen, J.D.;Worlton, T.G. (1979). "Effect of pressure on bonding in black phosphorus". Journal of Chemical Physics 71: 1718–1721. doi:10.1063/1.438523. 
  17. ^ Lange, Stefan; Schmidt, Peer and Nilges, Tom (2007). "Au3SnP7@Black Phosphorus: An Easy Access to Black Phosphorus". Inorg. Chem. 46: 4028. doi:10.1021/ic062192q. 
  18. ^ Piro, N. A. (2006). "Triple-Bond Reactivity of Diphosphorus Molecules". Science 313 (5791): 1276. doi:10.1126/science.1129630. PMID 16946068. 
  19. ^ "The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project". http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/P_iso.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  20. ^ "Occupational Safety & Environmental Health: Phsophorus-21". http://www.oseh.umich.edu/TrainP32.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  21. ^ Kutzelnigg, W. (1984). "Chemical Bonding in Higher Main Group Elements". Angewandte Chemie Int. (English) Ed. 23: 272–295. doi:10.1002/anie.198402721. http://web.uvic.ca/~chem421/ACIE_1984_Kutzelnigg_review.pdf. 
  22. ^ Beatty, Richard (2000). Phosphorus. Marshall Cavendish. p. 7. ISBN 0761409467. http://books.google.com/books?id=FHJIUJM1_JUC&pg=PA7. 
  23. ^ J. M. Stillman (1960). The Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry. New York: Dover. pp. 418–419. 
  24. ^ cf. "Memoir on Combustion in General" Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences 1777, 592-600. from Henry Marshall Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400–1900 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1952)
  25. ^ "Phosphate Rock: Statistics and Information". USGS. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/phosphate_rock/. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  26. ^ Podger, Hugh (2002). Albright & Wilson. The Last 50 years. Studley: Brewin Books. ISBN 1-85858-223-7 pp. 297–298.
  27. ^ "How Long Will it Last?". New Scientist 194 (2605): 38–39. May 26, 2007. ISSN 4079 0262 4079. 
  28. ^ Lewis, Leo (2008-06-23). "Scientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand". The Times. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/natural_resources/article4193017.ece. 
  29. ^ Threlfall (1951), Chapter V: The foundations:1844– 56: The phosphorus retort.
  30. ^ Threlfall (1951), Chapter VII: The second generation:1880– 1915: Part 1: The electric furnace.
  31. ^ Parkes and Mellor, pp. 718-720.
  32. ^ Aall C. H. (1952). "The American Phosphorus Industry". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 44 (7): 1520–1525. doi:10.1021/ie50511a018. 
  33. ^ "ERCO and Long Harbour". Memorial University of Newfoundland and the C.R.B. Foundation. http://www.heritage.nf.ca/law/erco.html. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  34. ^ a b c Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. 
  35. ^ "Obsolete hand grenades". GlobalSecurity.Org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-23-30/appe.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  36. ^ Dockery, Kevin (1997). Special Warfare Special Weapons. Chicago: Emperor's Press. ISBN 1-883-47600-3. 
  37. ^ Bernhardt, Nancy E.; Kasko, Artur M. (2008). Nutrition for the Middle Aged and Elderly. Nova Publishers. p. 171. ISBN 1604561467. http://books.google.com/books?id=ba_5OSsyS4YC&pg=PA171. 
  38. ^ Anderson, John J. B. (Apr 1996). "Calcium, Phosphorus and Human Bone Development". Journal of Nutrition 126 (4 Suppl.): 1153S–1158S. PMID 8642449. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/126/4_Suppl/1153S. 
  39. ^ "CBRNE - Incendiary Agents, White Phosphorus (Smoking Stool Syndrome)". http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic918.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  40. ^ "US Navy's Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries: FM8-285: Part 2 Conventional Military Chemical Injuries". http://www.vnh.org/FM8285/Chapter/chapter9.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  41. ^ Skinner, H.F. (1990). "Methamphetamine synthesis via hydriodic acid/red phosphorus reduction of ephedrine". Forensic Science International 48 (2): 123–134. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(90)90104-7. 
  42. ^ a b "66 FR 52670—52675". 17 October 2001. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2001_register&docid=01-26013-filed. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  43. ^ "21 CFR 1309". http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/21cfr1309_06.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  44. ^ "21 USC, Chapter 13 (Controlled Substances Act)". http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 

Sources

  • Emsley, John (2000). The Shocking history of Phosphorus. A biography of the Devil's Element. London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-76638-5.
  • Parkes, G.D. and Mellor, J.W. (1939). Mellor's Modern Inorganic Chemistry. London: Longman's Green and Co.
  • Threlfall, Richard E. (1951). The Story of 100 years of Phosphorus Making: 1851– 1951. Oldbury: Albright & Wilson ltd.

External links

.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PHOSPHORUS (Gr. caws, light, .(,-/) pety, to bear), the name originally given to any substance which possessed the property of phosphorescence, i.e. the power of shining in the dark, but now generally restricted to a non-metallic element, which was first known as Phosphorus mirabilis or igneus. This element is very widely distributed in nature in combination, but is never found free.^ Phosphorus mirabilis or igneus.

^ This element is very widely distributed in nature in combination, but is never found free.

^ Nitrogen Compounds.-Phosphorus pentachloride combines directly with ammonia, and the compound when heated to redness loses ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid and gives phospham, PN 2 H 4, a substance first described by Davy in 1811.

.In the mineral kingdom it is exceptionally abundant, forming large deposits of phosphates.^ In the mineral kingdom it is exceptionally abundant, forming large deposits of phosphates .

.It is also necessary to animal and vegetable life (see Manure).^ It is also necessary to animal and vegetable life (see Manure ).

.It occurs in the urine, blood, tissues, and bones of animals, calcium phosphate forming about 58% of bones, which owe their rigidity to its presence.^ It occurs in the urine, blood, tissues, and bones of animals, calcium phosphate forming about 58% of bones, which owe their rigidity to its presence.

^ There are some less concentrated forms of ruck phosphate though, and I'm thinking about green sand, which is called glauconite?
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The element appears to have been first obtained in 1669 by Brand of Hamburg; Krafft bought his secret and in 1677 exhibited specimens in England, where it created an immense sensation.^ The element appears to have been first obtained in 1669 by Brand of Hamburg ; Krafft bought his secret and in 1677 exhibited specimens in England , where it created an immense sensation.

.Its preparation was assiduously sought for, and Kunckel in 1678 and Boyle in 1680 succeeded in obtaining it by the same process as was discovered by Brand, i.e. by evaporating urine to dryness and distilling the residue with sand.^ The same should be true of biodiesel as well, though the purification process may not be as good as the distillation used in making ethanol.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This method was generally adopted until 1775, when Scheele prepared it from bones, which had been shown by Gahn in 1769 to contain calcium phosphate.^ Thus a block of granite one metre cubed may contain 6 kg or more of calcium phosphate if only it were readily available after weathering.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scheele treated bone ash with nitric acid, precipitated the calcium as sulphate, filtered, evaporated and distilled the residue with charcoal.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

" Nicolas and Pelletier improved the process by decomposing the bone-ash directly with sulphuric acid; whilst Fourcroy and Vauquelin introduced further economies. .In modern practice degreased bones (see Gelatin), or bone-ash which has lost its virtue as a filtering medium, &c., or a mineral phosphate is treated with sufficient sulphuric acid to precipitate all the calcium, the calcium sulphate filtered off, and the filtrate concentrated, mixed with charcoal, coke or sawdust and dried in a muffle furnace.^ Von Liebig was the first to discover that phosphate of lime in bone meal could be rendered more readily available to plants by treatment with sulfuric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica[1].
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phosphate ore (or matrix) is washed with sulfuric acid to dissolve out the calcium.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The product is then distilled from Stourbridge clay retorts, arranged in a galley furnace, previously heated to a red heat. The temperature is now raised to a white heat, and the product led by malleable iron pipes into condensing troughs containing water, when it condenses. The chemical reactions are as follows: the treatment of the calcium phosphate with the acid gives phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4, which at a red heat loses water to give metaphosphoric acid, HP03; this at a white heat reacts with carbon to give hydrogen, carbon monoxide and phosphorus, thus: 2HP06+ 6C= H2 +6CO+P2.
Electrothermal processes are also employed. .Calcium phosphate, mixed with sand and carbon, is fed into an electric furnace, provided with a closely fitting cover with an outlet leading to a condenser.^ In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica[1].
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the temperature of the furnace the silica (sand) attacks the calcium phosphate, forming silicate, and setting free phosphorus pentoxide, which is attacked by the carbon, forming phosphorus and carbon monoxide.^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ There are some less concentrated forms of ruck phosphate though, and I'm thinking about green sand, which is called glauconite?
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As phosphorus boils at 2 9 0°C. (554° F.), it is produced in the form of vapour, which, mingled with carbon monoxide, passes to the condenser, where it is condensed. It is then cast under water. The calcium silicate remains in the furnace in the form of a liquid slag, which may be run off, so that the action is practically continuous. .Kaolin may with advantage be used in addition to or in part substitution for sand, because the double silicate thus formed is more fusible than the single silicate of lime.^ Thus a block of granite one metre cubed may contain 6 kg or more of calcium phosphate if only it were readily available after weathering.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He explained that there may be more effective ways of lowering the phosphorus entering the pond, rather than trying to address the plume, which is likely the greatest contributor.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It takes more energy to go to orbit Mars than escape because you have to do an orbital insertion burn when you get there.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alternating current is generally used, the action not being electrolytic.^ August 19, 2007 - 1:07pm I used to not work for the MI company that f--ked up what is suppose to be the current generation of weather satelites.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the special advantages of the electrical over the older process is that the distilling vessels have a longer life, owing to the fact that they are not externally heated, and so subjected to a relatively high temperature when in contact with the corrosive slag formed in the process.^ Gaza besieged for 6 months without the minimum necessities for life and now they take the heat from those wicked race with their F-16.
  • The Zionist ‘Beast’ Attacks Gaza | Real Zionist News 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the local advantages, which include continuous solar energy (effectively unlimited free process heat) and ease of moving large masses.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica[1].
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Readman-Parker process (see Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1891, x. 445) appears to be very generally adopted. Readman, experimenting with a Cowles furnace in Staffordshire in 1888, patented his process, and in the same year Parker and Robinson, working independently, patented a similar one. The two inventors then cooperated, an experimental plant was run successfully, and the patents were taken over by the leading manufacturers. With the object of obtaining a valuable by-product in place of the slag produced in this furnace, several patentees (e.g. .Hilbert and Frank, Billaudot, Bradley and Jacobs, and others) have sought to combine the manufacture of calcium carbide and phosphorus by using only calcium phosphate and carbon, effecting direct reduction by carbon at a high temperature.^ About 70% to 80% of the phosphates are combined with calcium to help form bones and teeth, about 10% are found in muscle, and about 1% is in nerve tissue.

