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Photography (pronounced /fәˈtɒɡrәfi/) is the process, activity and art of creating still or moving pictures by recording radiation on a sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or an electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects activate a sensitive chemical or electronic sensor during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically. Photography has many uses for business, science, art, and pleasure.
Lens and mounting of a large-format camera.
A historic camera: the Contax S of 1949 — the first pentaprism SLR.
Nikon F of 1959 — the first 35mm film system camera.
Late Production Minox B camera with later style "honeycomb" selenium light meter
A portable folding reflector positioned to "bounce" sunlight onto a model
The word "photograph" was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς (phos) "light" and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light".[1] Traditionally, the products of photography have been called negatives and photographs, commonly shortened to photos.

Contents

Function

The camera or camera obscura is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.
Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.
The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[2]
In all but certain specialized cameras, the process of obtaining a usable exposure must involve the use, manually or automatically, of a few controls to ensure the photograph is clear, sharp and well illuminated. The controls usually include but are not limited to the following:
Control Description
Focus The adjustment to place the sharpest focus where it is desired on the subject.
Aperture Adjustment of the lens opening, measured as f-number, which controls the amount of light passing through the lens. Aperture also has an effect on depth of field and diffraction – the higher the f-number, the smaller the opening, the less light, the greater the depth of field, and the more the diffraction blur. The focal length divided by the f-number gives the effective aperture diameter.
Shutter speed Adjustment of the speed (often expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle, with mechanical shutters) of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. Shutter speed may be used to control the amount of light striking the image plane; 'faster' shutter speeds (that is, those of shorter duration) decrease both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from motion of the subject and/or camera.
White balance On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature.
Metering Measurement of exposure so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Many modern cameras meter and set exposure automatically. Before automatic exposure, correct exposure was accomplished with the use of a separate light metering device or by the photographer's knowledge and experience of gauging correct settings. To translate the amount of light into a usable aperture and shutter speed, the meter needs to adjust for the sensitivity of the film or sensor to light. This is done by setting the "film speed" or ISO sensitivity into the meter.
ISO speed Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, ISO speeds are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system. The higher the ISO number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower ISO number, the film is less sensitive to light. A correct combination of ISO speed, aperture, and shutter speed leads to an image that is neither too dark nor too light, hence it is 'correctly exposed,' indicated by a centered meter.
Autofocus point On some cameras, the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the auto-focus system will attempt to focus. Many Single-lens reflex cameras (SLR) feature multiple auto-focus points in the viewfinder.
Many other elements of the imaging device itself may have a pronounced effect on the quality and/or aesthetic effect of a given photograph; among them are:
  • Focal length and type of lens (telephoto or "long" lens, macro, wide angle, fisheye, or zoom)
  • Filters placed between the subject and the light recording material, either in front of or behind the lens
  • Inherent sensitivity of the medium to light intensity and color/wavelengths.
  • The nature of the light recording material, for example its resolution as measured in pixels or grains of silver halide.

Exposure and rendering

Camera controls are inter-related. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the "exposure") changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.
The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that don't have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. Aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. If the f-number is decreased by a factor of \sqrt 2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.
Exposures can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed and aperture. For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125th of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250th of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography. Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.
Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame.
A photographer using a tripod for greater stability during long exposure
Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:
  • Chemicals and process used during film development
  • Duration of print exposure – equivalent to shutter speed
  • Printing aperture – equivalent to aperture, but has no effect on depth of field
  • Contrast – changing the visual properties of objects in an image to make them distinguishable from other objects and the background
  • Dodging – reduces exposure of certain print areas, resulting in lighter areas
  • Burning in – increases exposure of certain areas, resulting in darker areas
  • Paper textureglossy, matte, etc
  • Paper type – resin-coated (RC) or fiber-based (FB)
  • Paper size
  • Toners – used to add warm or cold tones to black and white prints

Uses

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories of favorite times, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment.

History

First known surviving heliographic engraving, made by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1825 by contact under an engraving with the "heliographic process".[3] This seminal work has been a step towards the first permanent photography from nature taken with a camera obscura, in 1826.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di described a pinhole camera in the 5th century B.C.E.,[4] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[4][5] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[6] and Georges Fabricius (1516–1571) discovered silver chloride.[citation needed] Daniel Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1568.[citation needed] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[citation needed] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[citation needed]
Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822[3] by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed by a later attempt to duplicate it.[3] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the first permanent photograph from nature with a camera obscura in 1826. However, because his photographs took so long to expose (8 hours), he sought to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the long exposure (several minutes). Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula, in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did in 1839.
Mid 19th century "Brady stand" photo model's armrest table, meant to keep portrait models more still during long exposure times (studio equipment nicknamed after the famed US photographer, Mathew Brady).
Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process so that portraits were made readily available to the masses. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process, which creates negative images. John Herschel made many contributions to the new methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.
In March 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate collodion process. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1880s when the dry plate was introduced. There are three subsets to the Collodion process; the Ambrotype (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper.
Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.
In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate in Physics for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, also known as the Lippmann plate.

Processes

A filter may be used to enhance or diminish the rendering of certain light wavelengths. For this photograph, a wratten #25 was used.

Black-and-white

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image of blue and white for example. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.
Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid 1800s. Early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
Early color photograph taken by Prokudin-Gorskii (1915).
One of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color filter in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a darkroom or processing plant. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii developed another technique, with three color plates taken in quick succession.
Practical application of the technique was held back by the very limited color response of early film; however, in the early 1900s, following the work of photo-chemists such as H. W. Vogel, emulsions with adequate sensitivity to green and red light at last became available.
The first commercially successful color process, the Autochrome, invented by the French Lumière brothers, reached the market in 1907. It was based on a 'screen-plate' filter made of dyed grains of potato starch, and was one of many additive color screen products available between the 1890s and the 1950s. A later example of the additive screen process was the German Agfacolor introduced in 1932. In 1935, American Kodak introduced the first modern ('integrated tri-pack') color film which was developed by two musicians Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky ("Man" and "God") working with the Kodak Research Labs. It was Kodachrome, based on multiple layered silver gelatin emulsions that were each sensitized to one of the three additive colors—red, green, and blue. The cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes were created in those layers by adding color couplers during processing. This was followed in 1936 by Agfa's Agfacolor Neu. Unlike the Kodachrome tri-pack process, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the film processing. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, use such incorporated-coupler techniques, though since the 1970s nearly all have used a technique developed by Kodak to accomplish this, rather than the original Agfa method. Instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.
Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photoprinting equipment.

Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.
Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm.[7] Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red, and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters).
Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography, geology, forensics & law enforcement, and even some claimed use in ghost hunting.

Digital photography

A handheld digital camera, Canon Ixus class.
Olympus E-420 Four Thirds entry-level DSLR.
The Nikon D1, the first DSLR to truly compete with, and begin to replace, film cameras in the professional photojournalism and sports photography fields.
Nikon DSLR and scanner, which converts film images to digital
Manual shutter control and exposure settings can achieve unusual results.
Traditional photography burdened photographers working at remote locations without easy access to processing facilities, and competition from television pressured photographers to deliver images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo journalists at remote locations often carried miniature photo labs and a means of transmitting images through telephone lines. In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.
Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. The primary difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.
Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On May 25, 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[8] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[9][10]
According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[11]
According to the U.S. survey results, more than two-thirds (68 percent) of professional photographers prefer the results of film to those of digital for certain applications including:
  • film’s superiority in capturing more information on medium and large format films (48 percent);
  • creating a traditional photographic look (48 percent);
  • capturing shadow and highlighting details (45 percent);
  • the wide exposure latitude of film (42 percent); and
  • archival storage (38 percent)
Digital imaging has raised many ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "illustrations," passing them as real photographs. Today's technology has made picture editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allows digital fingerprinting of RAW photos to verify against tampering of digital photos for forensics use.
Camera phones, combined with sites like Flickr, have led to a new kind of social photography.

Modes of production

Amateur

An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby and not for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable or superior to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in its choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward.

Commercial

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:
  • Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
  • Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in glamour photography may be nude, but this is not always the case.
  • Crime Scene Photography: This type of photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
  • Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.
  • Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills.
  • Editorial photography: photographs made to illustrate a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine.
  • Photojournalism: this can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.
  • Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images.
  • Landscape photography: photographs of different locations.
  • Wildlife photography that demonstrates life of the animals.
  • Photo sharing: publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online.
  • Paparazzi
The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism "A picture is worth a thousand words", which has an interesting basis in the history of photography. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography.
Many people take photographs for self-fulfillment or for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can employ a photographer directly, organize a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs. Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster.

Art

Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage shows unique aesthetic of black and white photos.
During the twentieth century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate 'straight photography', the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.
The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images "written with light"; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.
Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art.
There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto's frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions.
[12]
On February 14, 2006 Sotheby’s London sold the 2001 photograph "99 Cent II Diptychon" for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder making it the most expensive of all time.
Photography that turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.

Science and forensics

Wootton bridge collapse in 1861
Original Tay Bridge from the north showing structure based on towers built from cast iron columns. When enlarged this plate shows a key design flaw in the bridge: the smaller surviving towers were supported by a continuous girder at their tops, while the fallen towers lack this essential reinforcing element.
Fallen Tay Bridge from the north. The two surviving high towers show a gap in their tops when the picture is enlarged.
The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861 and the Staplehurst rail crash of 1865. One of the first systematic applications occurred at the scene of the Tay Rail Bridge disaster of 1879. The court, just a few days after the accident, ordered James Valentine of Dundee to record the scene using both long distance shots and close-ups of the debris. The set of over 50 accident photographs was used in the subsequent court of inquiry so that witnesses could identify pieces of the wreckage, and the technique is now commonplace both at accident scenes and subsequent cases in courts of law. The set of over 50 Tay bridge photographs are of very high quality, being made on a large plate camera with a small aperture and using fine grain emulsion film on a glass plate. When the surviving positive prints are scanned at high resolution, they can be enlarged to show details of the failed components such as broken cast iron lugs and the tie bars which failed to hold the towers in place. The set of original photographs is held at Dundee City Library. The photographs show that, in the words of the Public Inquiry the bridge was "badly designed, badly built and badly maintained". The methods used in analysing old photographs are collectively known as forensic photography.
Between 1846 and 1852 Charles Brooke invented a technology for the automatic registration of instruments by photography. These instruments included barometers, thermometers, psychrometers, and magnetometers, which recorded their readings by means of an automated photographic process.
5×7 in. unretouched photograph of the Wright brothers' first flight, 1903.
Photography has become ubiquitous in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and developed much further since that time.

Other image forming techniques

Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic film, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.

Social and cultural implications

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her writing "On Photography" (1977), Susan Sontag discusses concerns about the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community.[13] It has been concluded that photography is a subjective discipline "to photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one’s self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power."[14] Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo. Along with the context that a photograph is received in, photography is definitely a subjective form.
Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its impact on society. In Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window (1954), the camera is presented as a promoter of voyeuristic inhibitions. 'Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing'.[14] Michal Powell's Peeping Tom (1960) portrays the camera as both sexual and sadistically violent technology that literally kills in this picture and at the same time captures images of the pain and anguish evident on the faces of the female victims.[citation needed]
"The camera doesn't rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate - all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment."[14]
Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society.[15] Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that "to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed." Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality.[14]
One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a "tourist gaze"[16] in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a "reverse gaze"[17] through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.

Law

Photography is both restricted and protected by the law in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.[18]

See also

Forms
Photographers and photographs
Equipment (cameras, etc.)
History
Techniques
General concepts
Technical principles

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  2. ^ Joseph and Barbara Anderson, "The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited," Journal of Film and Video, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Spring 1993): 3–12. http://www.uca.edu/org/ccsmi/ccsmi/classicwork/Myth%20Revisited.htm
  3. ^ a b c "The First Photograph - Heliography". http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/wfp/heliography.html. Retrieved 2009-09-29. "from Helmut Gernsheim's article, "The 150th Anniversary of Photography," in History of Photography, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1977: ... In 1822, Niépce coated a glass plate ... The sunlight passing through ... This first permanent example ... was destroyed ... some years later." 
  4. ^ a b Robert E. Krebs (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313324336. http://books.google.com/books?id=MTXdplfiz-cC&pg=PA20&dq=Mo-Ti+pinhole+camera+obscura&ei=o-QySaeFKILmkwTl9Y2tDQ#PPA171,M1. 
  5. ^ Wade, Nicholas J.; Finger, Stanley (2001). "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective". Perception 30 (10): 1157–1177. doi:10.1068/p3210. PMID 11721819. 
  6. ^ Davidson, Michael W.; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (2003-08-01). "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You - Timeline - Albertus Magnus". The Florida State University. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/timeline/people/magnus.html. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  7. ^ Spectral curves of RGB and Hot Mirror filters.
  8. ^ “Canon to Stop Making Single-Lens Camera” Associated Press, 25 May 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  9. ^ www.voigtlaender.de
  10. ^ The new Voigtlaender Vitolux S70 and Bessa III 667
  11. ^ www.photographypress.co.uk
  12. ^ Clive Bell. "Art", 1914. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  13. ^ Bissell, K.L., Photography and Objectivity (2000) findarticles.com (accessed 24/10/2008).
  14. ^ a b c d Sontag, S., On Photography, Penguin, London (1977), pp 3–24.
  15. ^ Levinson, P., The Soft Edge: a Natural History and Future of the Information Revolution, Routledge, London and New York (1997), pp 37–48.
  16. ^ John Urry. The tourist gaze (2nd ed.). SAGE. ISBN 9780761973478. http://books.google.com/books?id=bhhtg1sz0YAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  17. ^ Alex Gillespie. "Tourist Photography and the Reverse Gaze". http://stir.academia.edu/documents/0011/0117/Gillespie_tourist_photography_and_the_reverse_gaze.pdf. 
  18. ^ British Journal of Photography article

Further reading

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Photography is...
  • "an austere and blazing poetry of the real" -- Ansel Adams
  • "the recording of strangeness and beauty with beguiling precision" -- Sebastian Smee
  • "a reality so subtle that it becomes more real than reality" -- Alfred Stieglitz
  • "the dominant and fascinating and only folk art of the twentieth century" -- Sir John Rotherstein
  • "(a means by which we)...learn to see the ordinary" -- David Bailey
  • "a contest between a photographer and the presumptions of approximate and habitual seeing. The contest can be held anywhere ..." -- John Szarkowski
  • "my meditation" -- Czar Anthony Lopez
  • "a strong tool, a propaganda device, and a weapon for the defense of the environment...and therefore for the fostering of a healthy human race and even very likely for its survival." -- Eliot Porter
  • "the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as the precise organization of forms which gives that event its proper expression." -- Henri Cartier-Bresson
A camera...
  • "is an instrument that teaches people how to see without a camera" -- Dorothea Lange
  • "has interesting ideas of its own" -- John Szarkowski.
A photograph is...
  • "The basic material of photographs is not intrinsically beautiful. It's not like ivory or tapestry or bronze or oil on canvas. You're not supposed to look at the thing, you’re supposed to look through it. It's a window." -- John Szarkowski.
On creativity
  • “There are no rules for good photographs, there are only good photographs." -- Ansel Adams
  • “My own eyes are no more than scouts on a preliminary search, or the camera's eye may entirely change my idea.” -- Edward Weston
  • “Be still with yourself until the object of your attention affirms your presence.” -- Minor White
  • “Which of the photographs is my favorite? The one I'm going to take tomorrow.” -- Imogen Cunningham
  • “I do not object to retouching, dodging or accentuation as long as they do not interfere with the natural qualities of photographic technique.” -- Alfred Stieglitz
  • “Photography is about finding out what can happen in the frame. When you put four edges around some facts, you change those facts.” -- Garry Winogrand
  • “There is a vast difference between taking a picture and making a photograph.” -- Robert Heinecken
  • “If I could tell the story in words, I wouldn't need to lug around a camera.” -- Lewis Hine
  • “Character, like a photograph, develops in darkness.” -- Yousuf Karsh
  • “There is only you and your camera. The limitations in your photography are in yourself, for what we see is what we are.” -- Ernst Haas
  • “When I have a camera in my hand, I know no fear.” -- Alfred Eisenstaedt
  • “It is always the instantaneous reaction to oneself that produces a photograph.” -- Robert Frank
  • “The subject matter is so much more important than the photographer” --- Gordon Parks
  • “Whether he is an artist or not, the photographer is a joyous sensualist, for the simple reason that the eye traffics in feelings, not in thoughts.” --- Walker Evans
  • “At 42, I decided to become a photographer because it offered a means of creative thought and action. I didn't rationalize this, I just felt it intuitively and followed my intuition, which I have never regretted.” -- Wynne Bullock
  • “I've never made any picture, good or bad, without paying for it in emotional turmoil.” -- W. Eugene Smith
  • “Photography can never grow up if it imitates some other medium. It has to walk alone; it has to be itself.” -- Berenice Abbott
  • “It is one thing to photograph people. It is another to make others care about them by revealing the core of their humanness.” -- Paul Strand
  • “Photographs open doors into the past, but they also allow a look into the future.” -- Sally Mann
From the history of photography
"Photography as a fad is well-nigh on its last legs, thanks principally to the bicycle craze" -- Alfred Stieglitz, in the American Annual of Photography 1897.