^ Induction of Systemic Resistance to rust in Vicia faba by Phosphate and EDTA: Effects of Calcium” Plant Pathology (1992) vol.
  • Formulation of phosphorus fertilizer for plants (US7160349) 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus a block of granite one metre cubed may contain 6 kg or more of calcium phosphate if only it were readily available after weathering.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The crude phosphorus is purified by melting under water and then filtering through animal black and afterwards through chamois leather, or by treating it, when molten, with chromic acid or a mixture of potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid; this causes the impurities to rise to the surface as a scum which can be skimmed off.^ Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'd presume ingredients include crushed limestone and dolomite (calcium, magnesium), glauconite greensand (potassium), gypsum (sulphur, clay breaking flocculant) and a phosphorus source.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also referred to the VOCs that appear to be travelling either through or under Ashumet Pond to Johns Pond, would the phosphorus leaving Ashumet Pond would potentially head in the direction of Johns Pond.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is usually sent on the market in the form of sticks, which were at one time prepared by sucking the molten material up glass tubes; but the dangers to the workmen and other disadvantages of this method have led to its replacement by a continuous process, in which the phosphorus leaves the melting-pot for a pipe surrounded by water, in which it solidifies and can be removed as a continuous rod.^ However if we waste phosphorus, we cannot replace it by any other source.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continual use of excessive quantities of manure on the soil may result in high phosphorus accumulation, which is considered as a potential nutrient loading to the surface water.
  • Agricultural Phosphorus Assessment in the Great Lakes Basin 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.iwr.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At one point I left the Jewish state, I evaded the Jewish hate mongering, I had become an opponent of the Jewish state and any other form of Jewish politics.
  • The Zionist ‘Beast’ Attacks Gaza | Real Zionist News 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

Table of contents

Properties

.When perfectly pure phosphorus is a white, transparent, waxy solid, but as usually prepared it is yellowish owing to the presence of the allotropic " red phosphorus," J. BBeseken (Abs.^ Phosphorus ------------------ The white allotrope can be produced using several different methods.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jour. Chem. Soc.,
1907, ii. .343, 760) prepares perfectly pure phosphorus by heating the crude product with chromic acid solution, washing and drying in a vacuum, first at 40°, then at 80°.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

.It remains colourless in vacuum tubes in the dark, but on exposure it rapidly turns yellow.^ Because white phosphorus turns yellow spontaneously on exposure to light.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

At 25° to 30° C. it is soft and flexible, but it hardens when strongly cooled, and can then only be cut with difficulty. The fracture is distinctly crystalline; large crystals, either regular dodecahedra or octahedra, may be obtained by crystallization from carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, &c., or by sublimation. It is a non-conductor of electricity. Its density at o° is 1.836; this regularly diminishes up to the melting-point, 44.3°, when a sudden drop occurs. Molten phosphorus is a viscid, oily, highly refractive liquid, which may be supercooled to 32° before solidification. It boils at 290°, forming a colourless vapour which just about the boiling-point corresponds in density to tetratomic molecules, P4; at 1500° to 1700°, however, Biltz and Meyer detected dissociation into P2 molecules. Beckmann obtained P4 molecules from the boiling-point of carbon bisulphide solutions, and Hertz arrived at the same conclusion from the lowering of the freezing-point in benzene solution; E. Paterno and Nasini, however, detected dissociation. .Phosphorus is nearly insoluble in water, but dissolves in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, benzene and oil of turpentine.^ Even in the anoxic zone, where there is no dissolved oxygen and there is high iron dissolved in the water, there is still plenty of iron oxide present, and the phosphorus is sorbing strongly there as well.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another approach to estimating the potential for secondary water quality impacts uses stoichiometric relationships between phosphorus, chlorophyll a, carbon, and dissolved oxygen (DO).
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Published ratios of phosphorus: chlorophyll a: carbon: oxygen demand were used to estimate the potential dissolved oxygen depletion of the lake's lower waters in response to the LSC phosphorus load ( Table 2.3.3-15 ).
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The element is highly inflammable, taking fire in air at 34° and burning with a bright white flame and forming dense white clouds of the pentoxide; in perfectly dry air or oxygen, however, it may be distilled unchanged, H. B. Baker showing that a trace of water vapour was necessary for combination to occur.^ If WP gets in low oxygen water or the soil it may very well remain lethal.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.When exposed to the air a stick of phosphorus undergoes slow combustion, which is revealed by a greenish-white phosphorescence when the stick is viewed in the dark.^ One would not get the opportunity to eat or drink weaponized white phosphorus either, it ignites on contact with air.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ We aren’t denying that we exposed a Pentagon document that describes White Phosphorus as a chemical weapon.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ White & Cordell (2008) Peak Phosphorus – the sequel to Peak Oil http://phosphorusfutures.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1...
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phenomenon was minutely studied by Boyle, who found that solutions in some essential oils (oil of cloves) showed the same character, whilst in others (oils of mace and aniseed) there was no phosphorescence.^ There are also no environmental or other restrictions.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the lake circulates naturally (late November through late May), there is no gradient in concentration of SRP or other chemicals between the intake and outfall.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But there are places with no other option - so 1/3 of a sec looks damn good.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also noticed a strong garlic-like odour, which we now know to be due to ozone. .Frederick Slare noticed that the luminosity increased when the air was rarefied, an observation confirmed by Hawksbee and Homberg, and which was possibly the basis of Berzelius's theory that the luminosity depended on the volatility of the element and not on the presence of oxygen.^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lampadius, however, showed that there was no phosphorescence in a Torricellian vacuum; and other experimenters proved that oxygen was essential to the process.^ There are also no environmental or other restrictions.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the lake circulates naturally (late November through late May), there is no gradient in concentration of SRP or other chemicals between the intake and outfall.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But there are places with no other option - so 1/3 of a sec looks damn good.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It depends on the partial pressure of the oxygen and also on temperature. .In compressed air at ordinary temperature there is no glowing, but it may be brought about by heating.^ When the lake circulates naturally (late November through late May), there is no gradient in concentration of SRP or other chemicals between the intake and outfall.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Again, in oxygen under ordinary conditions there is no phosphorescence, but if the gas be heated to 25° glowing occurs, as is also the case if the pressure be diminished or the gas diluted.^ Temperature in the outfall region will return to within 0.5C (0.9F) of background conditions within approximately 300 m (1,000 ft) of the outfall, under worst case (August) conditions.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The darker gray indicates the anoxic zone, where there are not only elevated levels of phosphorus, but no dissolved oxygen in the groundwater.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is also remarkable that many gases and vapours, e.g. Cl, Br, I,NH 3j N 2 0, N02, H 2 S, SO 2, CS2,, CH 4, C 2 H 4, inhibit the phosphorescence.
The theory of this action is not settled. It is certain that the formation of hydrogen peroxide and ozone accompany the glowing, and in 1848 Schonbein tried to demonstrate that it. depended on the ozone. E. Jungfleisch (Comptes rendus, 1905,. 140, p. .444) suggested that it is due to the combustion of an oxide more volatile than phosphorus, a view which appears to be supported by the observations of Scharff (Zeit.^ In some ways, the problem of peak phosphorus is more difficult than peak oil.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LSC system will not circulate that volume, nor transfer that mass load of phosphorus, more than a few days each month.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On an annual basis, Cayuga lake is a sink of phosphorus; more P is added to the lake than is lost through the outlet.
  • 2.3.3 Phosphorus and Productivity - Utilities and Energy Management - Cornell University 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.utilities.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

physik. Chem.,
1908, 62, p. 178) and of L. and E. Bloch (Comptes rendus, 1908, 1 47, p. 842).
The element combines directly with the halogens, sulphur and selenium, and most of the metals burn in its vapour forming phosphides. When finely divided it decomposes water giving hydrogen phosphide; it also reduces sulphurous and sulphuric' acids, and when boiled with water gives phosphine and hypophosphorous acid; when slowly oxidized under water it yields, hypophosphoric acid.

Allotropic Phosphorus

.Several allotropic forms of phosphorus have been described, and in recent years much work has been done towards settling their identities.^ Phosphorus ------------------ The white allotrope can be produced using several different methods.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When the ordinary form immersed in water is exposed to light, it gradually loses its transparency and becomes coated with a thin film. This substance was regarded as an allotrope, but since it is not. produced in non-aerated water it is probably an oxide. .More important is the so-called " red phosphorus," which is produced by heating yellow phosphorus to about 230 for 24 hours in an inert atmosphere, or in closed vessels to 300°, when the change is effected in a few minutes.^ Kind of like those quantum mechanical phenomena that you can't observe without changing: If you look at your white phosphorus too long, it will turn yellow.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ A few hours after dinner, squeamishness, as if about to swoon ; she had to sit down.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This black phosphorus was made by Max Whitby using the strange combination of heat and pressure needed to convert the red allotrope into black.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

E. Kopp in 1844 and B. C. Brodie in 1853 showed that a trace of iodine also expedited the change_ The same form is also produced by submitting ordinary phosphorus to the silent electric discharge, to sunlight or the ultraviolet light. Since this form does not inflame until heated to above 350°, it is manufactured in large quantities for consumption in the match industry. The process consists in heating yellow phosphorus in iron pots provided with air-tight lids, which,. however, bear a long pipe open to the air. .A small quantity of the phosphorus combines with the oxygen in the vessel, and after this the operation is practically conducted in an atmosphere of nitrogen with the additional safety from any risk of explosion.^ Nitrogen is present in large quantity in the atmosphere (78% of its composition).
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The product is ground under water, and any unchanged yellow form is eliminated by boiling with caustic soda, the product being then washed and dried and finally packed in tin boxes. The red variety is remarkably different from the yellow. .It is a dark red microcrystalline powder, insoluble in carbon bisulphide, oil of turpentine, &c., and having a density of 2.2. It is stable to air and light, and does not combine with oxygen until heated to above 350 in air or 260 in oxygen, forming the pentoxide.^ It's the form that glows in the dark because of the spontaneous reaction with air on its surface.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

It is also non-poisonous. When heated in a vacuum to 530 it sublimes, and on condensation forms microscopic needles.
.Hittorf's phosphorus is another crystalline allotrope formed by heating phosphorus with lead in a sealed tube to redness, and removing the lead by boiling the product with nitric and hydrochloric acid.^ Phosphorus comes in several allotropic forms.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus has all sorts of allotropes (different physical forms of the same element), which come in many colors: Red, black, and white being the only real ones (and white being the most dangerous by far).
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Violet phosphorus is a mixture of the red and black allotropes, quite unusual, and it was made by Max Whitby himself using one of the strange recipes of heat, pressure, and catalysts needed to transform phosphorus among its various crystal structures.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

It is also obtained by heating red phosphorus under pressure to 580°. It forms a lustrous, nearly black crystalline mass, composed of minute rhombohedra. G. E. Linck and P. Moller (Ber., 1908, 41, p. 1404) have affirmed that the product of the first process always contains lead. E. Cohen and J. Olie, Jun. (Abs. Jour. Chem. Soc., 1909, ii. 998) regard red phosphorus as a solid solution of the white in Hittorf's. but this is contradicted by .A. Stock (Ber., 1909, 42, 4510), who points out that ordinary red phosphorus melts at 605°-610°, whilst Hittorf's melts at 620°; moreover, the latter is less reactive than the former at high temperatures.^ The smoke created is phosphorus pentoxide, which is actually not particularly toxic, and it's said that the high temperature at which the white phosphorus is burning causes the smoke to rise rapidly, making it more suitable for signaling purposes than for creating a smoke screen.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ As we know from peak oil, this is the point at which problems begin - not when oil or phosphorus "run out."
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said that if that water can be pumped out when it has high levels of phosphorus, the loading of phosphorus in the pond can be reduced by taking out a relatively small volume of water.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another form was obtained by R. Schenck (Zeit. Elektrochem, 1905, ii. 117) as a scarlet amorphous powder by deposition of solutions of phosphorus in the tri-iodide, tribromide or sulphide (P 4 S 3). .It phosphoresces in ozone, but not in air, and is nonpoisonous; from its solution in alcoholic potash acids precipitate the hydride P 12 H 6, and when heated it is transformed into the red modification.^ This black phosphorus was made by Max Whitby using the strange combination of heat and pressure needed to convert the red allotrope into black.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Phosphorus in the Periodic Table 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Frequent rising of the heat from the back into the head, with redness of the face, in the afternoon, while sitting.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

It has been used in combination with potassium chlorate as a composition for matches to strike on any surface. Finally a black phosphorus was described by Thenard as formed by rapidly-cooling melted phosphorus.
.Phosphine (phosphoretted hydrogen), PH 31 a gas formed in the putrefaction of organic matter containing phosphorus, was obtained by Gengembre (Crell's Ann., 1789, i.^ If the detector is to respond to both nitrogen and phosphorus , then a minimum hydrogen flow is employed to ensure that the gas does not ignite at the jet.

^ It gives a strong response to organic compounds containing nitrogen and/or phosphorus .

^ Mixture The Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector (NPD) The nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD), is a highly sensitive but specific detector and evolved directly from the FID. It gives a strong response to organic compounds containing nitrogen and/or phosphorus .

450) by the action of potash upon phosphorus, the gas so prepared being spontaneously inflammable. .Some time later Davy, by heating phosphorous acid, obtained a phosphoretted hydrogen which was not spontaneously inflammable.^ For every ton of phosphoric acid produced, some 4.5 tons of gypsum is made.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These gases were considered to be distinct until Le Verrier (Ann. chim. phys., 1835 [2], 60, p. .174) showed that the inflammability of Gengembre's phosphine was due to small quantities of liquid phosphoretted hydrogen, P 2 H 4. Phosphine may be prepared by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with water (P 2 H 4 being formed simultaneously); by the decomposition of phosphorous and hypophosphorous acids when strongly heated; and by the action of solutions of the caustic alkalis on phosphorus: P4+3NaOH+3H20= PH3+3NaH2P02; hydrogen and P 2 H 4 are produced at the same time, and the gas may be freed from the latter substance by passing into a hydrochloric acid solution of cuprous chloride, and heating the solution, when pure phosphine is liberated (Riban, Comptes rendus, 58, p.^ Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the human body consists of mostly water, the reaction is usually fatal as toxic compounds are released at the same time as cells are consumed.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ The bead, which is heated by passing a current through the coil, is situated above the jet, and the helium-hydrogen mixture (produced by mixing the column carrier gas, helium with a separate stream of hydrogen) passes over it.

581). The pure gas may also be obtained by heating phosphonium iodide with caustic potash (A. W. Hofmann, Ber., 1871, 4, p. 200); by the decomposition of crystalline calcium phosphide or of aluminium phosphide with water (H. Moissan, Bull. soc. chim., 99 (3), 21, p. 926; Matignon, Comptes rendus , 1900, 130, p. 1391); and by the reduction of phosphorous acid with nascent hydrogen.
It is a colourless, extremely poisonous gas, possessing a characteristic offensive smell, resembling that of rotting fish. .It becomes liquid at-90° C., and solid at -133° C. (K. Olszewski, Monats., 1866, 7, 37) It is only slightly soluble in water, but is readily soluble in solutions of copper sulphate, hypochlorous acid, and acid solutions of cuprous chloride.^ He explained that when the iron gets reduced in the anoxic zone, it becomes ferrous iron, and is soluble in the water.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liquid calcium or Lime will raise the PH and make the "P" water soluble again.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aluminum starts becoming water soluble at 6.0 and lower.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It burns with a brightly luminous flame, and is spontaneously inflammable at about too° C. When mixed with oxygen it combines explosively if the mixture be under diminished pressure, and is violently decomposed by the halogens. It is also decomposed when heated with sulphur or with most metals, in the latter case with the liberation of hydrogen and formation of phosphide of the metal. It combines with the halide derivatives of boron and silicon to form, e.g. PH3.2BF31 2PH 3 =S1C1 4 (Besson, Comptes rendus, 1890, Ito, 80, pp. 240, 516; 1891, 113, p. 78), with the halogen acids to form phosphonium salts, PH 4 X (X=C1,Br,I), and with sodammonium and potassammonium to form PH 2 Na, PH 2 K (Joannis, Comptes rendus, 189x, 9, 557). It oxidizes slowly in air, and is a reducing agent. It decomposes when heated, hydrogen and red phosphorus being formed.
Liquid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 2 H 4, first obtained by P. Thenard (Comptes rendus, 1844, 18, p. .652) by decomposing calcium phosphide with warm water, the products of reaction being then passed through a U tube surrounded by a freezing mixture (see also L. Gattermann, Ber., 1890, 23, p.^ The bead, which is heated by passing a current through the coil, is situated above the jet, and the helium-hydrogen mixture (produced by mixing the column carrier gas, helium with a separate stream of hydrogen) passes over it.