External links

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Look up photography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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It has been suggested that this resource or section be merged with Topic:Photography (Discuss).
Photography is the process of making pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a sensor or film. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. The most common process is done through mechanical, chemical or digital devices known as cameras.

Materials

In order to approach the subject, the reader will require a camera. In order to properly learn the field's technical aspects a camera with a fully manual mode is recommended. Composition can be learned on any camera.
For film users, a vintage 35mm SLR (Single Lens Reflex) camera is often the tool of choice amongst learning and aspiring photographers. If one does approach the content with a film camera, it is probably a good idea to spend some time learning how to develop, print and scan the negatives.
For digital users, an entry level SLR will have all the features needed to build a solid foundation of the field's technical aspects. Any camera will allow the user to learn composition before mastering the technical aspects. Digital cameras also provide instant feedback, which allows people to learn from their photos on the spot and generally while they can redo the photo.

Courses / projects


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PHOTOGRAPHY (Gr. .Oils, light, and -ypa tv, to write), the science and art of producing pictures by the action of light on chemically prepared (sensitized) plates or films.^ Prepared plates and cut films were often switched and substituted by slight of hand tricks, replacing those provided by the investigator.
  • HISTORY OF SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.prairieghosts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.History. It would be somewhat difficult to fix a date when what we now know as " photographic action " was first recorded.^ Just before I posted this, I let everyone that previously requested a beta invitation know that we are now opening the site up for a second, wider round of testing so those folks would be first in line for this beta expansion.

^ With the new Aperture now available and Lightroom just celebrating its first birthday, t hat’s what Stephen Shankland (c|net news) wants to know, and he’d like your help.

^ Now We Know...what is Aperture 2...the first day and 12 hours later, two sessions of Photography and Aperture 2 at the Power Mac Center in Makati, Manila .

.No doubt the tanning of the skin by the sun's rays was what was first noticed, and this is as truly the effect of solar radiation as is the darkening of the sensitive paper which is now in use in photographic printing operations.^ Order prints of Times photographs, reproduced on archive-quality paper.

^ No more Fire Wire,well almost...and now super glossy screens, a nightmare or a blessing for Photographers?

^ Beattie had assumed that Hudson was in some way faking the photographs but was now no longer convinced of this.
  • HISTORY OF SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.prairieghosts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

We may take it that K. W. Scheele was the first to investigate the darkening action of sunlight on silver chloride. He found that when silver chloride was exposed to the action of light beneath water there was dissolved in the fluid a substance which, on the addition of lunar caustic (silver nitrate), caused the precipitation of new silver chloride, and that on applying a solution of ammonia to the blackened chloride an insoluble residue of metallic silver was left behind. He also noticed that of the rays of the spectrum the violet most readily blackened the silver chloride. In Scheele, then, we have the first who applied combined chemical and spectrum analysis to the science of photography. In 1782 J. Senebier repeated. Scheele's experiments, and found that in fifteen seconds the violet rays blackened silver chloride as much as the red rays did in twenty minutes.' .In 1798 Count Rumford contributed a paper to the Philosophical Transactions entitled " An inquiry concerning the chemical properties that have been attributed to light," in which he tried to demonstrate that all effects produced on metallic solution could be brought about by a temperature somewhat less than that of boiling water.^ Imagine converting so much solar energy to electricity or hot water that the ambient temperature went down one degree...after all, dissimlar metals release electricity when in contact under heat...

^ If your accumulated amount is less than RM50.00, it will be brought forward to the following month.
  • KOH KHO KING » Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC shashinki.com [Source type: General]

^ Because every darkroom print is somewhat unique and traditionally, unique items have more value than mass produced ones.
  • Photography Podcast, Photography Blog: Photography.ca 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.photography.ca [Source type: General]

Robert Harrup in 1802, however, conclusively showed in Nicholson's Journal that, at all events, salts of mercury were reduced by visible radiation and not by change of temperature.
.In 1801 we come to the next decided step in the study of photographic action, when Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776-1810) proved the existence of rays lying beyond the violet, and found that they had the power of blackening silver chloride.^ A number of eminent New Yorker's spoke out on his behalf and in addition, a number of professional photographers also testified that they had studied samples of Mumler’s work and had found no evidence of trickery.
  • HISTORY OF SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.prairieghosts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a discovery naturally gave a direction to the investigations of others, and Thomas Johann Seebeck (1770-1831) (between 1802 and 1808) and, in 1812, Jacques Etienne Berard (1789-1869) turned their attention to this particular subject, eliciting valuable information.^ The act of making a photograph turns the subjects into actors, and two actors touching each other isn't that unusual.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.We need only mention two or three other cases 1 It may here be remarked that had he used a pure spectrum he would have found that the red rays did not blacken the material in the slightest degree.^ But the point I would like to make here is that, well used, it can be very powerful and look perfectly natural, and is sometimes the only way to capture a scene as our eyes see it.

^ My only knock is that their online editor/tweaker needs a bit of work, but for many things you may be happy with the first-pass result.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ I did not see any mention of George Eastman (other than the matchbox camera) in your article.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

where the influence of light was noticed at the beginning of the 19th century. William Hyde Wollaston observed the conversion of yellow gum guaiacum into a green tint by the violet rays, and the restoration of the colour by the red rays - both of which are the effect of absorption of light, the original yellow colour of the gum absorbing the violet rays, whilst the green colour to which it is changed absorbs the red rays. Sir Humphry Davy found that puce-coloured lead oxide, when damp, became red in the red rays, whilst it blackened in the violet rays, and that the green mercury oxide became red in the red rays - again an example of the necessity of absorption to effect a molecular or chemical change in a substance. U. R. T. Le Bouvier Desmorties in 1801 observed the change effected in Prussian blue, and Carl Wilhelm Bdckman noted the action of the two ends of the spectrum on phosphorus, a research which John William Draper extended farther in America at a later date.
.To England belongs the honour of first producing a photograph by utilizing Scheele's observations on silver chloride.^ It has been claimed that spirit photographs were first produced by accident and only when unscrupulous photographers realized the wealth to be made from them were the first fraudulent images produced.
  • HISTORY OF SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.prairieghosts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In June 1802 Thomas Wedgwood (1771-180) published in the Journal of the Royal Institution the paper - " An account of a 'method of copying paintings upon glass and of making profiles by the agency of light upon nitrate of silver, with observations by H. Davy." He remarks that white paper or white leather moistened with a solution of silver nitrate undergoes no change when kept in a dark place, but on being exposed to the daylight it speedily changes colour, and, after passing through various shades of grey and brown, becomes at length nearly black. The alteration of colour takes place more speedily in proportion as the light is more intense.
." In the direct beam of the sun two or three minutes are sufficient to produce the full effect, in the shade several hours are required, and light transmitted through different-coloured glasses acts upon it with different degrees of intensity.^ Different wavelengths of light require different focus positions for the lens.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

^ Colour printing is more complex (and requires a different enlarger) than b/w printing so it’s probably best to start with black and white.
  • Photography Podcast, Photography Blog: Photography.ca 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.photography.ca [Source type: General]

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

.Thus it is found that red rays, or the common sunbeams passed through red glass, have very little action upon it; yellow and green are more efficacious, but blue and violet light produce the most decided and powerful effects."^ Below are some very common terms used through out Aperture and in Digital Photography today.

^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

^ What else can I say…but thank you so much Honey, you are very talented indeed producing such a small Camera with all the details, even the lens has glass…very cool and thanks again.

.Wedgwood goes on to describe the method of using this prepared paper by throwing shadows on it, and inferentially by what we now call " contact printing."^ Gorgeous printing on heavy watercolour paper that reveals great tonality from pure white to deep black with excellent shadow detail in most prints.
  • Photography Podcast, Photography Blog: Photography.ca 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.photography.ca [Source type: General]

He states that he has been unable to fix his prints, no washing being sufficient to eliminate the traces of the silver salt which occupied the unexposed or shaded portions. .Davy in a note states that he has found that, though the images formed by an ordinary camera obscura were too faint to print out in the solar microscope, the images of small objects could easily be copied on such paper.^ He used a stereoscopic camera and noted that the psychically produced images did not appear to be in three dimensions.
  • HISTORY OF SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.prairieghosts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best and most creative images came from Cell Phones and small compact Digital Cameras.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

." In comparing the effects produced by light upon muriate of silver (silver chloride) with those upon the nitrate it seemed evident that the muriate was the more susceptible, and both were more readily acted upon when moist than when dry - a fact long ago known.^ Jonathan B October 8th, 2008 at 8:05 pm Mole & Thomas produced more than just 10 “living Photograh” images.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ As Mike notes , I first linked to Prokudin-Gorskii's work more than 8 years ago (!!
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ It is far more satisfying to produce a print in the darkroom than by pressing the print button on your printer.
  • Photography Podcast, Photography Blog: Photography.ca 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.photography.ca [Source type: General]

Even in the twilight the colour of the moist muriate of silver, spread upon paper, slowly changed from white to faint violet; though under similar circumstances no intermediate alteration was produced upon the nitrate.. .. .Nothing but a method of preventing the unshaded parts of the delineations from being coloured by exposure to the day is wanting to render this process as useful as it is elegant."^ This is no accident, it’s the result of great planning (the light) execution (exposure/filters/composition) and finishing touches (darkroom post-processing – done these days using a graphics program).
  • Photography Podcast, Photography Blog: Photography.ca 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.photography.ca [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps even more interesting that Wolfe's process is the fishing method employed by his subjects; they use birds, not nets or poles: .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ I guess these days we all, well almost all have to use our computers and software to do the editing and processing…it is the digital age after all, no turning back.

.In this method of preparing the paper lies the germ of the silver-printing processes of modern times, and it was only by the spread of chemical knowledge that the hiatus which was to render the " process as useful as it is elegant " was filled up - when sodium thiosulphate (hyposulphite of soda), discovered by Francois Chaussier in 1799, or three years before Wedgwood published his paper, was used for making the print permanent.^ Recently, the only remaining 35mm print of the film was located under the director's desk, restored, and offered for sale on DVD in time for the 40th anniversary.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ This Workshop is filling up fast already; you can make a non-committed reservation now and reserve your space prior June 2009.

^ I could fill up a book with the many encounters I had with these amazing animals, feeling scared at times and vulnerable, but I am also happy that in my life time I experience the only true survivor of our prehistoric past.

.Here we must call attention to an important observation by Seebeck of Jena in 1810. In the Farbenlehre of Goethe he says: " When a spectrum produced by a properly constructed prism is thrown upon moist chloride of silver paper, if the printing be continued for from fifteen to twenty minutes, whilst a constant position for the spectrum is maintained by any means, I observe the following.^ Penn continued producing portraits well into the twenty first century and the most recent featured in the exhibition is artist Julian Schnabel (2007).

.In the violet the chloride is a reddish brown (sometimes more violet, sometimes more blue), and this coloration extends well beyond the limit of the violet; in the blue the chloride takes a clear blue tint, which fades away, becoming lighter in the green.^ We take away all your hassles, you be organized back home, no more looking for hours on end where you stored these great shots ..

In the yellow I usually found the chloride unaltered; sometimes, however, it had a light yellow tint; in the red and beyond the red it took a rose or lilac tint. .This image of the spectrum shows beyond the red and the violet a region more or less light and uncoloured.^ In my next blog I show you a screen shot of the Web Gallery with some more images from the Philippines.

^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

^ Mother planet is showing us the red warning light.

This is how the decomposition of the silver chloride is seen in this region. Beyond the brown band,. which was produced in the violet, the silver chloride was coloured a grey-violet for a distance of several inches. In proportion as the distance from the violet increased, the tint became lighter. Beyond the red, on the contrary, the chloride took a feeble red tint for a considerable distance. When moist chloride of silver, having received the action of light for a time, is exposed to the spectrum, the blue and violet behave as above. In the yellow and red regions, on the other hand, it is found that the silver chloride becomes paler;. the parts acted upon by the red rays and by those beyond take a light coloration." This has been brought forward by J. M. Eder as being the first record we have of photographic action lending itself to production of natural colours. .This observation of Seebeck was allowed to lie fallow for many years, until it was again taken up and published as a novelty.^ This exhibition is just one of many that make up this year’s Mois de la photo.
  • Photography Podcast, Photography Blog: Photography.ca 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.photography.ca [Source type: General]

^ It was my film of choice for many, many years, as a matter of fact most of my award winning images had been taken with Kodachrome 25.

.The first to found a process of photography which gave pictures that were subsequently unaffected by light was Nicephore de Niepce.^ Picture This Photography - Picture This Photography, Specializing in senior portrait photography anddigital processing.
  • BizWeb Category - Photography:Photographer 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.bizweb.com [Source type: General]

.His process, which he called provisionally " heliographie, dessins, et gravures," consists in coating the surface of a metallic plate with a solution of asphaltum in oil of lavender and exposing it to a camera image.^ He called this process "heliography" or sun drawing – it certainly was a long process: the exposure time was about 8 hours.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ After they are exposed, they are reinserted into the pack and -with the lens now covered- can be processed by simply pressing the camera's shutter and processing the film by ejecting it from the camera.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

He recommends that the asphaltum be powdered and the oil of lavender dropped upon it in a wine-glass, and that it be then gently heated. A polished plate is covered with this varnish, and, when dried, is ready for employment in the camera. .After requisite exposure, which is very long indeed, a very faint image, requiring development, is seen.^ I do rely on the RAW Image conversions and adjust the exposure a bit at times, very minor tweaks...

^ A very nice evening and I run into some very old friends again, I had not seen for a long time.

^ Although no one was in the room when the photo was taken, the developed plate showed the faint image of a man seated in one of the chairs.
  • HISTORY OF SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.prairieghosts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Development is effected by diluting oil of lavender with ten parts by volume of white petroleum. .After this mixture has been allowed to stand two or three days it becomes clear and is ready to be used.^ Surviving for our underwater photographers has just become a lot easier in Palau, Aperture 2 is on it's way ready for you to use.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

The plate is placed in a dish and covered with the solvent. By degrees the parts unaffected by light dissolve away, and the picture, formed of modified asphaltum, is developed. The plate is then lifted from the dish, allowed to drain, and finally freed from the remaining solvents by washing in water. .Subsequently, instead of using oil of lavender as the asphaltum solvent, Niepce employed an animal oil, which gave a deeper colour and more tenacity to the surface-film.^ But I do think that using film is a great way to learn some of the more technical aspects of photography, e.g.

Later, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (1789-1851) and Niepce used as a solvent the brittle residue obtained from evaporating the oil of lavender dissolved in ether or alcohol - a transparent solution of a lemon-yellow colour being formed. .This solution was used for covering glass or silver plates, which, when dried, could be used in the camera.^ These cover the areas where the majority of the artefacts are concentrated and could be used as a basis for future preservation efforts.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The time of exposure varied somewhat in length. .Daguerre remarked that " the time required to procure a photographic copy of a landscape is from seven to eight hours, but single monuments, when strongly lighted by the sun, or which are themselves very bright, can be taken in about three hours."^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

^ He argued correctly that since my shot was taken a 1/6 sec and his at 15 sec the spacing of the lights should be very different.

^ Men Very nice introduction to nudes...would like more examples and ideas about photographing men.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

.Perhaps there is no sentence that illustrates more forcibly the advance made in photography from the days when this process was described.^ This technology strikes me as perfect for a more intrusive, invasive, big-brother-type gubmnt.Given that the technology exists, there's no stopping it.
  • EclectEcon: Photography 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.eclectecon.net [Source type: General]

^ P lease see my recent Blog regarding the NEW commercial photography site, we have launched this a few days ago, but with many new ventures made a few more changes since then.

^ T he Image below is not from the Beijing Olympics but it made me smile and reminded me of this very cool sentence by David Schloss (AUN) from the other day...oh boy it is so true...

The ratio of three hours to 2 o th of a second is a fair estimate of the progress made since Niepce. The development was conducted by means of petroleum-vapour, which dissolved the parts not acted upon by light. .As a rule silver plates seem to have been used, and occasionally glass; but it does not appear whether the latter material was chosen because an image would be projected through it or whether simply for the sake of effect.^ An inverted image from outside the hole would appear on the opposite wall.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ Marble says because the weather was warmer through the weekend he didn't give the project a second thought, until he left his house.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

.Viewed in the light of present knowledge, a more perfectly developable image in half-tone would be obtained by exposing the film through the back of the glass.^ From black & white images…back to color… more images from India after the Aperture 2 event… roaming the streets in Mumbai and venturing towards Goa one afternoon.

^ A few more images from my road trip in Mumbai India...the view from the car window continues but in Black & White.

^ The Light version will fuse or tone map a maximum of 5 images and does not have batch processing features.

The action of light on most organic matter is apparently one of oxidation. In the case of asphaltum or bitumen of Judaea the oxidation causes a hardening of the material and an insolubility in the usual solvents. Hence that surface of the film is generally hardened first which first feels the influence of light. Where half-tones exist, as in a landscape picture, the film remote from the surface first receiving the image is not acted upon at all, and remains soluble in the solvent. .It is thus readily seen that, in the case of half-tone pictures, or even in copying engravings, if the action were not continued sufficiently long when the surface of the film farthest from the glass was first acted upon, the layer next the glass would in some places remain soluble, and on development would be dissolved away, carrying the top layer of hardened resinous matter with it, and thus give rise to imperfect pictures.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ The location is easy to find - some half-finished instruments are lying on a low table to prove it — but I don’t see the friendly man on my picture.
  • Photography - Marjolein's Travel Blog 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC blog.iamback.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the images that we are publishing in the fine art collection would remain you of Atget.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.In carbon-printing development from the back of the exposed film is absolutely essential, since it depends on the same principles as does heliography, and in this the same mode of procedure is advisable.^ If you're using film and using commercial labs for development and printing, you risk criticism.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

It would appear that Niepce began his researches as early as 1814, but it was not till 1827 that he had any success worth recounting. At that date he communicated a paper to Dr Bauer of Kew, the secretary of the Royal Society of London, with a view to its presentation to that society. Its publication, however, was prevented because the process, of which examples were shown, was a secret one. In an authentic MS. copy of Niepce's " Memoire," dated " Kew, le 8 Decembre 1827," he says that "in his framed drawings made on tin the tone is too feeble, but that by the use of chemical agents the tone may be darkened." This shows that Niepce was familiar with the idea of using some darkening medium even with his photographs taken on tin plates.
Table of contents

Daguerreotype

We have noticed in the joint process of Daguerre and Niepce that polished silver plates were used, and we know from the latter that amongst the chemical agents tried iodine suggested itself. Iodine vapour or solution applied to a silvered plate would cause the formation of silver iodide on those parts not acted upon by light. .The removal of the resinous picture would leave an image formed of metallic silver, whilst the black parts of the original would be represented by the darker silver iodide.^ Images and image technologies decide the quality of modern communication and form an integral part of the technology of today and tomorrow.

^ Aperture 2 can do all of this after the shoot and the nice part is...you still have the original color images after the conversion.

This was probably the origin of the daguerreotype process. Such observers as Niepce and Daguerre, who had formed a partnership for prosecuting their researches, would not have thus formed silver iodide without noticing that it changed in colour when exposed to the light. What parts respectively Daguerre and Niepce played in the development of the daguerreotype will probably never be known with absolute accuracy, but in a letter from Dr Bauer to Dr J. J. Bennett, F.R.S., dated the 7th of May 1839, the former says:- " I received a very interesting letter from Mons. Isidore Niepce, dated 12th March [about a month after the publication of the daguerreotype process], and that letter fully confirms what I suspected of Daguerre's manoeuvres with poor Nicephore, but Mr Isidore observes that for the present that letter might be considered confidential." .Dr Bauer evidently knew more of " poor Nicephore's " work than most people, and at that early period he clearly thought that an injustice had been done to Niepce at the hands of Daguerre.^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ Marble posed in 2004 when Tunick photographed more than 2,000 people near Cleveland Browns Stadium.

^ But the unseen work of journalism has always been about more than capturing the story.

It should be remarked that Nicephore de Niepce died in 1833, and a new agreement was entered into between his son Isidore de Niepce and Daguerre to continue the prosecution of their researches. .It appears further that Niepce communicated his process to Daguerre on the 5th of December 1829. At his death some letters from Daguerre and others were left by him in which iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., are mentioned as having been used on the metal plates, and their sensitiveness to light, when thus treated, commented upon.^ Using the sun or whatever reflected light he could capture, he made such a statement that the artists of Europe treated him as a Messiah when he toured.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

^ When I took Putin, with his mesmerising ice-blue eyes, some people thought the photo glamorised him, others that it exposed him as a relic of the cold war.

^ I mention in my earlier Blog some of the other cool Applications for the iPhone, but this one is super cool, and set the quality of your recordings is available too.

.We are thus led to believe that a great part of the success in producing the daguerreotype is due to the elder Niepce; and indeed it must have been thought so at the time, since, on the publication of the process, life-pensions of 6000 francs and 4000 francs were given to Daguerre and to Isidore Niepce respectively.^ I dont believe showing off body parts, especially private parts, for viewing to the public is a form of art.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

In point of chronology the publication of the discovery of the daguerreotype process was made subsequently to the Talbottype process. .It will, however, be convenient to continue the history of the daguerreotype, premising that it was published on the 6th of February 1839, whilst Talbot's process was given to the world on the 25th of January of the same year.^ In 1839, Robert Cornelius, a Dutch chemist who immigrated to Philadelphia, took a daguerreotype portrait of himself outside of his family’s store and made history: he made the world’s first human photograph!
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

Daguerreotype pictures were originally taken on silver-plated copper, and even now the silvered surface thus prepared serves better than electro-deposited silver of any thickness. An outline of the operations is as follows. A brightly-polished silver plate is cleaned by finely-powdered pumice and olive oil, and then by dilute nitric acid, and a soft buff is employed to give it a brilliant polish, the slightest trace of foreign matter or stain being fatal to the production of a perfect picture. The plate, thus prepared, is ready for the iodizing operation. Small fragments of iodine are scattered over a saucer, covered with gauze. Over this the plate is placed, face downwards, resting on supports, and the vapour from the iodine is allowed to form upon it a surface of silver iodide. It is essential to note the colour of the surface-formed iodide at its several stages, the varying colours being due to interference colours caused by the different thicknesses of the minutely thin film of iodide. The stage of maximum sensitiveness is obtained when it is of a golden orange colour. .In this state the plate is withdrawn and removed to the dark slide of the camera, ready for exposure.^ The camera exposure times were just right to capture the dark-side of its rings, but longer than that required to properly expose the globe of sunlit Saturn.
  • EclectEcon: Photography 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.eclectecon.net [Source type: General]

^ John W. Draper, professor of chemistry, built his own camera and made what may be the first human portrait taken in the United States, after a 65-second exposure.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

A plan frequently adopted to give an even film of iodide was to saturate a card with iodine and hold the plate a short distance above the card. .Long exposures were required, varying in Paris from three to thirty minutes.^ The pace of progression varies from individual to individual and is influenced by environmental factors such as long term exposure to UV rays.

The length of the exposure was evidently a matter of judgment, more particularly as over-exposure introduced an evil which was called " solarization," but which was in reality due to the oxidation of the iodide by prolonged exposure to light.
As a matter of history it may be remarked that the development of the image by mercury vapour is said to be due to a chance discovery of Daguerre. .It appears that for some time previous to the publication of the daguerreotype method he had been experimenting with iodized silver plates, producing images by what would now be called the "printing out " process.^ Now the story is out in the Asian Geographic Magazine ...read some excerpts below and a screen shot of the spreads...without Aperture (of course now I am using Aperture 2.1 ) this would have been an impossible task.

^ The Nikon D700 has already a build in image authentication and copyright information in the menu, and I am sure some others have it too by now.

^ This is not image manipulation, I am only restoring some old and precious photos that would have been lost or considered unusable for publications without altering the overall visual.

.This operation involved so long an exposure that he sought some means of reducing it by the application of different reagents.^ The long exposure also means that photos like the one below of Shibuya Crossing are nearly empty of people and cars -- only faint ghosts remain.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

.Having on one occasion exposed such a plate to a camera-image, he accidentally placed it in the dark in a cupboard containing various chemicals, and found after the lapse of a night that he had a perfect image developed.^ I recommend placing an opaque watermark over the entire image or covering one third of the image, this is much harder to retouch.

^ I began to imagine Disney's perfect Princesses juxtaposed with real issues that were affecting women around me, such as illness, addiction and self-image issues.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Enjoy, both images have been taken the same day and from the same place, one at night the other one in the the morning during a tropical rainstorm.

By the process of exhaustion he arrived at the fact that it was the mercury vapour, which even at ordinary temperatures volatilizes, that had caused this intensification of the almost invisible camera-image. .It was this discovery that enabled the exposures to be very considerably shortened from those which it was found necessary to give in mere camera-printing. The development of the image was effected by placing the exposed plate over a slightly heated (about 75° C.) cup of mercury.^ Sato's photos use interesting technique: he sets the photo for very long exposure (~1 hour) and walks around the photo with a flash light, pen light, or mirror, which he shines back into the camera for varying effect.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ The images below are a “Play of Light and Color” from two very different places.

^ But it is a bit of a worry… personally I am not fond of all those filters and certain effects, (some manufactures even claim, "helping create the world's greatest images."

The vapour of mercury condensed on those places where the light had acted in an almost exact ratio to the intensity of its action. This produced a picture in an amalgam, the vapour of which attached itself to the altered silver iodide. Proof that such was the case was subsequently afforded by the fact that the mercurial image could be removed by heat. .The developing box was so constructed that it was possible to examine the picture through a yellow glass window whilst the image was being brought out.^ A powerful ancestral being, this is evident in the Rock art through out the Arnhem Land Escarpment.

^ Aperture 2 has much bigger advantages for me…being so integrated and the management of images is out of this world plus the speed and flexibility.

The next operation was to fix the picture by dipping it in a solution of hyposulphite of soda. The image produced by this method is so delicate that it will not bear the slightest handling, and has to be protected from accidental touching.
.The first great improvement in the daguerreotype process was the resensitizing of the iodized film by bromine vapour.^ O ur first two sessions at the Power Mac Center are done, great attendance, great participants and some cool images processed in Aperture 2 .

.John Frederick Goddard published his account of the use of bromine in conjunction with iodine in 1840, and A. F. J. Claudet (1797-1867) employed a combination of iodine and chlorine vapour in 1841. In 1844 Daguerre published his improved method of preparing the plates, which is in reality based on the use of bromine with iodine.^ Large publishers typically use image managementsystems to quickly identify images based on their IPTC information.

.That this addition points to additional sensitiveness will be readily understood when we remark that so-called instantaneous pictures of yachts in full sail, and of large size, have been taken on plates so prepared - a feat which is utterly impossible with the original process as described by Daguerre.^ Code your embedded slideshow to always point back to your customized pages, choose the size and color, or disable full-screen mode.

The next improvement in the process was toning or gilding the image by a solution of gold, a practice introduced by H. L. Fizeau. .Gold chloride is mixed with hyposulphite of soda, and the levelled plate, bearing a sufficient quantity of the fluid, is warmed by a spirit-lamp until the required vigour is given to the image, as a consequence of which it is better seen in most lights.^ But most important… develop the skills to take better photos, or as Gunther refers to images …our present, past and future, nobody can take them away from us.

.Nearly all the daguerreotypes extant have been treated in this manner, and no doubt their permanence is in a great measure due to this operation.^ We take away all your hassles, you be organized back home, no more looking for hours on end where you stored these great shots ..

.Images of this class can be copied by taking electrotypes from them, as shown by Sir W. R. Grove and others.^ On the other hand the web is not so forgiving, copy and paste is so easy...and here I do agree with Jason, place a watermark on the image will help, but it is never perfect.

.These reproductions are admirable in every way, and furnish a proof that the daguerrean image is a relief.^ We see these images every day as we drive to work or go to meetings, never realizing what is around us since we have to pay attention to the traffic.

Fox-Talbot Process

In January 1839 Fox Talbot described the first of his processes, photogenic drawing, in a paper to the Royal Society. He states that he began experimenting in 1834, and that in the solar microscope he obtained an outline of the object to be depicted in full sunshine in half a second. .He published in the Philosophical Magazine full details of his method, which consisted essentially in soaking paper in common salt, brushing one side only of it with about a 12% solution of silver nitrate in water, and drying at the fire.^ Newsweek used the photo in their magazine, only they cropped out the family and just showed the former VP stabbing a bloody piece of meat with a knife to illustrate a Cheney quote about CIA interrogation methods.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ If you remember the image "Mangroves on fire" from my previous blog, this one was taken about the same time.

^ I know that, I guess it boils down to only one thing your conscious and been able to feel good about it and say...

Fox Talbot stated that by repeating the alternate washes of the silver and salt - always ending, however, with the former - greater sensitiveness was attained. This is the same in every respect as the method practised by Wedgwood in 1802; but, when we come to the next process, which he called " calotype " or " beautiful picture," we have a distinct advance. This process Talbot protected by a patent in 1841.
It may be briefly described as the application of silver iodide to a paper support. Carefully selected paper was brushed over with a solution of silver nitrate (too grains to the ounce of distilled water), and dried by the fire. .It was then dipped into a solution of potassium iodide (500 grains being dissolved in a pint of water), where it was allowed to stay two or three minutes until silver iodide was formed.^ The brass base separates into two halves so the bottom of the base can be filled with water.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

In this state the iodide is scarcely sensitive to light, but is sensitized by brushing " gallo-nitrate of silver " over the surface to which the silver nitrate had been first applied. This " gallonitrate " is merely a mixture, consisting of 100 grains of silver nitrate dissolved in a oz. of water, to which is added one-sixth of its volume of acetic acid, and immediately before applying to the paper an equal bulk of a saturated solution of gallic acid in water. .The prepared surface is then ready for exposure in the camera, and, after a short insolation, develops itself in the dark, or the development may be hastened by a fresh application of the " gallo-nitrate of silver."^ John W. Draper, professor of chemistry, built his own camera and made what may be the first human portrait taken in the United States, after a 65-second exposure.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

The picture is then fixed by washing it in clean water and drying slightly in blotting paper, after which it is treated with a solution of potassium bromide, and again washed and dried. Here there is no mention made of hyposulphite of soda as a fixing agent, that having been first used by Sir J. Herschel in February 1840.
In a strictly historical notice it ought to be mentioned that development by means of gallic acid and silver nitrate was first known to Rev. J. B. Reade. .When impressing images in the solar microscope he employed gallic acid and silver in order to render more sensitive the silver chloride paper that he was using, and he accidentally found that the image could be developed without the aid of light.^ This is an image that could have been used.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

^ SHARPENING sharpens everything in your image including nose from darker images found in low light images.