1174). .It is a colourless liquid which boils at 57°-58° C. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether.^ Liquid calcium or Lime will raise the PH and make the "P" water soluble again.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is very unstable, being readily decomposed by heat or light. By passing the products of the decomposition of calcium phosphide with water over granular calcium chloride, the P 2 H 4 gives a new hydride, P1.2H6 and phosphine, the former being an odourless, canary-yellow, amorphous powder. When heated in a vacuum it evolves phosphine, and leaves an orange-red residue of a second new hydride, P 9 H 2 (A. Stock, W. Bottcher, and W. Lenger, Ber., 9 9, 4 39, 47, 2853).
Solid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 4 H 2, first obtained by Le Verrier (loc. cit.), is formed by the action of phosphorus trichloride on gaseous phosphine (Besson, Comptes rendus, 111, p. .972); by the action of water on phosphorus di-iodide and by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.^ He explained that the clean water causes phosphorus to come "off the sponge," resulting in a spike in phosphorus concentrations when there is nothing else there.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that the concentration of the phosphorus in the deep hole in the late summer/early fall is much higher than that seen in the pond water at Fisherman’s Cove.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blunt also reported that water level and phosphorus concentration transects will also be conducted.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a yellow solid, which is insoluble in water. It burns when heated to about 200° C. Oxidizing agents decompose it with great violence. When warmed with alcoholic potash it yields gaseous phosphine, hydrogen and a hypophosphite. It reduces silver salts.
Phosphonium Salts.-The chloride, PH 4 C1, was obtained as a crystalline solid by Ogier (Comptes rendus, 1879, 89, p. 705) by combining phosphine and hydrochloric acid gas under a pressure of from 14-20 atmospheres; it can also be obtained at -30° to -35° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure. It crystallizes in large transparent cubes, but rapidly dissociates into its constituents on exposure. The bromide, PH 4 Br, was first obtained by H. Rose (Pogg. Ann., 1832, 24, p. 151) from phosphine and hydrobromic acid; it also results when phosphorus is heated with hydrobromic acid to 100120° C. in sealed tubes (Damoiseau, Bull. soc. chim., 1881, 35, P 49). It crystallizes in colourless cubes, is deliquescent, and often inflames spontaneously on exposure to air. It is readily decomposed by water and also by carbonyl chloride (Besson, Comptes rendus, 1896, 122, p. 140): 6PH 4 Br + 50001 2 = 10HCl + 5C0 + 6HBr + 2PH 3 + P 4 H 2. The iodide, PH 4 I, first prepared by J. Gay-Lussac (Ann. chim. phys., 1814, 91, p. 14), is usually obtained by the action of water on a mixture of phosphorus and iodine (A. W. Hofmann, Ber., 1873, 6, p. 286). It is also prepared by the action of iodine on gaseous phosphine, or by heating amorphous phosphorus with concentrated hydriodic acid solution to 160° C. It crystallizes in large cubes and sublimes readily. It is a strong reducing agent. Water and the caustic alkalis readily decompose it with liberation of phosphine and the formation of iodides or hydriodic acid. It is also decomposed by carbonyl chloride (Besson, loc. cit.). 4PH41-+800012=16HC1+8C0+P214+2P.
.Just as the amines are derived from ammonia, so from phosphine are derived the primary, secondary and tertiary organic phosphines by the exchange of hydrogen for alkyl groups, and corresponding to the phosphonium salts there exists a series of organic phosphonium bases.^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The primary and secondary phosphines are produced when the alkyl iodides are heated with phosphonium iodide and zinc oxide to 150° C. (A. W. Hofmann, Ber., 7 4, 430, 605), thus: 2 RI + 2 PH 4 I + ZnO = 2 R PH2 HI + ZnI 2 + H20, 2R1 + PH 4 I + ZnO = R 2 PH HI + ZnI 2 + H 2 O. The reaction mixture on treatment with water yields the primary phosphine, the secondary phosphine being then liberated from its hydriodide by caustic soda. The tertiary phosphines, discovered by L. Thenard (Comptes rendus, 45, P 44; 47, 5, 892), are formed (together with the quaternary phosphonium salts) by heating alkyl iodides with phosphonium iodide to 150-180° C.: PH 4 I+3CH 3 I = P(CH3)3HI + 3HI; P(CH 3) 3 HI + CH 3 I = P(CH 3) 4 I + HI (see also Fireman, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1088). They are also formed by the interaction of phosphorus trichloride and zinc alkyls (Cahours and. Hofmann, Ann., 1857, 104, p. 1). 2PC13+3 (C2H5)2=3ZnC12+ 2P(C2H5)3.
Primary.
Secondary.
Tertiary.
Methyl.. .
- 14° C.
25° C.
40-42° C.
Ethyl.. .
5° C.
85° C.
128° C.
Isopropyl. .
41° C.
118° C.
Isobutyl.. .
62° C.
153° C.
215° C.
Isoamyl .
107° C.
210-215° C.
300° C.(?)
The primary and secondary phosphines are colourless compounds, and with the exception of methyl phosphine are liquid at ordinary temperature. They possess an unpleasant odour, fume on exposure to air, show a neutral reaction, but combine with acids to form salts. They oxidize very rapidly on exposure, in many cases being spontaneously inflammable. On oxidation with nitric acid the primary compounds give monoalkyl phosphinic acids, R PO(OH) 2r the secondary yielding dialkyl phosphinic acids, R 2 PO(OH). The primary phosphines are very weak bases, their salts with acids being readily decomposed by water. .The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.^ When the organisms die, they degrade "microbaly," and as a result, a lot of the phosphorus can be released back into the pond.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation and swelling of the left nipple and of the whole of the left breast, with great pains ; after 10 days it passes into suppuration.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On oxidation they yield phosphine oxides, R 3 P O. The quaternary phosphonium salts resemble the corresponding nitrogen compounds. They are stable towards aqueous alkalis, but on digestion with moist silver oxide yield the phosphonium hydroxides, which are stronger bases than the caustic alkalis. .They differ from the organic ammonium hydroxides in their behaviour when heated, yielding phosphine oxides and paraffin hydrocarbons: R4P OH=R3PO+RH. The boiling-points of some members of the series are shown in the table: The alkyl phosphinic acids are colourless crystalline compounds which are easily soluble in water and alcohol.^ They differ a bit on some minor issues, but I think the overall issue is not one of legality when using this weapon.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

They yield two series of salts, viz. RHM PO 3 and RM2P03 (M =metal). .The dialkyl phosphinic acids are also colourless compounds, the majority of which are insoluble in water.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

They yield only one series of salts.
.Oxides.-Phosphorus forms three well-defined oxides, P406, P204 and P205; two others, P 4 O and P 2 O, have been described.^ In this system, some of the phosphorus is going out the other side in a dissolved form – part of this investigation is to determine how significant that is.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even in the anoxic zone, where there is no dissolved oxygen and there is high iron dissolved in the water, there is still plenty of iron oxide present, and the phosphorus is sorbing strongly there as well.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These well clusters are designed to provide an understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the phosphorus plume.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phosphorus suboxide, P 4 O, is said to be formed, mixed with the other oxides, when the element is burnt in a limited supply of air or in pure oxygen under reduced pressure (E. Jungfleisch, Abs.^ October 10, 2008 - 6:26am While we may not run out of phosphorus any time soon, supply could be interrupted, and prices could limit its use.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

Jour. Chem. Soc.,
1907, ii. 761), and also when a solution of phosphorus in the trichloride or tribromide is exposed to light. .It is a yellow or red powder which becomes dark red on heating; it is stable in air, and can be heated to 300° without decomposition.^ Inordinate, almost blue redness of the cheeks, without sensation of heat, in the morning at eight o'clock.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Its existence, however, has been denied by A. Stock (Abs. Jour. Chem. Soc., 1910, ii. 121). The oxide P 2 0 was obtained by Besson (Comptes rendus, 1897, 124, p. 763; 1901, pp. 132, 1556) by heating a mixture of phosphonium bromide and phosphorus oxychoride in sealed tubes to 50°.
.Phosphorus oxide, P 4 0 6, discovered by Sage in 1777, is a product of the limited combustion of phosphorus in air.^ Leblanc stated that it was discovered that there is a zone within that plume that contained elevated levels of phosphorus, above the detection limit of 0.01 parts per million (ppm).
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be conveniently prepared by passing a rapid current of air over burning phosphorus contained in a combustion tube, and condensing the product in a metal condenser, from which it may be removed by heating the condenser to 50 0 -60° (Thorpe and Tutton, Jour.^ Apparently, phosphorus content of biodiesel is pretty low (around 1ppm); this may be because it is removed in the degumming step.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Chem. Soc.,
1890, pp. 545, 632; 1891, p. 1019). Jungfleisch has obtained it by carrying out the combustion with oxygen under reduced pressure, or diluted with an inert gas. It forms crystals, apparently monoclinic, which melt at 22.5° to a clear, colourless, mobile liquid of boiling-point 173-i°. Its specific gravity is 2.135 at 21°. Vapour density and cryoscopic determinations point to the double formula, P406. It is comparatively stable up to 200°, but when heated in a sealed tube to 440° it gives phosphorus and the tetroxide P204. It is unaffected by light when pure, but if phosphorus be present, even in minute quantity, it turns yellow and ultimately dark red. It oxidizes on exposure to air to the pentoxide, and with a brilliant inflammation when thrown into oxygen at 50 0 _60°. .It slowly reacts with cold water to form phosphorous acid; but with hot water it is energetically decomposed, giving much red phosphorus or the suboxide being formed with an explosive evolution of spontaneously inflammable phosphoretted hydrogen; phosphoric acid is also formed.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

With dilute alkalis phosphites are slowly formed, but with concentrated solutions the decomposition follows the same course as with hot water. .With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It combines violently with sulphur at 160° to form phosphorus sulphoxide, P406S4, which forms highly lustrous tetragonal plates (after sublimation), melting at 102° and boiling at 295°; it is decomposed by water .into sulphuretted hydrogen and metaphosphoric acid, the latter changing on standing into orthophosphoric acid.^ Orlando noted that it is known where the phosphorus is coming into Fisherman’s Cove, and asked why the water would not be treated in-pond at that point.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blunt then explained that phosphorus inactivation is a way to remove the phosphorus from the water column, where it is available for the algae, and to then isolate it in the sediments in a form that is not bioavailable.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sulphur trioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize phosphorus oxide, giving the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide, whilst sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 2, gives phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl chlorides, free sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Ammonia also reacts immediately, giving phosphorus diamide, P(OH)(NH2)2, and the corresponding ammonium salt. .Phosphorous oxide is very poisonous, and is responsible for the caries set up in the jaws of those employed in the phosphorus industries (see below).^ So if your pronouncement (which I reject) of how I succeed or fail is correct, I’m set up for failure by the very nature of things.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ My own initial response is that the Hamas has been set up, funded, and infiltrated by Mossad so as to present a pretext for ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians.
  • The Zionist ‘Beast’ Attacks Gaza | Real Zionist News 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For those interested in what I hope to be discussing sometime later: any meaningful discussion of industrial phosphorus[P] has to include sulfur and the huge amounts of energy required for this chemical beneficiation process.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is probable, however, that pure phosphorous oxide vapour is odourless, and the odour of phosphorus as ordinarily perceived is that of a mixture of the oxide with ozone.
Phosphorus tetroxide, P204, was obtained by Thorpe and Tutton by heating the product of the limited combustion of phosphorus in vacuo as a sublimate of transparent, highly lustrous, orthorhombic crystals. .They are highly deliquescent, and form with water a mixture of phosphorous and phosphoric acids: P204+3H20 = H3P03+ H 3 PO 4. The vapour density at about 1400° is 230, i.e. slightly less than that required by P8016 (West, Jour.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ When I was born in 1951 the world had less than 1/3rd of its current population, about 2 billion people.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Soc.,
1902, p. 923).
.Phosphoric oxide, or phosphorus pentoxide, P4010, formed when phosphorus is burned in an excess of air or oxygen, or from dry phosphorus and oxygen at atmospheric pressure (Jungfleisch, loc.^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Even in the anoxic zone, where there is no dissolved oxygen and there is high iron dissolved in the water, there is still plenty of iron oxide present, and the phosphorus is sorbing strongly there as well.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

cit.
), was examined by Boyle and named " flowers of phosphorus " by Marggraf in 1740. It is a soft, flocculent powder, which on sublimation forms transparent, monoclinic crystals. .It is extremely deliquescent, hissing when thrown into water, with which it combines to form phosphoric acid.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ August 17, 2007 - 10:42am So, all that phosphorous that goes into the seas stay on the water or go to the botton?
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is reduced when heated with carbon to phosphorus, carbon monoxide being formed simultaneously.^ He noted that as a result of closing the infiltration beds and the sewage treatment plant, the source has been reduced and ultimately the only phosphorus being introduced is the residual phosphorus in the aquifer.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its vapour density at 1400° points to the double formula (West, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1896, p. 154).
.Oxyacids.-Phosphorus forms several oxyacids: hypophosphorous acid, H 3 P0 2, and hypophosphoric acid, H 4 P 2 0 6 or H2P03, of which the anhydrides are unknown; phosphorous acid, H 3 P0 3, derived from P 4 0 5; monoperphosphoric acid, H 3 P0 5; perphosphoric acid, H4P208; and meta-, pyro-, and ortho-phosphoric acids, derived from P4010, for which see Phosphates.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Hypophosphorous acid, HP(OH) 2, discovered by Dulong in 1816, and obtained crystalline by Thomson in 1874 (Ber., 7, P. 994), is prepared in the form of its barium salt by warming phosphorus with baryta water, removing the excess of baryta by carbon dioxide, and crystallizing the filtrate.^ Blunt then described sediment removal as the removal of phosphorus-rich sediment hydraulic dredging or mechanical dredging, which thereby reduces the phosphorus contributed to the water column.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that huge amounts of water would have to be pumped in order to remove the same amount of phosphorus.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blunt then explained that phosphorus inactivation is a way to remove the phosphorus from the water column, where it is available for the algae, and to then isolate it in the sediments in a form that is not bioavailable.
  • Ashumet/Phosphorus Plume Public Forum, May 11, 1999 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.mmr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The acid may be prepared by evaporating in a vacuum the solution obtained by decomposing the barium salt with the equivalent amount of sulphuric acid. The acid forms a white crystalline mass, melting at 17.4° and having a strong acid reaction. Exposure to air gives phosphorous and phosphoric acids, and on heating it gives phosphine and phosphoric acid. A characteristic reaction is the formation of a red precipitate of cuprous hydride, Cu 2 H 21 when heated with copper sulphate solution to 60°. .It is a monobasic acid forming salts which are permanent in air, but which are gradually oxidized in aqueous solution.^ Urine is an aqueous solution of metabolic wastes such as urea, dissolved salts, and organic compounds.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On heating they yield phosphine and leave a residue of pyrophosphate, or a mixture of metaand pyrophosphates, with a little phosphorus. They react as reducing agents. On boiling with caustic potash they evolve hydrogen, yielding a phosphate.
.Phosphorous acid, P(OH) 3, discovered by Davy in 1812, may be ' obtained by dissolving its anhydride, P 4 0 61 in cold water; by immersing sticks of phosphorus in a solution of copper sulphate contained in a well-closed flask, filtering from the copper sulphide and precipitating the sulphuric acid simultaneously formed by baryta water, and concentrating the solution in vacuo; or by passing chlorine into melted phosphorus covered with water, the first formed phosphorus trichloride being decomposed by the water into phosphorous and hydrochloric acids.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.It may also be prepared by leading a current of dry air into phosphorus trichloride at 60° and passing the vapours into water at 0 °, the crystals thus formed being drained, washed with ice-cold water and dried in a vacuum.^ Severe tearing from the knee down the inner side of the calf, as if the flesh was being torn form the bone, passing off through friction ; after dinner.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Pressive pain in the cheek-bones, the parietal bones and the teeth, especially when chewing warm food, and when coming from the cold air into a warm room.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

The crystals melt at 70°. The acid is very deliquescent, and oxidizes on exposure to air to phosphoric acid. It decomposes on heating into phosphine and phosphoric acid. It is an energetic reducing agent; for example, when boiled with copper sulphate metallic copper is precipitated and hydrogen evolved. Although nominally tribasic the commonest metallic salts are dibasic. Organic ethers, however, are known in which one, two and three of the hydrogen atoms are substituted (Michaelis and Becker, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1003). .The metallic phosphites are stable both dry and in solution; when strongly heated they evolve hydrogen and yield a pyrophosphate, or, especially with the heavy metals, they give hydrogen and a mixture of phosphide and pyrophosphate.^ Repeated attacks of heat, especially in the face, with dryness of the mouth, without thirst.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mucking the dried urine into collection containers so the heavy metals, sodium, and whatever else is deemed 'bad' can then be separated from the 'good' again sounds like a hard sell.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy metal contamination is critical, especially in systems that benefit from a high level of soil nutrient re-cycling, as in high-yielding high-density population areas like critically important parts of China.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hypophosphoric acid, H 4 P20 6 or H2P03, discovered by Salzer in 1877 among the oxidation products of phosphorus by moist air, may be prepared by oxidizing phosphorus in an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, or by oxidizing sticks of phosphorus under water, neutralizing with sodium carbonate, forming the lead salt and decomposing this with sulphuretted hydrogen (J. Cavalier and E. Cornee, Abs.^ Urine is an aqueous solution of metabolic wastes such as urea, dissolved salts, and organic compounds.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potable water, Fossil Fuels, and Phosphorus are leading my list on 'society limiters' that there are no simple 'technoswaps' for.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol has the advantage that it contains nothing but carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which are all derived from CO2 from the air and water - there are no trace elements except as impurities.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jour. Chem. Soc.,
1910, ii. 31). .The aqueous solution may be boiled without decomposition, but on concentration it yields phosphorous and phosphoric acids.^ Phosphorous may not be abundant in high concentrations where it can be mined but it must be abundant in trace amounts in the earth's outer crust from which soil is derived.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deliquescent, rectangular tablets of H 4 P 2062H 2 O separate out on concentrating a solution in a vacuum, which on drying further give the acid, which melts at 55°, and decomposes suddenly when heated to 70° into phosphorous and metaphosphoric acids with a certain amount of hydrogen phosphide.^ Rising of heat from the chest into the head and the whole body, when eating soup, with a sensation, as if perspiration would break out.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