^ Two more images this time from Group 2 using the Monochrome Mixer in Aperture 2 .

The priority of the discovery was claimed by Fox Talbot; and his claim was sustained after a lawsuit, apparently on the ground that Reade's method had never been legally published. Talbot afterwards made many slight improvements in the process. In one of his patents he recognizes the value of the proper fixing of his photogenic drawings by hyposulphite of soda, and also the production of positive prints from the calotype negatives. We pass over his application of albumen to porcelain and its subsequent treatment with iodine vapour, as also his application of albumen in which silver iodide was held in suspension to a glass plate, since in this he was preceded by Niepce de St Victor in 1848.

Albumen Process on Glass

It was, a decided advance when Niepce de St Victor, a nephew of Nicephore de Niepce, employed a glass plate and coated it with iodized albumen. The originator of this method did not meet with much success. In the hands of Blanquart Evrard it became more practicable; but it was carried out in its greatest perfection by G. Le Gray.
.The outline of the operations is as follows: The whites of five fresh eggs are mixed with about one hundred grains of potassium iodide, about twenty grains of potassium bromide and ten grains of common salt.^ Fresh APPLES and APERTURE 2… they had a lot in common recently …a simple shot from inside my Hotel Room in Mumbai India…plus one more Black & White…using the Monochrome mixer.

The mixture is beaten up into a froth and allowed to settle for twenty-four hours, when the clear liquid is decanted off. A circular pool of albumen is poured on a glass plate, and a straight ruler (its ends being wrapped with waxed paper to prevent its edge from touching the plate anywhere except at the margins) is drawn over the plate, sweeping off the excess of albumen, and so leaving an even film. The plate is first allowed to dry spontaneously, a final heating being given to it in an oven or before the fire. The heat hardens the albumen, and it becomes insoluble and ready for the silver nitrate bath. One of the difficulties is to prevent crystallization of the salts held in solution, and this can only be effected by keeping them in defect rather than in excess. The plate is sensitized for five minutes in a bath of silver nitrate, acidified with acetic acid, and exposed whilst still wet, or it may be slightly washed and again dried and exposed whilst in its desiccated state. The image is developed by gallic acid in the usual way.
After the application of albumen many modifications were introduced in the shape of starch, serum of milk, gelatin, all of which were intended to hold iodide in situ on the plate; and the development in every case seems to have been by gallic acid. .At one time the waxed-paper process subsequently introduced by Le Gray was a great favourite.^ I like to start with one of my Quotes from my Book Journey Through Color & Time : “To see something which is not there makes a great image” GD .

Paper that had been made translucent by white wax was immersed in a solution of potassium iodide until impregnated with it, after which it was sensitized in the usual way, development being by gallic acid. In images obtained by this process the high lights are represented by metallic silver, whilst the shadows are translucent. Such a print is called a " negative." When silver chloride paper is darkened by the passage of light through a negative, we get the highest lights represented by white paper and the shadows by darkened chloride. A print of this kind is called a " positive." Collodion Process. - A great impetus was given to photography in 1850, on the introduction of collodion (q.v.), a very convenient vehicle on account of the facility with which the plates are prepared, and also because it is a substance as a rule totally unaffected by silver nitrate, which is not the case with other organic substances. Thus albumen forms a definite silver compound, as do gelatin, starch and gum. .The employment of collodion was first suggested by Le Gray, but it remained for Frederick Scott Archer of London, closely followed by P. W. Fry, to make a really practical use of the discovery.^ It was also the first time that he really got into Aperture 2 using my MacBook Pro for some pre editing and by the time we got back home a lot of our work had been done.

^ I am not suggesting a few visits to plant flags and do photo ops but a journey to make the first homestead in space: an American colony on a new world.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ An impressive site, but some words of criticism… first suggestion, perhaps you should use more serious models, or else have the models perform more serious acts and expressions.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

When collodion is poured on a glass plate it leaves on drying a hard transparent film which under the microscope is slightly reticulated. Before drying, the film is gelatinous and perfectly adapted for holding in situ salts soluble in ether and alcohol. Where such salts are present they crystallize out when the film is dried, hence such a film is only suitable where the plates are ready to be immersed in the silver bath. As a rule, about five grains of the soluble gun-cotton are dissolved in an ounce of a mixture of equal parts of ether and alcohol, both of which must be of low specific gravity, .725 and 805 respectively. If the alcohol or ether be much diluted with water the gun-cotton (pyroxylin) precipitates, but, even if less diluted, it forms a film which is " crapey " and uneven. Such was the material which Le Gray proposed and which Archer brought into practical use. The opaque silver plate with its one impression was abandoned; and the paper support of Talbot, with its inequalities of grain and thickness, followed suit, though not immediately. .When once a negative had been obtained with collodion on a glass plate - the image showing high lights by almost complete opacity and the shadows by transparency (as was the case, too, in the calotype process) - any number of impressions could be obtained by means of the silver-printing process introduced by Fox Talbot, and they were found to possess a delicacy and refinement of detail that certainly eclipsed the finest print obtained from a calotype negative.^ The list above is by no means complete: we skipped many important milestones in the days of early photography, including the contributions of Fox Talbot [wiki], the development of other photographic processes (collodion, gelatin emulsion, and so forth), the birth of cinematography , and so on.
  • The Wonderful World of Early Photography. – Neatorama 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ Avoid high resolution images, it is an open invitation for thief’s and they slow down your website.

^ SHARPENING sharpens everything in your image including nose from darker images found in low light images.

.To any one who had practised the somewhat tedious calotype process, or the waxed-paper process of Le Gray with its still longer preparation and development, the advent of the collodion method must have been extremely welcome, since it effected a saving in time, money and uncertainty.^ These rats save lives, one sniff at a time .

^ All the Kodachromes are long gone since they required a complicated development process; only Kodak and a few specialized Pro Labs in the US could do the processing at the time.

^ It is extremely valuable to have an Assistant around during commercial Photography; I have been blessed by one of the better ones who has been with me for a long time.

The rapidity of photographic action was much increased, and the production of a different character of pictures thus became possible.
We give an outline of the procedure. .A glass plate is carefully cleaned by a detergent such as a cream of tripoli powder and spirits of wine (to which a little ammonia is often added), then wiped with a soft rag, and finally polished with a silk handkerchief or chamois leather.^ W e made a few more changes on my Photography Blog pages, added a Twitter Widget and did a little clean up.

A collodion containing soluble iodides and bromides is made to flow over the plate, all excess being drained off when it is covered. A good standard formula for the collodion is-55 grains of pyroxylin, 5 oz. of alcohol, 5 oz. of ether; and in this liquid are dissolved 22 grains of ammonium iodide, 2 grains of cadmium iodide and 2 grains of cadmium bromide. When the collodion is set the plate is immersed in a bath of silver nitrate - a vertical form being that mostly used in England, whilst a horizontal dish is used on the continent of Europe - a good formula for which is 350 grains of silver nitrate with 10 oz. of water. .The plate is steadily lowered into this solution, and moved in it until all the repellent action between the aqueous solution of the silver and the solvents of the collodion is removed, when it is allowed to rest for a couple of minutes, after which period it is taken out and placed in the dark slide ready for exposure in the camera.^ PS. All images have been taken with out ever leaving the car, edited in Aperture 2.1 then exported direct to PhotoShelter using the Plug-in from PhotoShelter never leaving Aperture .

^ I had to discipline myself not to jump out of the car at times, but then that was the whole Idea in the first place, and I am not finish yet by all means…a lot more to come.

^ The perfect solution is don’t display your Images on the web…but I think these days are over and we all like our images out there…so how do we protect our images?

After undergoing proper exposure the plate is withdrawn, and in a room lighted with yellow light the developing solution is applied, which originally was a solution of pyrogallic acid in water restrained in its action by the addition of acetic acid. One of the old formulae employed by P. H. Delamotte was 9 grains of pyrogallic acid, 2 drachms of glacial acetic acid and 3 oz. of water. The image gradually appears after the application of this solution, building itself up from the silver nitrate clinging to the film, which is reduced to the metallic state by degrees. Should the density be insufficient a few drops of silver nitrate are added to the pryogallic acid solution and the developing action continued.
In 1844 Robert Hunt introduced another reducing agent, which is still the favourite, viz. ferrous sulphate. .By its use the time of necessary exposure of the plate is reduced and the image develops with great rapidity.^ I created the image above a long time ago in Photoshop, yes you have heard correctly, and yes I know how to use Photoshop.

^ I do rely on the RAW Image conversions and adjust the exposure a bit at times, very minor tweaks...

^ Two more images this time from Group 2 using the Monochrome Mixer in Aperture 2 .

A sample of this developing solution is 20 grains of ferrous sulphate, 20 minims of acetic acid, with I oz. of water. This often leaves the image thinner than is requisite for the formation of a good print, and it is intensified with pyrogallic acid and silver. Other intensifiers are used to increase the deposit on a plate by means of mercury or uranium, followed by other solutions to still further darken the double salts formed on the film.
.Such intensifying agents have to be applied to the image after the plate is fixed, which is done by a concentrated solution of hyposulphite of soda or by potassium cyanide, the latter salt having been first introduced by Martin and Marc Antoine Augustin Gaudin in 1853 (La Lumiere, April 23, 1853).^ T wo images did not upload at first, please check or refresh your system the problem has been fixed!

^ B efore we introduce one of the first Plug - ins for Aperture 2.1 some more images below from my last journey to Boracay in the Philippines...

Twenty-five grains of potassium cyanide to one ounce of water is the strength of the solution usually employed. The reaction of both these fixing agents is to form with the sensitive salts of silver double hyposulphites or cyanides, which are soluble in water and salt. The utility of bromides in the collodion process seems to have been recognized in its earliest days, Scott Archer (1852) and R. J. Bingham (1850) both mentioning it. We notice this, since as late as 1866 a patent-right in its use was sought to be enforced in America, the patent being taken out by James Cutting in July 1854.

Positive Pictures by the Collodion Process

.In the infancy of the collodion process it was shown by Horne that a negative image could be made to assume the appearance of a positive by whitening the metallic silver deposit.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

This he effected by using with the pyrogallic acid developer a small quantity of nitric acid. A better result was obtained by P. W. Fry with ferrous sulphate and ferrous nitrate, whilst Hugh Diamond gave effect to the matter in a practical way. F. Scott Archer used mercuric chloride to whiten the image. To Robert Hunt, however, must be rewarded the credit of noticing the action of this salt on the image (Phil. Trans., 1843). .The whitened picture may be made to stand out against black velvet, or black varnish may be poured over the film to give the necessary black background, or, more recently, the positive pictures may be produced on japanned iron plates (ferrotype plates) or on japanned leather.^ It is tough to find anything actualy wrong with the picture on the left, a standard studio photo made with a seamless background, medium format camera, and softbox.
  • Nudes: how to create the best photograph from Photo.net 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

^ And when asked what makes one image stand out more than another, is it emotional or an intellectual reaction he answers: "It must be intuitive.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

This process is still occasionally practised by itinerant photographers.

Moist Collodion Process

It is seen that for the successful working of the collodion process it was necessary that the plate should be exposed very shortly after its preparation; this was a drawback, inasmuch as it necessitated taking a heavy equipment into the field. .In 1856, Sir William Crookes and J. Spiller published in the Philosophical Magazine a process whereby they were enabled to keep a film moist (so as to prevent crystallization of the silver nitrate) several days, enabling plates to be prepared at home, exposed in the field, and then developed in the dark room.^ At the time they where published in a various magazines.

^ TIBET'S Horse Racing Festival published in the Asian Geographic Magazine...APERTURE 2 & the .Mac Web Gallery helped to keep the deadline...the story is out.

^ After they are exposed, they are reinserted into the pack and -with the lens now covered- can be processed by simply pressing the camera's shutter and processing the film by ejecting it from the camera.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The plate was prepared in the usual way and a solution of zinc nitrate and silver nitrate in water was made to flow over it. The hygroscopic nature of the zinc salt kept sufficient moisture on the plate to attain the desired end. Various modifications in procedure have been made.

Dry Plates

It would appear that the first experiments with collodion dry plates were due to Marc Antoine Augustin Gaudin. .In La Lumiere of the 22nd of April and the 27th of May 1854 he describes his researches on the question; whilst in England G. R. Muirhead, on the 4th of August 1854, stated that light acts almost as energetically on a dry surface as on a wet after all the silver has been washed away from the former previous to desiccation.^ All images © Gunther Deichmann - Manila August 4th 2009 .

.J. M. Taupenot, however, seems to have been the first to use a dry-plate process that was really workable.^ It was also the first time that he really got into Aperture 2 using my MacBook Pro for some pre editing and by the time we got back home a lot of our work had been done.

His original plan was to coat a plate with collodion, sensitize it in the ordinary manner, wash it, cause a solution of albumen to flow over the surface, dry it, dip it in a bath of silver nitrate acidified with acetic acid, and wash and dry it again. The plate was then in a condition to be exposed, and was to be developed with pyrogallic acid and silver. In this method we have a double manipulation, which is long in execution, though perfectly effective.
HISTORY]
A great advance was made in all dry-plate processes by the introduction of what is known as the " alkaline developer," which is, however, inapplicable to all plates on which silver nitrate is present in the free state. The developers previously described, either for collodion or paper processes, were dependent on the reduction of metallic silver by some such agent as ferrous sulphate, the reduction taking place gradually and the reduced particles aggregating on those portions of the film which had been acted upon by light. The action of light being to reduce the silver iodide, bromide or chloride, these reduced particles really acted as nuclei for the crystallized metal. It will be evident that in such a method of development the molecular attraction Sodium carbonate.. ioo parts.
Sodium sulphite. 125 Potassium bromide acts at distances relatively great compared with the diameters of the molecules themselves. If it were possible to reduce the altered particles of silver salt it was plain that development would be more rapid, and also that the number of molecules reduced by light would be smaller if the metallic silver could be derived from silver compounds within shorter distances of the centres of molecular attraction. Alkaline development accomplished this to a very remarkable extent; but the method is only really practicable when applied to films containing silver bromide and chloride, as silver iodide is only slightly amenable to the alkaline development. .The introduction of this developer is believed to be of American origin; and it is known that in the year 1862 Major C. Russell used it with the dry plates he introduced.^ And I gotta tell you, if change.gov is indicative of how the Obama administration is going to use the web to engage with Americans, this is going to be an interesting four years.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

An alkaline developer consists of an alkali, a reducing agent and a restraining agent. .These bodies, when combined and applied to the solid silver bromide or chloride, after being acted upon by light, were able to reduce the sub-bromide or sub-chloride, and to build up an image upon it, leaving the unaltered bromide intact, except so far as it was used in the building up.^ PS. All images have been taken with out ever leaving the car, edited in Aperture 2.1 then exported direct to PhotoShelter using the Plug-in from PhotoShelter never leaving Aperture .

^ The body color is light brown with darker bands on the body and tail - these tend to be broken up near the neck.

^ Adjustments HUD A heads-up display, or floating panel of contextual controls, that enables adjustments to be applied to images.

In 1877 Sir W. Abney investigated this action. .A dry plate was prepared by the bath process in the usual manner (to be described below), and exposed in the camera.^ After they are exposed, they are reinserted into the pack and -with the lens now covered- can be processed by simply pressing the camera's shutter and processing the film by ejecting it from the camera.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.The exposed film was covered with another film of collodiobromide emulsion, which of course had not seen the light.^ After they are exposed, they are reinserted into the pack and -with the lens now covered- can be processed by simply pressing the camera's shutter and processing the film by ejecting it from the camera.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

An image was obtained from the double film by means of the alkaline developer, which penetrated through the upper unexposed film. The development was prolonged until an image appeared through the unexposed film, when the plate was fixed, washed and dried. A piece of gelatinous paper was cemented on the upper film, and a similar piece on the lower after both had been stripped off the glass. When quite dry the two papers were forcibly separated, a film adhering to each. .The upper film, although never exposed to light, showed an image in some cases more intense than the under film.^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ But I do think that using film is a great way to learn some of the more technical aspects of photography, e.g.