.The solution is stable to oxidizing agents such as dilute hydrogen peroxide and chlorine, but is oxidized by potassium permanganate to phosphoric acid; it does not reduce salts of the heavy metals.^ Both heavy duty and alkaline batteries use carbon and zinc electrodes but heavy duty batteries use an acid electrolyte and alkaline batteries use (you guessed it) potassium hydroxide.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With silver nitrate it gives a white precipitate, Ag4P206. The sodium salt, Na 4 P 2 0 6.10H 2 O, forms monoclinic prisms and in solution is strongly alkaline; the acid salt, Na3HP206.9H20, forms monoclinic tablets. The formula of the acid is not quite definite. Cryoscopic measurements on the sodium salt points to the double formula, but the organic esters appear to be derived from H2P03 (see A. Rosenheim and 1VI. Pritze, Ber., 1908, 41, 2708; E. Cornee, Abs. Jour. Chem. Soc., 1910, ii. 121).
Monoperphosphoric and perphosphoric acids, H 3 P0 5 and H4P203, were obtained by J. Schmidlin and P. Massini (Ber., 1910, 43, 1162). .The first is formed when 30% hydrogen peroxide reacts with phosphorus pentoxide or metaor pyrophosphoric acids at low temperatures and the mixture diluted with ice-cold water.^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

The solution is strongly oxidizing, even converting manganous salts to permanganates in the cold, a property not possessed by monopersulphuric acid. Perphosphoric acid is formed when pyrophosphoric acid is treated with a large excess of hydrogen peroxide.
Halogen Compounds.-Phosphorus trifluoride, PF 3, discovered by Davy, may be obtained mixed with the pentafluoride; by direct combination of its elements; from the tribromide and arsenic trifluoride (Maclvor); from the tribromide and zinc fluoride, and from dried copper phosphide and lead fluoride (H. Moissan). It is a colourless, non-fuming gas, which gives a colourless, mobile liquid at -10° and 20 atmospheres; the liquid boils at -95° and solidifies at -160° (Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1904, 138, p. 789). .It does not burn in air, but explodes, under the action of a flame or the electric spark, when mixed with half its volume of oxygen, giving the oxyfluoride, POF 3. It is slowly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphorous acids, or, in addition, fluorphosphorous acid, HPF4. It has no action on glass in the cold, but when heated it gives phosphorus and silicon tetrafluoride.^ Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF5, discovered by Thorpe (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1877, 25, p. .122), may be obtained by burning the trifluoride in fluorine, from the pentachloride and arsenic trifluoride and from the trifluoride and bromine, the first formed fluorobromide, PF 3 Br 21 decomposing into the pentabromide and pentafluoride: 5PF 3 Br 2 =3PF 5 +2PBr 5. It is a colourless gas 42 times heavier than air, and liquefies at 15° under 40 atmospheres, solidifying when the pressure is diminished.^ Muddled and heavy feeling in the sinciput, the head tends to fall forward ; diminished by cool air and by frowning ; it recurs in the room and is aggravated by stooping.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

It is incombustible and extinguishes flame. It fumes in moist air and is quickly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphoric xxi. 16 acids. It does not dissociate on heating as do the pentachloride and pentabromide, thus indicating the existence of pentavalent phosphorus in a gaseous compound; dissociation, however, into the trifluoride and free fluorine may be brought about by induction sparks of 150 to 200 mm. in length. It combines directly with ammonia in the proportion 2PF 5 :5NH 3, and with nitrogen peroxide at -to° in the proportion PF 5 :NO 2. Phosphorus trifluorodichloride, PF3C12, prepared from chlorine and the trifluoride, is a pungentsmelling gas, which at 250° gives the pentachloride and fluoride. The trifluorodibromide (see above) is an amber-coloured mobile liquid. .Phosphoryl trifluoride, POF3, may be obtained by exploding 2 volumes of phosphorus trifluoride with 1 volume of oxygen (Moissan, 1886); by heating 2 parts of finely-divided cryolite and 3 parts of phosphorus pentoxide (Thorpe and Hambly, Jour.^ August 17, 2007 - 7:19pm Diesel, natural gas, and electricty may play a part in peak phosphorus.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Soc.,
188 9, p. 759); or from phosphoryl chloride and zinc fluoride at 40° to 50°. It is a colourless fuming gas, which liquefies under ordinary pressure at -50°, and under a pressure of 15 atmospheres at 16°; it may be solidified to a snow-like mass. .Water gives hydrofluoric and phosphoric acids.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The corresponding sulphur compound, thiophosphoryl fluoride, PSF 3, obtained by heating lead fluoride and phosphorus pentasulphide to 200°, is a colourless gas, which may be condensed to a clear transparent liquid.^ August 17, 2007 - 7:19pm Diesel, natural gas, and electricty may play a part in peak phosphorus.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It spontaneously inflames in air or oxygen; and when the gas is issuing from a jet into air the flame is greyish green, with a faintly luminous and yellow tip; the flame is probably one of the coldest known. .The combustion probably follows the equation PSF3+02 = PF3+S02, the trifluoride at a higher temperature decomposing according to the equations: 10PF3+502=6PF5+2P205, 2PF3+02=2P0F3, the complete reaction tending to the equation: IoPSF3+1502=6PF5+2P205+ 10SO 2. The gas dissolves in water on shaking; PSF3+4H20= H 2 S+H 3 PO 4 +3HF, but is more readily taken up by alkaline solutions with the formation of fluoride and thiophosphate: PSF3+ 6NaOH = Na3PS03+3NaF. Heated in a glass tube it gives silicon fluoride, phosphorus and sulphur, PSF 3 = PF3-f-S; 4PF 3 +3S10 2 = 3SiF 4 +P 4 +30 2. Electric sparks give at first free sulphur and the trifluoride, the latter at a higher temperature splitting into the pentafluoride and phosphorus.^ Von Liebig was the first to discover that phosphate of lime in bone meal could be rendered more readily available to plants by treatment with sulfuric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphate production will probably follow a bell-shaped curve, with the most accessible deposits mined first.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With dry ammonia it gives ammonium fluoride and a compound P(NH2)2SF.
.Phosphorus trichloride or phosphorous chloride, PC13, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1808, is obtained by passing a slow current of chlorine over heated red phosphorus or through a solution of ordinary phosphorus in carbon disulphide (purifying in the latter case by fractional distillation).^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

It is a colourless, mobile liquid of specific gravity 1.6128 at o° and boiling-point 76°. .With chlorine it gives the pentachloride, PC1 5, and with oxygen when heated phosphoryl chloride, POC1 3. Water gives hydrochloric and phosphorous acids, with separation of red phosphorus if the water be hot.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anxiety and heat in the head, with hot, red hands, frequently recurring and seemingly alleviated while standing.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

When led with hydrogen into liquid ammonia it gives NH: PNH 2, which on elevation of temperature gives P 2 (NH) 3 (Joannis, Comptes rendus, 1904, 1 39, p. 364). By submitting a mixture of phosphorous chloride and hydrogen to an electric discharge A. Besson and A. Fournier (Comptes rendus, 1901, 150, p. 102) obtained phosphorus dichloride, P2C14, as a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid, freezing at -28° and boiling at 180° with decomposition. .With water it gave phosphorous acid and a yellow indefinite solid.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