^ New Aerials of Palau Micronesia, some very cool low light photography after sunset from the helicopter & New generic images of Palau...

The action of the alkaline developer was here manifest: the silver bromide in close contiguity to the exposed particles was reduced to the metallic state. Hence, from this and similar experiments, Abney concluded that silver bromide could not exist in the presence of a freshly precipitated or reduced metallic silver, and that a sub-bromide was immediately formed. From this it will be seen that the deposited silver is well within the sphere of molecular attraction, and that consequently a less exposure (i.e. the reduction of fewer molecules of the sensitive salt) would give a developable image.
The alkalis used embraced the alkalis themselves and the mono-carbonates. The sole reducing agent up till recent times was pyrogallic acid. .In the year 1880 Abney found that hydroquinone was even more effective than pyrogallic acid, its reducing power being stronger.^ As Mike notes , I first linked to Prokudin-Gorskii's work more than 8 years ago (!!
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.Various other experimentalists tried other kindred substances, but without adding to the list of really useful agents until recently.^ Ok some of you might love these plug-ins and there is really nothing wrong with it but for me…filters and some others in the pipeline are not much use to me.

^ Click on the images or use the link below PhotoShelter Collection @ Once you in the PhotoShelter Collection just go to the list and click on recently added , enjoy the images.

^ Have we forgotten how to create real images without resorting to Photoshop or other toys.

.The following are some of the most effective: - Eikonogen Developer. Eikonogen 25 parts.^ Most cataracts develop as part of the aging process.

Sodium sulphite 50 „ Sodium carbonate. 50 „ Potassium bromide. z Water moo „ This is a one-solution developer, and acts energetically.
3 Water ..... loon „ A and B ,;solutions are mixed together in equal proportions.
.Besides these, there are several more, such as adurol, glycin, pyrocatechin, which have been used with more or less success.^ The problem is the livelihood for the Tagbanuas if the practice and collecting these Bird Nests stopped since there is very little else besides fishing for these amazing agile people.

^ Ok some of you might love these plug-ins and there is really nothing wrong with it but for me…filters and some others in the pipeline are not much use to me.

^ There are more photos in the online gallery , but these are some of the ones (IIRC) that are in the actual exhibit: .
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

.They all give a black in lieu of that dark olive-green deposit of silver which is so often found with pyrogallol developers.^ The breeding populations of Olive ridley and green sea turtles are endangered along Mexico's Pacific Coast, and threatened elsewhere, the study found.

^ What they found were thousands of far away galaxies from early in the development of the universe.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Stone Age… the hours they have put into the development, trying to please everyone… only to often, we just take them for granted.

.All are alkaline developers, and the image is built up from the sensitive salt within the film.^ They are built assuming that they are going to focus your image on an area the size of 35mm film.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ All of this was done within Aperture 2 dealing with some 3000 images and never leaving the program, talking about efficiency and speed.

^ Aperture 2 in the field…how do I store and back up all my RAW images with out overloading & clogging up my MacBook Pro .

They are applicable to gelatin or collodion plates, but for the latter rather more bromide of an alkali is added, to retard fogging.
Another set of developers for dry plates dependent on the reduction of the silver bromide and the metallic state is founded on the fact that certain organic salts of iron can be utilized. In 1877 M. Carey Lea of Philadelphia and William Willis announced almost simultaneously that a solution of ferrous oxalate in neutral potassium oxalate was effective as a developer, and from that time its use has been acknowledged. In 1882 J. M. Eder demonstrated that gelatino-silver chloride plates could be developed with ferrous citrate, which could not be so readily accomplished with ferrous oxalate. The exposure for chloride plates when developed by the latter was extremely prolonged. .In the same year Abney showed that if ferrous oxalate were dissolved in potassium citrate a much more powerful agent was formed, which allowed not only gelatino-chloride plates to be readily developed but also collodio-chloride plates.^ End of Polaroid film and how much longer is film like Fuji and Kodak going to be around…I m sure for a few more years, I hope so.

^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

These plates were undevelopable except by the precipitation method until the advent of the agents last-mentioned owing to the fact that the chloride was as readily reduced as the sub-chloride.
Amongst the components of an alkaline developer we mentioned a restrainer. .This factor, generally a bromide or chloride of an alkali, serves probably to form a compound with the silver salt which has not been acted upon by light, and which is less easily reduced than is the silver salt alone - the altered particles being left intact.^ You may want to convert your files; in general, AAC/MP3 files take up less storage room than AIFFs.

^ At less than 5ft, it might be worth remembering, but a more useful calculation will probably be the hyperfocal distance : .
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

The action of the restrainer is regarded by some as due to its combination with the alkali. .But whichever theory is correct the fact remains that the restrainer does make the primitive salt less amenable to reduction.^ Does this make it less real?

.Such restrainers as the bromides of the alkalis act through chemical means; but there are others which act through physical means, an example of which we have in the preparation of a gelatin plate.^ There to provide the perfect party atmosphere will be Deichkind, Bomb the Bass, Pan/Tone, and other top musical acts.

.In this case the gelatin wraps up the particles of the silver compound in a colloidal sheath, as it were, and the developing solution only gets at them in a very gradual manner, for the natural tendency of all such reducing agents is to attack the particles on which least 'work has to be expended.^ Tech info: Please keep in mind that all the images are in very low resolution and only for this Blog .

^ What else can I say…but thank you so much Honey, you are very talented indeed producing such a small Camera with all the details, even the lens has glass…very cool and thanks again.

^ If your search fails or only very few images show up (could be many reason e.g.

In the case of silver sub-bromide the developer has only to remove one atom of bromine, whereas it has to remove two in the case of silver bromide. The sub-bromide formed by light and that subsequently produced in the act of development are therefore reduced. A large proportion of gelatin compared with the silver salt in a film enables an alkaline developer to be used without any chemical restrainer; but when the gelatin bears a small proportion to the silver such a restrainer has to be used. With collodion films the particles of bromide are more or less unenveloped, and hence in this case some kind of chemical restrainer is absolutely necessary. .We may say that the organic iron developers require less restraining in their action than do the alkaline developers.^ You may want to convert your files; in general, AAC/MP3 files take up less storage room than AIFFs.

In Major Russell's process the plate was prepared by immersion in a strong solution of silver nitrate and then washed and a preservative applied. .The last-named agent executes two functions, one being to absorb the halogen liberated by the action of light and the other to preserve the film from atmospheric action.^ Photos from two Arctic expeditions, one in 1854 and the other in 1875-6 .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Waning light necessitated a one to two second exposure.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

Tannin, which Major Russell employed, if we mistake not, is a good absorbent of the halogens, and acts as a varnish to the film. .Other collodion dry-plate processes carried out by means of the silver-nitrate bath were very numerous at one time, many different organic bodies being also employed.^ If you like to go crazy then go for it… YOUR Choice , it is after all a very creative field with many different interpretations on any given image.

^ There are people out there who really do care about other humans who are less fortunate "The forgotten ones" , a great story from this remote part of the world and very much related to Mac and Aperture...

^ I mean very fast, my previous Blog from today and now PhotoShelter has just released this very cool Widget, check it out below.

.In most cases ordinary iodized collodion was made use of, a small percentage of soluble bromide being as a rule added to it.^ Photoshop used to be the only way to restore these images…but since the arrival of Aperture 2 in most cases I can now bypass Photoshop.

.When plates were developed by the alkaline method this extra bromide induced density, since it was the silver bromide alone which was amenable to it, the icdide being almost entirely unaffected by the weak developer which was at that time in general use.^ This is particular useful since I can re- catalogue them at the same time or leave them in their current location on my external hard drives.

xxi. 16 a Metol Developer. Solution A.
Metol 2 parts.
Sodium sulphite 18 „ Water 100 „ Solution B.
Sodium carbonate.. 6 parts.
Potassium bromide T „ Water.. loo „ For use, take one part of A to from 1 to 3 parts of B.
Amidol Developer. Amidol 3 parts.
Sodium sulphite Too „ Potassium bromide T to 3 „ Water moo „ This developer requires no addition of alkali.
Ortol Developer. Solution A.
Ortol I 5 parts.
Sodium metabisulphite 7 „ Water. moo „ Dry-Plate Bath Process. - One of the most successful bath dry-plate processes was introduced by R. Manners Gordon. The plate was given an edging of albumen and then coated with ordinary iodized collodion to which one grain per ounce of cadmium bromide had been added. It was kept in the silvernitrate bath for ten minutes, after which it was washed thoroughly. The following preservative was then applied: - Gum arabic i { Sugar candy Water 2. S Gallic acid. .Water These ingredients were mixed just before use and, after filtering, applied for one minute to the plate, which was allowed to drain and set up to dry naturally.^ Apply a watermark as described below using Aperture’s settings.

^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

^ Life is not only iPhoto, you have iTunes, Garageband, iMovie, iDVD & iWeb it is a whole package, now it is up to you how to apply each and every one of them, been so integrated you end up using them all, like I do for some cool presentations.

.Great latitude is admissible in the exposure; it should rarely be less than four times or more than twenty times that which would be required for a wet plate under ordinary circumstances.^ But never leaving Aperture is for me a real plus and very handy if you are on the road with limited time, after all we should spend more time shooting.

^ I probably spent more time on it than on any other subject.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ At less than 5ft, it might be worth remembering, but a more useful calculation will probably be the hyperfocal distance : .
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

.The image may be developed with ferrous sulphate restrained by a solution of gelatin and glacial acetic acid, to which a solution of silver nitrate is added just before application, or by an alkaline developer.^ Now you can shoot all your Digital images just like before but have the option for Video too.

^ I can make some correction just like before, the good old fashion way, plus having the ability to sort and store thousands of images...

^ Click on the images or use the link below PhotoShelter Collection @ Once you in the PhotoShelter Collection just go to the list and click on recently added , enjoy the images.

.In photographic processes not only has the chemical condition of the film to be taken into account but also the optical.^ The photographer's exact set of duties has always been malleable; the recent shift from film processing in the darkroom to the digital darkroom is only the most recent example.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ This video looks into the lens-manufacturing process at JML Optical .
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ After they are exposed, they are reinserted into the pack and -with the lens now covered- can be processed by simply pressing the camera's shutter and processing the film by ejecting it from the camera.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

When light falls on a semi-opaque or translucent film it is scattered by the particles in it and passes through the glass plate to the back. .Here the rays are partly transmitted and partly reflected, a very small quantity of them being absorbed by the material of the glass.^ What else can I say…but thank you so much Honey, you are very talented indeed producing such a small Camera with all the details, even the lens has glass…very cool and thanks again.

Theory points out that the strongest reflection from the back of the glass should take place at the " critical " angle. .In 1875 Abney investigated the subject and proved that practice agreed with theory in every respect, and that the image of a point of light in development on a plate was surrounded by a ring of reduced silver caused by the reflection of the scattered light from the back surface of the glass, and that this ring was shaded inwards and outwards in such a manner that the shading varied with the intensity of the light reflected at different angles.^ Now here is my point and concern, when do we know these days the difference between a real image or a manipulated one?

^ They also point to NASA Images , which is operated by Internet Archive and contains a copy of almost every image that NASA has ever produced.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ The images below are a “Play of Light and Color” from two very different places.

.To avoid " halation," as this phenomenon is called, it was usual to cover the back of dry plates with some material which should be in optical contact with it, and as nearly as possible of the same density as glass, and which at the same time should absorb all the photographically active rays.^ Exciting times ahead for some of you, soon you be able to stay even longer in Aperture 2.1 without switching back and forth or open Photoshop.

^ Street photographer Bill Cunningham didn't have a ticket to the Inauguration nor did he have an assignment from the NY Times to cover it; he just bought a train ticket, went down on his own, and brought back these photos .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

This was called " backing a plate." Collodion Emulsion Processes. - In 1864 W. B. Bolton and B. J. Sayce published the germ of a process which revolutionized photographic manipulations. .In the ordinary collodion process a sensitive film is procured by coating a glass plate with collodion containing the iodide and bromide of some soluble salt, and then, when set, immersing it in a solution of silver nitrate in order to form silver iodide and bromide in the film.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ The photographer's exact set of duties has always been malleable; the recent shift from film processing in the darkroom to the digital darkroom is only the most recent example.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The question that presented itself to Bolton and Sayce was whether it might not be possible to get the sensitive salts of silver formed in the collodion whilst liquid, and a sensitive film given to a plate by merely letting this collodion, containing the salts in suspension, flow over the glass plate. Gaudin had attempted to do this with silver chloride, and later G. W. Simpson had succeeded in perfecting a printing process with collodion containing silver chloride, citric acid and silver nitrate; but the chloride until recently has been considered a slow working salt, and nearly incapable of development. .Up to the time of W. B. Bolton and B. J. Sayce's experiments silver iodide had been considered the staple of a sensitive film on which to take negatives; and though bromide had been used by Major Russell and others, it had not met with so much favour as to lead to the omission of the iodide.^ It takes time to set up the camera.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ With the Tour of Missouri coming up, I figured now was the time to take the pocketbook plunge.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ He is used to taking care of things himself and I think this is one of the qualities that makes Obama different from so many other political candidates I've encountered.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.At the date mentioned the suspension of silver iodide in collodion was not thought practicable, and the inventors of the process turned their attention to silver bromide, which they found could be secured in such a fine state of division that it remained suspended for a considerable time in collodion, and even when precipitated could be resuspended by simple agitation.^ All the Kodachromes are long gone since they required a complicated development process; only Kodak and a few specialized Pro Labs in the US could do the processing at the time.

^ Even if it turns out to be an elaborate hoax, I have no doubt that someone could actually build a working version of Photosketch...I mean, look at TinEye and Photosynth .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ I can’t even draw a straight line) I could consider that as a compliment but when I talked to them they could not believe the images where Photographs, and once they knew, they immediately thought of Computer and Photoshop.

The outline of the method was to dissolve a soluble bromide in plain collodion, and and to it drop by drop an alcoholic solution of silver nitrate, the latter being in excess or defect according to the will of the operator. .To prepare a sensitive surface the collodion containing the emulsified sensitive salt was poured over a glass plate, allowed to set, and washed till all the soluble salts resulting from the double decomposition of the soluble bromide and the silver nitrate, together with the unaltered soluble bromide or silver nitrate, were removed, when the film was exposed wet, or allowed to dry and then exposed.^ Polaroids are removed from their case in a darkroom, laid flat and exposed as a single, light sensitive array.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.The rapidity of these plates was not in any way remarkable, but the process had the great advantage of doing away with the sensitizing nitrate of silver bath, and thus avoiding a tiresome operation.^ We take away all your hassles, you be organized back home, no more looking for hours on end where you stored these great shots ..

The plates were developed by the alkaline method, and gave images which, if not primarily dense enough, could be intensified by the application of pyrogallic acid and silver nitrate as in the wet collodion process. .Such was the crude germ of a method which was destined to effect a complete change in the aspect of photographic negative taking 1; but for some time it lay dormant.^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

^ Some of the photographs have no people and no traffic, others are completely dominated by people or even, in some instances, by traffic; the majority are somewhere in between.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Professional photographers already take hundreds or thousands of shots during the course of a shoot like this, so it's not such a huge shift for them.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

In fact there was at first much to discourage trial of it, since the plates often became veiled on development.
M. Carey Lea of Philadelphia, and W. Cooper, jun., of Reading, may be said to have given the real impetus to the method. .Carey Lea, by introducing an acid into the emulsion, established a practicable collodion emulsion process, which was rapid and at the same time gave negative pictures free from veil.^ I used to use Photoshop but now with Aperture 2 there is seldom the need for it and at the same time I can re-catalog them into my system with the Metadata.

^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

To secure the rapidity Carey Lea employed a fair excess of silver nitrate, and Colonel H. Stuart Wortley gained further rapidity by a still greater increase of it; the free use of acid was the only means by which this could be effected without hopelessly spoiling the emulsion. The addition of the mineral acids such as Carey Lea employed is to prevent the formation of (or to destroy when formed) any silver sub-bromide or oxide, either of which acts as a nucleus on which development can take place. .Abney first showed the theoretical effect of acids on the sub-bromide, as also the effect of oxidizing agents on both the above compounds (see below).^ Germany, the first batch...now if you click on Tell a Friend or you can tell your client...see the red circle again and see what pops up now...the image below...

.A more valuable modification was introduced in 1874 by W. B. Bolton, one of the originators of the process, who allowed the ether and the alcohol of the collodion to evaporate, and then washed away all the soluble salts from the gelatinous mass formed of pyroxylin and sensitive salt.^ B efore we introduce one of the first Plug - ins for Aperture 2.1 some more images below from my last journey to Boracay in the Philippines...

^ It is extremely valuable to have an Assistant around during commercial Photography; I have been blessed by one of the better ones who has been with me for a long time.

^ We take away all your hassles, you be organized back home, no more looking for hours on end where you stored these great shots ..

After washing for a considerable time, the pellicle was dried naturally or washed with alcohol, and then the pyroxylin redissolved in ether and alcohol, leaving an emulsion of silver bromide, silver chloride or silver iodide, or mixtures of all suspended in collodion. In this state the plate could be coated and dried at once for exposure. .Sometimes, in fact generally, preservatives were used, as in the case of dry plates with the bath, in order to prevent the atmosphere from rendering the surface of the film spotty or insensitive on development.^ Hiroshi Sugimoto uses a 400,000-volt Van De Graaff generator to apply an electrical charge directly onto his film.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

This modification had the great advantage of allowing a large quantity of sensitive salt to be prepared of precisely the same value as to rapidity of action and quality of film.
.A great advance in the use of the collodion bromide process was made by Colonel Stuart Wortley, who in June 1873 made known the powerful nature of a strongly alkaline developer as opposed to the weak one which up to that time had usually been employed for a collodion emulsion plate, or indeed for any dry plate.^ Y es real live examples from Aperture 2 and the .Mac Web Gallery …what took hours and days before, is done almost in real time now…the "guy" who came up with this one should get a ***** 5 Star .

^ They've used the big type at least one additional time, on 1/1/2000.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ This is the second time I can recall that Canon has one-upped their professional line.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

An example of the preparation of a collodion emulsion and the developer is the following: 21 oz. of alcohol, 5 oz. of ether, 75 grains of pyroxylin. In 1 oz. of alcohol are dissolved zoo grains of zinc bromide 2; it is then acidulated with 4 or 5 drops of nitric acid, and added to half the above collodion. In 2 drachms of water are dissolved 330 grains of silver nitrate, 1 oz. of alcohol being added. The silvered alcohol is next poured into the other half of the collodion and the brominized collodion dropped in, care being taken to shake between the operations. .An emulsion of silver bromide is formed in suspension; and it is in every case left for 10 to 20 hours to what is technically called " ripen," or, in other words, to become creamy when poured out upon a glass plate.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

When the emulsion has ripened it may be used at once or be poured out into a flat dish and the solvents allowed to evaporate till the pyroxylin becomes gelatinous. In this state it is washed in water till all the soluble salts are carried away. .After this it may be either spread out on a cloth and dried or treated with two or three doses of alcohol, and then redissolved in equal parts of alcohol (specific gravity, .805) and ether (specific gravity, 720).^ Parts two and three to come later today and tomorrow.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.In this condition it is a washed emulsion, and a glass plate can be coated with it and the film dried, or it may be washed and some of the many preservatives, such as albumen, beer, coffee, gum, &c., applied.^ Then I started to mess around some more with clothing hanging on a washing line in the rain… hmmm strange, drying clothing in the rain, oh well!

The type of a useful alkaline developer for collodion plates is as follows: 1.5Pyrogallic acid. 96 grs.
Alcohol 1 oz.
Potassium bromide. 12 grs.
Water distilled. 1 oz.
3, Ammonium carbonate. 80 grs.
Water. 1 oz.
To develop the plate 6 minims of No. 1, z drachm of No. 2, and 3 drachms of No. 3 are mixed together and made to flow over the plate after washing the preservative off under the tap. .Sometimes the 1 An account of Sayce's process is to be found in the Photographic News of October 1865, or the Photographic Journal of the same date.^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

2 The advantages of this salt were pointed out by Leon Warnerke in 1875.
. 20 grs. 6 r d.
3 grs.. .. 2 dr.
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4 "Carrolling." By H. P. Robinson.
Portrait Study. By James Craig Annan.
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Portrait. By David OcTAVIUS Hill, R. S. A.
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development is conducted in a flat dish, sometimes the solution is poured on the plate.' The unreduced salts are eliminated by either cyanide of potassium or sodium hyposulphite. Intensity may be given to the image, if requisite, either before or after the " fixing " operation. Where resort is had to ferrous oxalate development, the developer is made in one of two ways - (I) by saturating a saturated solution of neutral potassium oxalate with ferrous oxalate, and adding an equal volume of a solution (to grains to 1 oz. of water) of potassium bromide to restrain the action, or (2) by mixing, according to Eder's plan, 3 volumes by measure of a saturated solution of the potassium oxalate with I volume by measure of a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, and adding to the ferrous oxalate solution thus obtained an equal bulk of the above solution of potassium bromide. .The development is conducted in precisely the same manner as indicated above, and the image is fixed by one of the same agents.^ If you remember the image "Mangroves on fire" from my previous blog, this one was taken about the same time.

^ Enjoy, both images have been taken the same day and from the same place, one at night the other one in the the morning during a tropical rainstorm.

Gelatin Emulsion Process

The facility with which silver bromide emulsion could be prepared in collodion had turned investigation into substitutes for it. As early as September 1871 Dr R. L. Maddox had tried emulsifying the silver salt in gelatin, and had produced negatives of rare excellence. In November 1873 J. King described a similar process, getting rid of the soluble salts by washing. .Efforts had also been made in this direction by J. Burgess in July 1873. R. Kennett in 1874 may be said to have been the first to put forward the gelatin emulsion process in a practical and workable form, as he then published a formula which gave good and quick results.^ Good luck to Marlon Stockinger in 2008 for his first major race the Formula BMW Pacific http://www.marlonstockinger.com/index.html .

^ My only knock is that their online editor/tweaker needs a bit of work, but for many things you may be happy with the first-pass result.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

It was not till 1878, however, that the great capabilities of silver bromide when held in suspension by gelatin were fairly known; in March of that year C. Bennett showed that by keeping the gelatin solution liquid at a low temperature for as long as seven days extraordinary rapidity was conferred on the sensitive salt. .The molecular condition of the silver bromide seemed to be altered, and to be amenable to a far more powerful developer than had hitherto been dreamt of.^ The thing is, Tank Commander is far more dangerous than Tank Man.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

In 1874 J. S. Stas had shown that various modifications of silver bromide and chloride were possible, and it seemed that the green molecular condition (one of those noted by Stas) of the bromide was attained by prolonged warming. _ It may be said that the advent of rapid plates was 1878, and that the full credit of this discovery should be allotted to C. Bennett. Both Kennett and Bennett got rid of the soluble salts from the emulsion by washing; and in order to attain success it was requisite that the bromide should be in excess of that necessary to combine with the silver nitrate used to form the emulsion. In June 1879 Abney showed that a good emulsion might be formed by precipitating a silver bromide by dropping a solution of a soluble bromide into a dilute solution of silver nitrate. The supernatant liquid was decanted, and after two or three washings with water the precipitate was mixed with the proper amount of gelatin. D. B. van Monckhoven of Ghent, in experimenting with this process, hit upon the plan of obtaining the emulsion by acting on silver carbonate with hydrobromic acid, which left no soluble salts to be extracted. He further, in August 1879, announced that he had obtained great rapidity by adding to the bromide emulsion a certain quantity of ammonia. This addition rapidly altered the silver bromide from its ordinary state to the green molecular condition referred to above. .At this point we have the branching off of the gelatin emulsion process into two great divisions, viz.^ O ur first two sessions at the Power Mac Center are done, great attendance, great participants and some cool images processed in Aperture 2 .

^ The possibilities are endless thanks to the Book option in Aperture…I am not going into great details today but rather point out the endless possibilities in Aperture 2 without ever leaving the application.

that in which rapidity was gained by long-continued heating, and the other in which it was gained by the use of ammonia - a subdivision which is maintained to the present day. .Opinions as to the merits of the two methods are much divided, some maintaining that the quality of the heated emulsion is better than that produced by alkalinity, and vice versa.^ This is much easier to remember and calculate than DOF. To get hyperfocal distance for other f-stops you divide (f/5.6 = half f/2.8).
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

.We may mention that in 1881 Dr A. Herschel introduced a plan for making an alcoholic gelatin emulsion with the idea of inducing rapid drying of the plates, and in the same year H. W. Vogel of Berlin introduced a method of combining gelatin and pyroxylin together by means of a solvent which acted on the gelatin and allowed the addition of alcohol in order to dissolve the pyroxylin.^ Not perfect by all means, but given more time a very usefull addition for presentations using iPhoto for your school project or for the Family get together.

This " collodio-gelatin emulsion " was only a shortlived process, which is not surprising, since its preparation involved the inhalation of the fumes of acetic acid.
1 For further details the reader is referred to Instruction in Photography, I I th ed., p. 362.
The warming process introduced by Bennett was soon superseded. .Colonel Stuart Wortley in 1879 announced that, by raising the temperature of the vessel in which the emulsion was stewed to 150° F., instead of days being required to give the desired sensibility only a few hours were necessary.^ About the only complaint I see with the new specs is that it now requires an 82mm filter instead of 77mm filter, which will cost you a few extra bucks...
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ T he weather has got the better off me, my trip to Boracay has been delayed for a few day’s, I hope only a few days due to rain, cant go to the beach when it is raining, cant we?

^ Maybe… since I left for Mumbai in India only a few days after the F1 Grand Prix.

A further advance was made by boiling the emulsion, first practised, we believe, by G. Mansfield in 1879. Another improvement was effected by W. B. Bolton by emulsifying the silver salt in a small quantity of gelatin and then raising the emulsion to boiling point, boiling it for from half an hour to an hour, when extreme rapidity was attained. Many minor improvements in this process have been made from time to time. It may be useful to give an idea of the relative rapidities of the various processes we have described.
Daguerreotype, originally.. half an hour's exposure.
Calotype. 2 or 3 minutes' Collodion .... 10 seconds' Collodion emulsion.. 15 seconds' Rapid gelatin emulsion. .1 1 6 th second Technique Of Photography Gelatin Emulsions. The following is an outline of two representative processes.^ After a two our lecture on Photography, Keynote presentations and techniques I divided the students into two groups for two different assignments.

.All operations should be conducted in light which can act but very slightly on the sensitive salts employed, and this is more necessary with this process than with others on account of the extreme ease with which the equilibrium of the molecules is upset in giving rise to the molecule which is developable.^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ But never leaving Aperture is for me a real plus and very handy if you are on the road with limited time, after all we should spend more time shooting.

^ Perhaps even more interesting that Wolfe's process is the fishing method employed by his subjects; they use birds, not nets or poles: .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The light to work with is gaslight or candlelight passing through a sheet of Chance's stained red glass backed by orange paper. Stained red glass allows but few chemically effective rays to pass through it, whilst the orange paper diffuses the light. If daylight be employed, it is as well to have a double thickness of orange paper. The following should be weighed out: I. Potassium iodide.. 5 grs.
2. Potassium bromide 3. Nelson's No. I photographic gelatin 30 4. Silver nitrate ... 1 1 37 3 50 75 Autotype or other hard gelatin. 100 „ 5 ' Nelson's No. I gelatin 100 „ Nos. 3 and 5 are rapidly covered with water or washed for a few seconds under the tap to get rid of any dust. No. 2 is dissolved in 12 oz. of water, and a little tincture of iodine added till it assumes a light sherry colour. No. 1 is dissolved in 60 minims of water. No. 4 is dissolved in 2 oz. of water, and No. 3 is allowed to swell up in 1 oz. of water, and is then dissolved by heat. .All the flasks containing these solutions are placed in water at 150° F. and carried into the " dark room," as the orange-lighted chamber is ordinarily called; Nos.^ In contrast to all these stones and fossils each room has a sound system (iHome) with an iPod (Nano) which you can get from the reception or bring your own, like I did.

^ Canon's solution to this problem was to design a new type of lens for the smaller digital sensor size and they've called these lenses EF-S lenses.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

^ We take away all your hassles, you be organized back home, no more looking for hours on end where you stored these great shots ..

3 and 4 are then mixed together in a jar or flask, and No. 2 added drop by drop till half its bulk is gone, when No. 1 is added to the remainder, and the double solution is dropped in as before. .When all is added there ought to be formed an emulsion which is very ruddy when examined by gaslight, or orange by daylight.^ If that single drive fails you lost all your precious images and using a recovery service can get very expensive and there is never a guarantee or full recovery.

^ W e had a great response to the image with the Shark Fins...all very positive and I hope someone get the message out there...

The flask containing the emulsion is next placed in boiling water, which is kept in a state of ebullition for about threequarters of an hour. .It is then ready, when the contents of the flask have cooled down to about loo° F., for the addition of No.^ I have encountered this scene not only in India but just about everywhere else I have traveled...no need for additional comments...

5, which should in the interval be placed in 2 oz. of water to swell and finally be dissolved. .The gelatin emulsion thus formed is placed in a cool place to set, after which it is turned into a piece of coarse canvas or mosquito netting made into a bag.^ Patel made a great start from seventh on the grid to slot into fifth place.

^ Moss, Jamison and McDonagh made the podium whereas Patel was forced to retire as a result of damage inflicted after he was punted into a spin at the first turn.

By squeezing, threads of gelatin containing the sensitive salt can be made to fall into cold water; by this means the soluble salts are extracted. This is readily done in two or three hours by frequently changing the water, or by allowing running water to flow over the emulsion-threads. The gelatin is next drained by straining canvas over a jar and turning out the threads on to it, after which it is placed in a flask, and warmed till it dissolves, half an ounce of alcohol being added. Finally it is filtered through chamois leather or swansdown calico. In this state it is ready for the plates.
The other method of forming the emulsion is with ammonia. The same quantities as before are weighed out, but the solutions of Nos. 2 and 3 are first mixed together and No. 4 is dissolved in I oz. of water, and strong ammonia of specific gravity 880 added to it till the oxide first precipitated is just redissolved. This solution is then dropped into Nos. 2 and 3 as previously described, and finally No. I is added. In this case no boiling is required. but to secure rapidity it is as well that the emulsion should be kept an hour at a temperature of about 90° F., after which half the total quantity of No. 5 is added. When set the emulsion is washed, drained, and redissolved as before; but in order to give tenacity to the gelatin the remainder of No. 5 is added before the addition of the alcohol, and before filtering.

Coating the Plates

Glass plates are best cleaned with nitric acid, rinsed, and then treated with potash solution, rinsed again, and dried with a clean cloth. They are then ready for receiving the emulsion, which, after being warmed to about 120° F., is poured on them to cover well the surface. .This being done, the plates are placed on a level shelf and allowed to stay there till the gelatin is thoroughly set; they are then put in a drying cupboard, through which a current of warm air is made to pass.^ That being said, they are still consistently found in low-level billabongs , living alongside their larger evolutionary cousins.