It decomposes slowly at ordinary temperatures. Phosphorus pentachloride, PC15, discovered by Davy in 1810 and analysed by Dulong in 1816, is formed from chlorine and the trichloride. It is a straw-coloured solid, which by fusion under pressure gives prismatic crystals. It sublimes when heated, but under pressure it melts at 148°, giving a normal vapour density, but on further heating it dissociates into the trichloride and chlorine; this dissociation may be retarded by vapourizing in an atmosphere of chlorine. .It fumes strongly in moist air, giving hydrochloric acid and phosphoryl chloride, POC13; with water it gives phosphoric and hydrochloric acids.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Phosphoryl trichloride or phosphorus oxychloride, POC1 3, corresponding to phosphoric acid, (HO) 3 P0, discovered in 1847 by Wurtz, may be produced by the action of many substances containing hydroxy groups on the pentachloride; from the trichloride and potassium chlorate; by leaving phosphorus pentoxide in contact with hydrochloric acid: 2P 2 0 5 +3HC1= POC13+3HP03; or by heating the pentachloride and pentoxide under pressure: 3PC15+ P205= 5POC1 3. It is a colourless liquid,boiling at 107.2°, and when solidified it melts at o 8°.^ Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For every ton of phosphoric acid produced, some 4.5 tons of gypsum is made.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Water gives hydrochloric and phosphoric acids; dilute alcohol gives monoethyl phosphoric acid, C 2 H 5 H 2 PO 4, whilst absolute alcohol gives triethyl phosphate, (C 2 H 5) 3 PO 4. Pyrophosphoryl chloride, P 2 0 3 C1 4, corresponding to pyrophosphoric acid, was obtained by Geuther and Michaelis (Ber., 1871, 4, P. 766) in the oxidation of phosphorus trichloride with nitrogen peroxide at low temperature; it is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at about 212° with some decomposition.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some less concentrated forms of ruck phosphate though, and I'm thinking about green sand, which is called glauconite?
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With water it gives phosphoric and hydrochloric acids.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

Thiophosphoryl chloride, PSC1 3, may be obtained by the direct combination of sulphur with the trichloride; from sulphuretted hydrogen and the pentachloride; from antimony trisulphide and the pentachloride; by heating the pentasulphide with the pentachloride; and by dissolving phosphorus in sulphur chloride and distilling the solution: 2P+3S 2 C1 2 = 4S+2PSC1 3. It is a colourless mobile liquid, boiling at 125-1° and having a pungent, slightly aromatic odour. .It is slowly decomposed by water giving phosphoric and hydrochloric acids, with sulphuretted hydrogen; alkalis form a thiophosphate, e.g. PS(OK)3, and a chloride.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Phosphorus tribromide, PBr 3, prepared by mixing solutions of its elements in carbon disulphide and distilling, is a transparent, mobile liquid, boiling at 173° and resembling the trichloride chemically.^ Phosphorus is chemically prepared from bone-acid (phosphoric acid) by distillation with charcoal ; it is remarkable for its easy spontaneous combustion.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

The pentabromide, PBr 5, which results from phosphorus and an excess of bromine, is a yellow solid, and closely resembles the pentachloride. The bromochloride, PC1 3 Br 21 is an orange-coloured solid formed from bromine and the trichloride, into which components it decomposes at 35°. Phosphoryl tribromide, POBr 3, is a solid, melting at 45° and boiling„at 195°. Thiophosphoryl bromide, PSBr3, obtained after the manner of the corresponding chloride, forms yellow octahedra which melt at 38°, and have a penetrating, aromatic odour. .With water it gives sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrobromic, phosphorous and phosphoric acids, the sulphur and phosphorous acid being produced by the interaction of the previously formed sulphuretted hydrogen and phosphoric acid.^ Tetraphosphorus decaoxide reacts with water to form phosphoric acid, a major industrial acid.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ In pure forms and in great enough quantites, however, phosphoric acid is mildly toxic and caustic.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ For every ton of phosphoric acid produced, some 4.5 tons of gypsum is made.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pyrophosphoryl thiobromide, (PBr 2 S) 2 S, and metaphosphoryl thiobromide, PS 2 Br, are also known.
Phosphorus forms three iodides. The subiodide, P 4 I, was obtained by R. Boulough (Comptes rendus, 1905, 141, p. 256), who acted with dry iodine on phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulphide; with alkalis it gives P 4 (OH). The di-iodide and tri-iodide are formed similarly; the first is deposited as orange-coloured prisms which melt at 110° to a red liquid (see Doughty, Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1905, 2 7, p. 1 444), whilst the second forms dark-red hexagonal plates which melt at 55°.
.Sulphides and Thio-acids.-Phosphorus and sulphur combine energetically with considerable rise of temperature to form sulphides.^ It spontanteously ignites in air at about room temperature to form “phosphorus pentoxide” – actually tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

The researches of A. Stock (Ber., 1908, 4 1, pp. 55 8, 6 57; 1909, 4 2, p. 2062; 1910, 43, pp. .150, 414) show that three exist, P453, P 4 5 7, P255. The first is prepared by heating red phosphorus with finely powdered sulphur in a tube sealed at one end and filled with carbon dioxide.^ My memory says fossil record shows many 'european imports' having existed in North America before one of the big ice ages, then not after.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica[1].
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The product is extracted with carbon disulphide and the residue distilled in carbon dioxide. It forms light yellow crystals from benzene, which melt at 1725 °jand boil at 407°-408° with slight decomposition. Alkalis give hydrogen and phosphine. The second, P4S7, is obtained by heating a mixture of red phosphorus and sulphur in the proportions given by P4S7+5% P4S3, and crystallizing from carbon disulphide in which P 4 S 3 is readily soluble. It forms small, slightly yellow prisms, which melt at 310° and boil at 523°. The third, or pentasulphide, P2S5, was obtained as a substance resembling flowers of sulphur by A. Stock and K. Thiel (Ber., 1905, 3 8, p. 2719 1910, 43, p. .1223), who heated sulphur with phosphorus in carbon disulphide solution with a trace of iodine to 120 0 -130 0. It exists in two forms, one having the formula P 4 5 10, and the other a lower molecular weight.^ My memory says fossil record shows many 'european imports' having existed in North America before one of the big ice ages, then not after.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica[1].
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one point I left the Jewish state, I evaded the Jewish hate mongering, I had become an opponent of the Jewish state and any other form of Jewish politics.
  • The Zionist ‘Beast’ Attacks Gaza | Real Zionist News 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.realjewnews.com [Source type: Original source]

With liquid ammonia it gives P 2 S 5.7NH 31 which is a mixture of ammonium iminotrithiophosphate, P(SNH 4) 3: NH, and ammonium nitrilodithiophosphate, P(SNH 4) 2;N. Water converts the former into ammonium thiophosphate, PO(SNH4)3.H20, whilst the latter heated to 300° in a vacuum gives thiophosphoric nitrile, NP:S (Stock, ibid., 1906, 39, p. 1967).
Thiophosphates result on dissolving the pentasulphide in alkalis. .Sodium monothiophosphate, Na 3 PSO 3.12H 2 0, is obtained by adding one P 2 S 5 to six NaOH, adding alcohol, dissolving the precipitate in water and heating to 90°.^ Think about the water added to the process, then about the ways one can take a watery mix of material and process it.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On cooling the salt separates as white six-sided tablets. Sodium dithiophosphate, Na3PS202.11 H 2 O, is obtained by heating the above solution only to 50°-55°, cooling and adding alcohol, which precipitates the dithio salt. On heating it gives the monothio salt. Sodium trithiophosphate appears to be formed when the pentasulphide acts with sodium hydrosulphide at 20°. All thiophosphates are decomposed by acids giving sulphuretted hydrogen and sometimes free sulphur. They also act in many cases as reducing agents.
.Nitrogen Compounds.-Phosphorus pentachloride combines directly with ammonia, and the compound when heated to redness loses ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid and gives phospham, PN 2 H 4, a substance first described by Davy in 1811. It is a white, infusible, very stable solid, which decomposes water on heating, giving ammonia and metaphosphoric acid, whilst alkalis give an analogous reaction.^ A report earlier this week by ThinkProgress about a declassified Pentagon document that describes White Phosphorus as a “chemical weapon” has provoked outrage by the right-wing blogosphere.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Very red urine, smelling of sulphur ; this deposited after two hours much thick white mucous sediment.
  • PHOSPHORUS. - The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and theirHom�opathic Cure. - by Dr Samuel Hahnemann 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.homeoint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A formerly classified 1995 Pentagon intelligence document titled “Possible Use of Phosphorous Chemical” describes the use of white phosphorus by Saddam Hussein on Kurdish fighters: .
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

With methyl and ethyl alcohols it forms secondary amines (Vidal, Comptes rendus, 1891, 112, p. 950; 1892, 115, p. 123). The diamide, PN 2 H 4, was obtained by Hugot (ibid., 1905, 141, p. 1235) by acting with ammonia gas on phosphorus tribromide or tri-iodide at -70 0; it is very unstable, and decomposes at -25°. .Phosphorus combines with nitrogen and chlorine to form several polymeric substances of the general formula (PNC1 2) x, where x may be 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 11; they may be obtained by heating the pentachloride with ammonium chloride in a sealed tube and separating the mixture by fractional distillation (H. N. Stokes, Amer.^ They go to the ocean as fry and return as adults, with a large body mass of phosphorus (and potash and calcium and nitrogen).
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chem. Jour.,
1898, 20, p. 740; also see Besson and Rosset, Comptes rendus, 1906, 37, p. 143). The commonest form is P 3 N 3 C1 6, a crystalline solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Several phosphoamides have been described. The diamide, PO (NH 2) (NH), results when the pentachloride is saturated with ammonia gas and the first formed chlorophosphamide, PC1 3 (NH 2) 2, is decomposed by water. The triamide, PO(NH2)3, results from ammonia and phosphorus oxychloride. Both these compounds on heating give phosphomonamide, PON, of which a polymer (PON) 2 had been described by Oddo (Gazz. chim. Ital., 1899, 29 (ii.), p. 330). Stokes (Amer. Chem. Jour., 18 93, 1 5, p. 198; 1894, 16, pp. 123, 154) has described PO(OH)2NH2 and PO(OH)(NH2)2, whilst the compound PO(OH)NH was obtained by Schiff (Ann., 1857, 103, p. 168) by acting with ammonia on the pentoxide. Numerous other nitrogen compounds have been obtained.
The atomic weight of phosphorus was determined by Berzelius, Pelouze, Jacquelin, Dumas, Schrotter, Brodie and van der Plaats. More recent are the investigations of G. Ter Gazarian (Compt. rend., 1909, 1 4 8, p. 1 397) on hydrogen phosphide, which gave the value 30.906, and of G. P. Baxter and G. Jones (Journ. Amer. Chem Soc., 1910, 32, p. 298) on silver phosphate, which gave the value 31.04.