It should be remarked that the warmth is only necessary to enable the air to take up the moisture from the plates. .They ought to dry in about twelve hours, and they are ready for use.^ What was this single combat stuff -- they didn't use the actual term -- really all about?
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

Exposure

.With a good emulsion and on a bright day the exposure of a plate to a landscape, with a lens whose aperture is one-sixteenth that of the focal distance, should not be more than one-half to one-fifth of a second.^ And when asked what makes one image stand out more than another, is it emotional or an intellectual reaction he answers: "It must be intuitive.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ And yes, I am persuaded to download the Aperture now, the one you gave me, after reading so much of your blog and being encouraged by how good it is.

^ Waning light necessitated a one to two second exposure.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

This time depends, of course, on the nature of the view; if there be foliage in the immediate foreground it will be longer. In the portrait-studio, under the same circumstances, an exposure with a portrait lens may be from half a second to four or five seconds.

Development of the Plate

.To develop the image either a ferrous oxalate solution or alkaline pyrogallic acid may be used.^ By Jason Kottke • May 1, 2009 • NYC photography Photoshop remix Using NASA images .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

No chemical restrainer such as potassium bromide is necessary, since the gelatin itself acts as a physical restrainer. If the alkaline developer be used, the following may be taken as a good standard: - Pyrogallol 1. Citric acid grs.
50 10 „, Water 1 oz.
2 8 Potassium bromide 10 grs.
Water. ... 1 oz.
3 Ammonia, 880 I dr.
Water 9 One dram of each of these is taken and the mixtur made up to 2 oz. with water. .The plate is placed in a dish and the above poured over it without stoppage, whereupon the image gradually appears and, if the exposure has been properly timed, gains sufficient density for printing purposes.^ You can also deactivate the Watermark any time if you need your images without it.

^ I do rely on the RAW Image conversions and adjust the exposure a bit at times, very minor tweaks...

^ It was pouring rain at the time so I thought this was a nice shot just from the breakfast table without getting wet, an easy one.

It is fixed in a solution of hyposulphite of soda, as in the other processes already described, and then thoroughly washed for two or three hours to eliminate all the soluble salt. This long washing is necessary on account of the nature of the gelatin.
Intensifying the Negative. - Sometimes it is necessary to intensify the negative, which can be done in a variety of ways with mercury salts. An excellent plan, introduced by Chapman Jones, is to use a saturated solution of mercuric chloride in water. After thorough washing the negative is treated with ferrous oxalate. This process can be repeated till sufficient density is attained. With most other methods with mercury the image is apt to become yellow and to fade; with this apparently it is not.

Varnishing the Negative

The negative is often protected by receiving first a film of plain collodion and then a coat of shellac or other photographic varnish. This protects the gelatin from moisture and also from becoming stained with the silver nitrate owing to contact with the sensitive paper used in silver printing. Another varnish is a solution of celloidin in amyl acetate. This is an excellent protection against damp.
Printing Processes. The first printing process may be said to be that of Fox Talbot (see above), which has continued to be generally employed (with the addition of albumen to give a surface to the print - an addition first made, we believe, by Fox Talbot).
Paper for printing is prepared by mixing 150 parts of ammonium chloride with 240 parts of spirits of wine and 2000 parts of water, though the proportions may vary. These ingredients are dissolved, and the whites of fifteen fairly-sized eggs are added and the whole beaten up to a froth. In hot weather it is advisable to add a drop of carbolic acid to prevent decomposition. The albumen is allowed two or three days to settle, when it is filtered through a sponge placed in a funnel, or through two or three thicknesses of fine muslin, and transferred to a flat dish. The paper is cut of convenient size and allowed to float on the solution for about a minute, when it is taken off and dried in a warm room. For dead prints, on which colouring is to take place, plain salted paper is useful. It can be made of the following proportions-90 parts of ammonium chloride, 100 parts of sodium citrate, 10 parts of gelatin, 5000 parts of distilled water. The gelatin is first dissolved in hot water and the remaining components are added. It is next filtered, and the paper allowed to float on it for three minutes, then withdrawn and dried.

Sensitizing Bath

To sensitize the paper it is floated on a 10% solution of silver nitrate for three minutes. It is then hung up and allowed to dry, after which it is ready for use. .To print the image the paper is placed in a printing frame over a negative and exposed to light.^ This additional theme includes new "photo border" frames in which to place images.

^ The images below are a “Play of Light and Color” from two very different places.

.It is allowed to print till such time as the image appears rather darker than it should finally appear.^ I get always asked why should we sharpen images anyway or most of the time and if so which one do we use.

^ Aperture automatically extracts all industry-standard EXIF and ITPC metadata when importing images and also allows metadata such as copyright, captions, and keywords to be added.

^ My images relate to a broader discourse and use the medium (captured light) to tell the story rather than just relying on the here is narrative.

Toning and Fixing the Print

The next operation is to tone and fix the print. In the earlier days this was accomplished by means of a bath of sel d'or - a mixture of hyposulphite of soda and gold chloride. This gilded the darkened parts of the print which light had reduced to the semi-metallic state: and on the removal of the chloride by means of hyposulphite an image composed of metallic silver, an organic salt of silver and gold was left behind. .There was a suspicion, however, that part of the coloration was due to a combina:ion of sulphur with the silver, not that pure silver sulphide is in any degree fugitive, but the sulphuretted organic salt of silver seems to be liable to change.^ There's something about the natural, unguarded informality of the preparation in comparison to the fussiness and solemnity of the ceremony itself...it makes the wedding part seem artificial.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.This gave place to a method of alkaline toning, or rather, we should say, of neutral toning, by employing gold chloride with a salt, such as the carbonate or acetate of soda, chloride of lime, borax, &c. By this means there was no danger of sulphurization during the toning, to which the method by sel d'or was prone owing to the decomposition of the hyposulphite.^ There is a place for PS no question about it and I have been using PS also but in the right context in commercial and advertising Photography, but not for my documentary and nature work.

^ This means that there may be no natural limit to its life span.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The substances which can be employed in toning seem to be those in which an alkaline base is combined with a weak acid, the latter being readily displaced by a stronger acid, such as nitric acid, which must exist in the paper after printing. This branch of photography owes much to the Rev. T. F. Hardwich, he having carried on extensive researches in connexion with it during 1854 and subsequent years. A. Davanne and A. Girard, a little later, also investigated the matter with fruitful results.
The following may be taken as two typical toning-baths Gold chloride 1 part.
Sodium carbonate. 10 parts.
W ater. .. .. 5000 „ (a) Borax 100 „ Water 4000 „ (a) S Gold chloride 1 part.
Water 4000 parts In the latter (a) and (R) are mixed in equal parts immediately before use. .Each of these is better used only once.^ Photoshop used to be the only way to restore these images…but since the arrival of Aperture 2 in most cases I can now bypass Photoshop.

A third bath is: - 2 parts. 2 „ 40 8000 „ These are mixed together, the water being warmed. When cool the solution is ready for use. In toning prints there is a distinct difference in the modus operandi according to the toning-bath employed. Thus in the first two baths the print must be thoroughly washed in water to remove all free silver nitrate, that salt forming no part in the chemical reactions. .On the other hand, where free chlorine is used, the presence of free silver nitrate or some active chlorine absorbent is a necessity.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ On the other hand, some are arguing that there is great opportunity in Detroit right now.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.In 1872 Abney showed that with such a toning-bath free silver nitrate might be eliminated, and if the print were immersed in a solution of a salt such as lead nitrate the toning action proceeded rapidly and without causing any fading of the image whilst toning, which was not the case when the free silver nitrate was totally removed and no other chlorine absorbent substituted.^ No more looking for it…wondering how to find all those other images, this was long overdue.

^ Have we forgotten how to create real images without resorting to Photoshop or other toys.

This was an important factor, and one which had been overlooked. In the third bath the free silver nitrate should only be partially removed by washing. The print, having been partially washed or thoroughly washed, as the case may be, is immersed in the toning-bath till the image attains a purple or bluish tone, after which it is ready for fixing. The solution used for this purpose is a 20% solution of hyposulphite of soda, to which it is best to add a dew drops of ammonia in order to render it alkaline. About ten minutes suffice to effect the conversion of the chloride into hyposulphite of silver, which is soluble in hyposulphite of soda and can be removed by washing. The organic salts of silver seem, however, to form a different salt, which is partially insoluble, but which the ammonia helps to remove. If it is not removed there is a sulphur compound left behind, according to J. Spitler, which by time and exposure becomes yellow. The use of potassium cyanide for fixing prints is to be avoided, as this reagent attacks the organic coloured oxide which, if removed, would render the print a ghost. .The washing of silver prints should be very complete, since it is said that the least trace of hyposulphite left behind renders the fading of the image a mere matter of time.^ I get always asked why should we sharpen images anyway or most of the time and if so which one do we use.

^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ But never leaving Aperture is for me a real plus and very handy if you are on the road with limited time, after all we should spend more time shooting.

The stability of a print has been supposed to be increased by immersing it, after washing, in a solution of alum. The alum, like any acid body, decomposes the hyposulphite into sulphur and sulphurous acid. If this be the case, it seems probable that the destruction of the hyposulphite by time is not the occasion of fading, but that its hygroscopic character is. This, however, is a moot point. It is usual to wash the prints some hours in running water. We have found that half a dozen changes of water, and between successive changes the application of a sponge to the back of each print separately, are equally or more efficacious. On drying the print assumes a darker tone than it has after leaving the fixing bath.
Different tones can thus be given to a print by different toningbaths; and the gold itself may be deposited in a ruddy form or in a blue form. The former molecular condition gives the red and sepia tones, and the latter the blue and black tones. The degree of minute subdivision of the gold may be conceived when it is Gold chloride Chloride of lime. Chalk. .
Water stated that, on a couple of sheets of albuminized paper fully printed, the gold necessary to give a decided tone does not exceed half a grain.

Collodio-chloride Silver Printing Process

.In the history of the emulsion processes we stated that Gaudin attempted to use silver chloride suspended in collodion, but it was not till the year 1864 that any practical use was made of the suggestion so far as silver printing is concerned.^ Prokudin-Gorskii made color photographs using a clever filtering system years before color photography would be widely available.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.In the autumn of that year George Wharton Simpson worked out a method which has been more or less successfully employed.^ As Mike notes , I first linked to Prokudin-Gorskii's work more than 8 years ago (!!
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps even more interesting that Wolfe's process is the fishing method employed by his subjects; they use birds, not nets or poles: .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The formula appended is Simpson's: Silver nitrate 60 parts.
1 ' Distilled water.. 60 Strontium chloride. 64 2 3 Alcohol loon Citric acid. 64 3 ' Alcohol loon To every moo parts of plain collodion 30 parts of No. 1, previously mixed with 60 parts of alcohol, are added; 60 parts of No. 2 are next mixed with the collodion, and finally 30 parts of No. 3. This forms an emulsion of silver chloride and also contains citric acid and silver nitrate. The defect of this emulsion is that it contains a large proportion of soluble salts, which are apt to crystallize out on drying, more particularly if it be applied to glass plates. .The addition of the citric acid and the excess of silver nitrate is the key to the whole process; for, unless some body were present which on exposure to light was capable of forming a highly-coloured organic oxide of silver, no vigour would be obtained in printing.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ The skin is light brown in colour, with dark bands on the body and tail and sometimes on the snout.

.If pure chloride be used, though an apparently strong image would be obtained, yet on fixing only a feeble trace of it would be left, and the print would be worthless.^ This is not image manipulation, I am only restoring some old and precious photos that would have been lost or considered unusable for publications without altering the overall visual.

^ Are we only going to use Condoms in the US and not in other parts of the world, that would be very unwise and foolish.

The collodio-chloride emulsion may be applied to glass, or to paper, and the printing carried on in the usual manner. The toning takes place by means of the chloride of lime or by ammonium sulphocyanide and gold, which is practically a return to the sel d'or bath. .The organic salt formed in this procedure does not seem so prone to be decomposed by keeping as does that formed by albumen, and the washing can be more completely carried out.^ The Australian saltwater crocodile keeps them out of more saline (salty) areas by outcompeting them.

There are in the market several papers which are collodio-chloride.

Gelatino-citro-chloride Emulsion

A modified emulsion printing process was introduced by Abney in 1881, which consisted in suspending silver chloride and silver citrate in gelatin, there being no excess of silver present. The formula of producing it is as follows: - Sodium chloride 40 parts.
I. Potassium citrate 40 Water 500 2. Silver nitrate. 150 Water 500 Gelatin 300 3 ' Water 1700 Nos. 2 and 3 are mixed together whilst warm, and No. 1 is then gently added, the gelatin solution being kept in brisk agitation. This produces the emulsion of citrate and chloride of silver. The gelatin containing the suspended salts is heated for five minutes at boiling point, when it is allowed to cool and subsequently slightly washed, as in the gelatino-bromide emulsion. It is then ready for application to paper or glass. The prints are of a beautiful colour, and seem to be fairly permanent. They may be readily toned by the borax or by the chloride of lime toning-bath, and are fixed with the hyposulphite solution of the strength before given. .Most, if not all, of the gelatin papers now extant are made somewhat after this manner.^ Mac and made the switch...we are talking about Executives who have been using PC’s all their lives and now making the switch.

^ Remember as a child you where so amazed by the Magician who made the rabbit disappear...now with Aperture 2 all your headaches have disappeared.

Printing with Salts of Uranium

The sensitiveness of the salts of uranium to light seems to have been discovered by Niepce, and was subsequently applied to photography by J. E. Burnett in England. One of the original formulae consisted of 20 parts of uranic nitrate with 600 parts of water. Paper, which is better if slightly sized previously with gelatin, is floated on this solution. .When dry it is exposed beneath a negative, and a very faint image is produced; but it can be developed into a strong one by 6 to 10 solution of silver nitrate to which a trace of acetic acid has been added, or by a 2% solution of gold chloride.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ W henever I get the time I import some of my very old and scanned images into Aperture 2.1 some dating back 30 years.

^ Gunther Deichmann - One of the very first images showing a true gallop.

In both these cases the silver and gold are deposited in the metallic state. Another developer is a 2% solution of potassium ferrocyanide to which a trace of nitric acid has been added, sufficient to give a red coloration. The development takes place most readily by letting the paper float on these solutions.
Self-toning Papers. - There are several self-toning papers based on the chloride emulsion process. These contain the necessary amount of gold to tone the print. The print is produced in the ordinary way and then immersed in salt and water or in some cases potassium sulphocyanide. The print is finished by immersing in weak hyposulphite of soda.

Printing with Chromates: Carbon Prints

.The first mention of the use of potassium bichromate for printing purposes seems to have been made by Mungo Ponton in May 1839, when he stated that paper, if saturated with this salt and dried, and then exposed to the sun's rays through a drawing, would produce a yellow picture on an orange ground, nothing more being required to fix it than washing it in water, when a white picture on an orange ground was obtained.^ The Printed Picture is an exhibition of physical specimens made using all the different ways that type and image can be printed on paper, metal, glass, etc, with a special emphasis on dozens of photography techniques, from albumen prints to dagguereotypes to color photography.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ You may think it's a bit confusing at first that a lens designed specifically for the crop factor still has to have the multiplier used, but it's consistent: always use the multipler.
  • kwc blog: Category: Photography 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC kwc.org [Source type: General]

In 1840 Edmond Becquerel announced that paper sized with iodide of starch and soaked in potassium bichromate was, on drying, more sensitive than unsized paper. .Joseph Dixon of Massachusetts, in the following year, produced copies of bank-notes by using gum arabic with potassium bichromate spread upon a lithographic stone, and, after exposure of the sensitive surface through a bank-note, by washing away the unaltered gum and inking the stone as in ordinary lithography.^ I've followed this site on and off for years but always found it too difficult to navigate through to find the photography, which is shot by top-notch photojournalists and is amazing.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Despite the passing of the years, these remain carved into the dust because the moon has no wind or rain to wash them away.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

The same process, with slight modifications, has been used by Simonau and Toovey of Brussels, and produces excellent results. Dixon's method, however, was published in the Scientific American for 1854, and consequently, as regards priority, it ranks after Fox Talbot's photoengraving process (see below), published in 1852. On the 13th of December 1855 Alphonse Poitevin took out a patent in England, in which he vaguely described a method of taking a direct carbonprint by rendering gelatin insoluble through the action of light on potassium bichromate. This idea was taken up by John Pouncey of Dorchester, who perhaps was the first to produce veritable carbon-prints, notwithstanding that Testud de Beauregard took out a somewhat similar patent to Poitevin's at the end of 1857.
Pouncey published his process on the 1st of January 1859; but, as described by him, it was by no means in a perfect state, halftones being wanting. .The cause of this was first pointed out by Abbe Laborde in 1858, whilst describing a kindred process in a note to the French Photographic Society.^ Correction, this is applicable for all Photographers, I know Jason want mind me pointing this out.