Therapeutics

.The phosphorus used in the British pharma copoeia is obtained from calcium phosphate, and is a waxlike non-metallic substance soluble in oils and luminous in the dark.^ Crude phosphate is now used in organic farming, whereas chemically treated forms such as superphosphate, triple superphosphate, or ammonium phosphates are used in non-organic farming.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plotting phosphate production for the world as a whole we obtain: Using data from 1968 to 2005 reveals an URR of 8000 MT for the world as whole.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are various medicinal preparations. .In young animals phosphorus has a remarkable influence on the growth of bone, causing a proliferation of the jelly-like masses and finally a deposit in them of true bony material.^ Population growth was only possible because we found phosphorus deposits and cheap energy to extract, transform and transport it to farms.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Owing to this influence it has been used in rickets and osteomalacia. .Its most effective use, however, is as a nerve tonic in paralysis agitans, locomotor ataxia, impotence and nervous exhaustion.^ The M 110 however is a sulphur mustard round, which use as an actual chemical munition would most certainly be restricted.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.In some skin diseases such as psoriasis, chronic eczema and acne indurata, phosphorus is very useful, and cases of diabetes mellitus and lymphadenoma have improved under some of its compounds.^ October 11, 2008 - 12:14am Phosphorus consumption: I did a detailed study of ethanol energy ratios and learned some very interesting things.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hypophosphites have been recommended in pulmonary affections, being said to act as free phosphorus without being irritant, and the glycero-phosphates are certainly useful to stimulate metabolism.^ Because phosphorus is highly reactive, it does not naturally occur as a free element, but is instead bound up in phosphates.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dilute phosphoric acid is used as a gastric stimulant. .It does not resemble phosphorus in its physiological action and cannot be used to replace it.^ In other words, the Pentagon does refer to white phosphorus rounds as chemical weapons — at least if they’re used by our enemies.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ However if we waste phosphorus, we cannot replace it by any other source.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak Phosphorus 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Toxicology

Poisonous amounts of phosphorus are frequently taken or administered, criminally or accidentally, it being easily accessible to the public in the form of matches or of vermin pastes. They may have been swallowed several hours before symptoms of acute poisoning show themselves, with nausea and vomiting, and a burning in the oesophagus, stomach and abdomen. The important thing is to prevent the absorption of the poison, so emetics and purgatives should be given at once. Sulphate of copper, in doses of 3 to 5 gr., freely diluted and repeated every few minutes forms the harmless, black phosphide of copper, which is rapidly eliminated by the kidneys. .The stomach may be washed out with warm water and then with a 2% solution of permanganate of potash, an enema of the same solution being given.^ Here it is, the biggest shopping day of the year and it’s no bother to get up and go out there in this madness, but to get the same people up and out to protest – they are too busy being busy.
  • Think Progress » The Truth About ThinkProgress’ White Phosphorus Coverage 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The old French oil of turpentine is the best antidote to use in phosphorus poisoning, delaying the toxic effects; but ordinary oils are not only useless but harmful.^ Perhaps the best way to frame the debate from here is to suggest that, like oil, the world has been endowed with a given quantity of “easy” phosphorus (e.g.
  • The Oil Drum | Peak phosphorus: Quoted reserves vs. production history 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When some time has elapsed before treatment and the phosphorus has become absorbed, the organic degenerative changes cannot be easily controlled. For the chronic form of industrial poisoning in the manufacture of lucifer matches - a form of necrosis, known in England as " phossy jaw " and in France as " mal chimique," a localized inflammatory infection of the periosteum, ending with the death and exfoliation of part of the bone - see Match.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also phosphorus

Contents

English

Etymology

.From Latinised Greek Phosphorus, from Ancient Greek Φωσφόρος (Fōsforos), the bearer of light) < φῶς (fōs), light) + φέρω (pherō), I bear, carry).^ Phosphorus (P ) Atomic Mass : 30.973762 Atomic Number : 15 Name Origins : Greek, phosphoros = "bringer of light."
  • Phosphorus definition by Babylon's free dictionary 15 January 2010 11:56 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (Phosphorus comes from the Greek word for light-bearing.

^ Phosphorus - the "Light-Bearing" Element!

Pronunciation

  • (RP) fŏs'fərəs, /ˈfɒsfərəs/, SAMPA: /"fQsf@r@s/
  • (US) fäs'fərəs, /ˈfɑsfɚəs/, SAMPA: /"fAsf@`@s/

Homophones

Proper noun

Phosphorus (or Phosphor)
  1. A name sometimes used for Hesperus, the personification in Greek mythology of the planet Venus.
  2. An ancient Greek name for the morning star (the planet Venus when it is visible in the eastern sky before sunrise).

Synonyms

Antonyms

Translations

See also


Simple English

File:P,
Red phosphorus in a tube.

[[File:|thumb|White, red, violet, and black phosphorus]] Phosphorus has the chemical symbol P, and its atomic number is 15. Its mass number is 30.97. It is not found in nature as an element but as compounds, such as phosphates. It can be a red or a white waxy solid.

Contents

Properties

Physical properties

Phosphorus comes in several forms. White and red phosphorus are the most common forms. White phosphorus is a waxy white solid. When pure, it is colourless. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulphide, an organic solvent. It turns light yellow when in air. It glows in the dark because it "burns" very slowly in air.

When exposed to sunlight, or when heated in its own vapour to 250 °C, it is converted to the red variety. This form does not ignite spontaneously and it is less toxic and less flammable than white phosphorus. The red modification is fairly stable and sublimes with a vapor pressure of 1 atmosphere at 417 °C.

Chemical properties

White phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus. White phosphorus catches fire spontaneously in air, burning to make smoke of phosphorus(V) oxide. If it burns in a little air, it produces poisonous phosphorus(III) oxide. When white phosphorus is heated in an alkali, it disproportionates to produce hypophosphites and phosphine. Red phosphorus can burn but needs to be ignited. Phosphorus reacts with the halogens to make phosphorus halides. It reacts with some metals to make phosphides.

Chemical compounds

Phosphorus forms chemical compounds in several oxidation states: -3, +1, +3, and +5. -3 is found in phosphine and phosphides. They are strong reducing agents. +1 compounds are found in hypophosphites. They are strong reducing agents, too. They are toxic. +3 compounds are found in phosphites. They are reducing agents. They are toxic, too. +5 compounds are found in phosphates and phosphoric acid. They are normally non reactive and non toxic. Phosphates are the most common phosphorus compounds. All of the other ones are rare.

Occurrence

It is an essential component of living systems and is found as phosphate in nervous tissue, bones and cell protoplasm. It is also found in the earth as phosphate rock. Phosphate rock is the main source of phosphorus and phosphorus compounds. Many body tissues have calcium phosphates in them.

Preparation

Phosphorus was first made by heating a mixture of phosphates and carbon in an iron pot. The phosphates were made by dissolving bones in strong acids and evaporating the solution.

Phosphorus is made now by heating calcium phosphate, carbon, and silicon dioxide in an electric arc furnace. The heat of the electric arc melts the mixture of materials, and phosphorus gas is given off. It is absorbed under water. This makes white phosphorus.

Uses

As an element

White phosphorus is used in incendiary weapons and smoke grenades. It is also used to make organic compounds that have phosphorus in them. Phosphorus is used to dope semiconductors. Phosphorus is used to remove oxygen from copper. It is also used in making alloys. Red phosphorus is used in matches and flares.

As chemical compounds

Phosphorus compounds are used for fertilizers, soft drinks, toothpaste, and detergents. Most of these are phosphates. Phosphides can be used to kill rodents.

Safety

White phosphorus is very dangerous. It is very toxic and ignites easily, burning with a very hot flame. Red phosphorus is much safer. Some phosphorus compounds are toxic, but the common phosphates are not toxic.

Other pages

frr:Phosphor

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Phosphorus, which are similar to those in the above article.








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