He says, " In the sensitive film, however thin it may be, two distinct surfaces must be recognized - an outer, and an inner which is in contact with the paper. The action of light commences on the outer surface; in the washing, therefore, the half-tones lose their hold on the paper and are washed away." J. C. Burnett in 1858 was the first to endeavour to get rid of this defect in carbon printing. In a paper to the Photographic Society of London he. says, " There are two essential requisites. .. (2) that in printing the paper should have its unprepared side (and not its prepared side, as in ordinary printing) placed in contact with the negative in the pressure-frame, as it is only by printing in this way that we can expect to be able afterwards to remove by washing the unacted-upon portions of the mixture. .In a positive of this sort printed from the front or prepared side the attainment of half-tones by washing away more or less depth of the mixture, according to the depth to which it has been hardened, is prevented by the insoluble parts being on the surface and in consequence protecting the soluble part from the action of the water used in washing; so that either nothing is removed, or by steeping very long till the inner soluble part is sufficiently softened the whole depth comes bodily away, leaving the paper white."^ I had to discipline myself not to jump out of the car at times, but then that was the whole Idea in the first place, and I am not finish yet by all means…a lot more to come.

^ Are we only going to use Condoms in the US and not in other parts of the world, that would be very unwise and foolish.

^ I had a very long chat today on skype with my good friend and top under water photographer Tony Wu.

This method of exposing through the back of the paper was crude and unsatisfactory, and in 1860 Fargier patented a process in which, after exposure to light of the gelatin film which contained pigment, the surface was coated with collodion, and the print placed in warm water, where it separated from the paper support and could be transferred to glass. Poitevin successfully opposed this patent, for he had used this means of detaching the films in his powder-carbon process, in which ferric chloride and tartaric acid were used. Fargier at any rate gave an impetus to carbon-printing, and J. W. Swan took up the matter, and in 1864 secured a patent. One of the great features in Swan's innovations was the production of what is now known as " carbon-tissue," made by coating paper with a mixture of gelatin, sugar and colouring matter, and rendered sensitive to light by means of potassium or ammonium bichromate. After exposure to light Swan placed the printed carbon-tissue on an india-rubber surface, to which it was made to adhere by pressure. The print was immersed in hot water, the paper backing stripped off, and the soluble gelatin containing colouring matter washed away. The picture could then be retransferred to its final support of paper. In 1869 J. R. Johnson of London took out a patent in which he claimed that carbon-tissue which had been soaked in water for a short period, by its tendency to swell further, would adhere to any waterproof surface such as glass, metal, waxed paper, &c., without any adhesive material being applied. This was a most important improvement. Johnson also applied soap to the gelatin to prevent its excessive brittleness on drying, and made its final support of gelatinized paper, rendered insoluble by chrome alum. In 1874 J. R. Sawyer patented a flexible support for developing on; this was a sized paper coated with gelatin and treated with an ammoniacal solution of shellac in borax, on which wax or resin was rubbed. .The advantage of this flexible support is that the dark parts of the picture have no tendency to contract from the lighter parts, which they were apt to do when a metal plate was used, as was the case in Johnson's original process.^ Using minimal editing and leaving the original footage untouched viewers will feel as if they are watching the CBS coverage in July of 1969.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

With this patent, and minor improvements made since, carbon-printing has arrived at its present state of perfection.
According to P. E. Liesegang, the carbon-tissue when prepared on a large scale consists of from 120 to 150 grains of gelatin (a soft kind), 15 grains of soap, 21 grains of sugar and from 4 to 8 grains of dry colouring matter. The last-named may be of various kinds, from lamp-black pigment to soluble colours such as alizarin. The gelatin, sugar and soap are put in water and allowed to stand for an hour, and then melted, the liquid afterwards receiving the colours, which have been ground on a slab. The mixture is filtered through fine muslin. .In making the tissue in large quantities the two ends of a piece of roll-paper are pasted together and the paper hung on two rollers; one of wood about 5 in.^ Well, that is true but one hard drive is not enough, say you use a 500 Gig Hard drive to store your images, great but what about your back up, so you end up buying two.

in diameter is fixed near the top of the room and the other over a trough containing the gelatin solution, the paper being brought into contact with the surface of the gelatin by being made to revolve on the rollers. The thickness of the coating is proportional to the rate at which the paper is drawn over the gelatin: the slower the movement, the thicker the coating. The paper is taken off the rollers, cut through, and hung up to dry on wooden laths. If it be required to make the tissue sensitive at once, 120 grains of potassium bichromate should be mixed with the ingredients in the above formula. The carbon-tissue when prepared should be floated on a sensitizing bath consisting of one part of potassium bichromate in 40 parts of water. This is effected by turning up about I in. from the end of the sheet of tissue (cut to the proper size), making a roll of it, and letting it unroll along the surface of the sensitizing solution, where it is allowed to remain till the gelatin film feels soft. It is then taken off and hung up to dry in a dark room through which a current of dry warm air is passing. .Tissue dried quickly, though not so sensitive, is more manageable to work than if more slowly dried.^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ As Mike notes , I first linked to Prokudin-Gorskii's work more than 8 years ago (!!
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

As the issue is coloured, it is not possible to ascertain by inspection whether the printing operation is sufficiently carried out, and in order to ascertain this it is usual to place a piece of ordinary silvered paper in an actinometer, or photometer, alongside the carbon-tissue to ascertain the amount of light that has acted on it. There are several devices for ascertaining this amount, the simplest being an arrangement of a varying number of thicknesses of gold-beater's skin. The value of I, 2, 3, &c., thicknesses of the skin as a screen to the light is ascertained by experiment. Supposing it is judged that a sheet of tissue under some one negative ought to be exposed to light corresponding to a given number of thicknesses, chloride of silver paper is placed alongside the negative beneath the actinometer and allowed to remain there until it takes a visible tint beneath a number of thicknesses equivalent to the strength of the negative. After the tissue is removed from the printing-frame--supposing a double transfer is to be made - it is placed in a dish of cold water, face downwards, along with a piece of Sawyer's flexible support. When the edges of the tissue begin to curl up, its surface and that of the flexible support are brought together and placed flat. The water is pressed out with an indiarubber squeezer or " squeegee " and the two surfaces adhere. .About a couple of minutes later they are placed in warm water of about 90° to 100° F., and the paper of the tissue, loosened by the gelatin solution next it becoming soluble, can be stripped off, leaving the image (reversed as regards right and left) on the flexible support.^ All of this was done within Aperture 2 dealing with some 3000 images and never leaving the program, talking about efficiency and speed.

^ Patel was past McDonagh into third place a couple of laps later and then hounded Moss to the line, just not quite able to find a way past.

^ About 16 hours later…sticky rice and San Miguel Beer, a New years tradition in the Philippines…left over at the front desk.

An application of warm water removes the rest of the soluble gelatin and pigment. When dried the image is transferred to its permanent support. This usually consists of white paper coated with gelatin and made insoluble with chrome alum, though it may be mixed with barium sulphate or other similar pigments. .This transfer-paper is made to receive the image by being soaked in hot water till it becomes slimy to the touch; and the surface of the damped print is brought into contact with the surface of the retransfer-paper, in the same manner as was done with the flexible support and the carbon-tissue.^ The Printed Picture is an exhibition of physical specimens made using all the different ways that type and image can be printed on paper, metal, glass, etc, with a special emphasis on dozens of photography techniques, from albumen prints to dagguereotypes to color photography.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ We added some important links from my supporters and made a few minor adjustments, fixed some text and changed a few images.

^ Here's another shot Cunningham made that same day which didn't end up in the paper (Garbo's got her hand over her face).
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.When dry the retransfer-paper bearing the gelatin image can be stripped off the flexible support, which may be used again as a temporary support for other pictures.^ By Jason Kottke • May 1, 2009 • NYC photography Photoshop remix Using NASA images .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ The Printed Picture is an exhibition of physical specimens made using all the different ways that type and image can be printed on paper, metal, glass, etc, with a special emphasis on dozens of photography techniques, from albumen prints to dagguereotypes to color photography.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.If a reversed negative be used the image may be transferred at once to its final support instead of to the temporary flexible support, which is a point of practical value, since single-transfer are better than double-transfer prints.^ By Jason Kottke • May 1, 2009 • NYC photography Photoshop remix Using NASA images .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Did we use the image to make an editorial point -- in this case, about the former vice president's red-blooded, steak-eating, full-throated defense of his views and values?
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

Printing with Salts of Iron

Sir John Herschel and Robert Hunt entered into various methods of printing with salts of iron. At the present time two or three are practised, being used in draughtsmen's offices for copying tracings (see SUN-Copying).

Photo-mechanical Printing Processes

Poitevin claimed to have discovered that a film of gelatin impregnated with potassium bichromate, after being acted upon by light and damping, would receive greasy ink on those parts which had been affected by light. But Paul Oreloth seems to have made the discovery previous to 1854, for in his patent of that year he states that his designs were inked with printing ink before being transferred to stone or zinc. C. M. Tessie de Motay (in 1865) and C. R. Marechal of Metz, however, seem to have been the first to produce half-tones from gelatin films by means of greasy ink. Their general procedure consisted in coating metallic plates with gelatin impregnated with potassium or ammonium bichromate or tri-chromate and mercuric chloride, then treating with silver oleate, exposing to light through a negative, washing, inking with a lithographic roller, and printing from the plates as for an ordinary lithograph. .The half-tints by this process were very good, and illustrations executed by it are to be found in several existing works.^ I worked as a stock boy at Bonwit Teller in Boston, where my family lived, and there was a very interesting woman, an executive, at Bonwit's.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ As mention in my previous Blog the PhotoShelter Team has been working very hard to improve everything so we can make some good sales with our Stock Images.

The method of producing the plates, however, was most laborious, and it was simplified by A. Albert of Munich. .He had been experimenting for many years, endeavouring to make the gelatin films more durable than those of Tessie de Motay.^ Many of them were taken by creepy paparazzo Ted Leyson, who stalked Garbo for more than 10 years in NYC. Leyson took what is believed to be the last photo of Garbo before she died in 1990.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ It was my film of choice for many, many years, as a matter of fact most of my award winning images had been taken with Kodachrome 25.

^ End of Polaroid film and how much longer is film like Fuji and Kodak going to be around…I m sure for a few more years, I hope so.

.He added 4) gum-resins, alum, tannin and other such matters, which had the property of hardening gelatin; but the difficulty of adding sufficient to the mass in its liquid state before the whole became coagulated rendered these unmanageable.^ Polaroid has left us now for good…Kodachrome has long gone and I guess it is only a matter of time before the others follow…technology is progressing fast.

.It at last occurred to him that if the hardening action of light were utilized by exposing the surface next the plate to light after or before exposing the front surface to the film and the image, the necessary hardness might be given to the gelatin without adding any chemical hardeners to it.^ The lights of the festival are extinct for this year, but next year they will enchant Berlin again in the last weeks of October (from 14 to 26 October).

^ Your images don't have to be always in Raw format...what about before...when you where shooting film...all these great images on your hard drives or archive from the "Jurassic Park" era...

^ See below the before and after images and you might remember from my previous blog with the Ferrari and BMW about this new and fantastic feature in Aperture 2 .

In Tessie de Motay's process the hardening was almost absent, and the plates were consequently not durable. .It is evident that to effect this one of two things had to be done: either the metallic plate used by Tessie de Motay must be abandoned, or else the film must be stripped off the plate and exposed in that manner.^ He is used to taking care of things himself and I think this is one of the qualities that makes Obama different from so many other political candidates I've encountered.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Take TONS of photos of the same thing and then only use the good ones where the bird or the queer wasn't blinking.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

.Albert adopted the transparent plate, and his success was assured, since instead of less than a hundred impressions being pulled from one plate he was able to take over a thousand.^ Professional photographers already take hundreds or thousands of shots during the course of a shoot like this, so it's not such a huge shift for them.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ You may want to convert your files; in general, AAC/MP3 files take up less storage room than AIFFs.

.This occurred about 1867, but the formula was not published for two or three years afterwards, when it was divulged by Ohm and Grossman, one of whom had been employed by Albert of Munich, and had endeavoured to introduce a process which resembled Albert's earlier efforts.^ They have reached the western part of the Northern Territory, and without intervention, are expected to reach the east Kimberley region of Western Australia in one to three years time.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

^ Numbers fluctuate so greatly that grasshoppers may only be around one year in three.

.The name of " Lichtdruck " was given about this time to these surface-printing processes, and Albert may be considered, if not the inventor, at all events the perfecter of the method.^ You might forget to do this, it happens to me, being so excited about all these new features that I was puzzled what went wrong… nothing wrong at all… My mistake!

^ Not perfect by all means, but given more time a very usefull addition for presentations using iPhoto for your school project or for the Family get together.

^ Registering every one and every image is given you the perfect protection in the US but what about all the other countries Jason did not mention anything about those.

Another modification of " Lichtdruck " was patented in England by Ernest Edwards under the name of " heliotype." Woodbury Type. - .This process was invented by W. Woodbury about the year 1864, though we believe that J. W. Swan had been working independently in the same direction about the same time.^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

^ I t was about Time...just like the Rock Band “Ten Years After” well not quiet ten years, but I have been thinking about it for some time.

^ Update: Here's a video of Fairey talking about his work and how he created the Time cover .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.In October 1864 a description of the invention was given in the Photographic News. Marc Antoine A. Gaudin claimed the principle of the process, insisting that it was old, and basing his pretensions on the fact that he had printed with translucent ink from intaglio blocks engraved by hand; but at the same time he remarked that the application of the principle might lead to important results.^ At a United Nations meeting in September, New Yorker staff photographer Platon took photos of as many world leaders as her could get his hands on.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ On one hand, the photographers are not getting their due credit and payment for those photos but on the other, the act of collecting and curating adds something new to the work and results in something worthwhile.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

It was just these results which Woodbury obtained, and for which he was entitled to the fullest credit. Woodbury subsequently introduced certain modifications, the outcome being what is known as the " stannotype process," of which in 1880 he read a description before the French Photographic Society (see Process).
Photo-lithography.--Reference has been made to the effect of light on gelatin impregnated with potassium bichromate, whereby the gelatin becomes insoluble, and also incapable of absorbing water where the action of the light has had full play. It is this last phenomenon which occupies such an important place in photolithography. In the spring of 1859 E. J. Asser of Amsterdam produced photographs on a paper basis in printer's ink. Being anxious to produce copies of such prints mechanically, he conceived the idea of transferring the greasy ink impression to stone, and multiplying the impressions by mechanical lithography. .Following very closely upon Asser, J. W. Osborne of Melbourne made a similar application; his process is described by himself in the Photographic Journal for April 1860 as follows: " A negative is produced in the usual way, bearing to the original the desired ratio.^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

^ Bear in mind that you are very close to the sun, so drink lots of water to avoid dehydration and to lower the effects of altitude sickness.

A positive is printed from this negative upon a sheet of (gelatinized) paper, so prepared that the image can be transferred to stone, it having been previously covered with greasy printer's ink. The impression is developed by washing away the soluble matter with hot water, which leaves the ink on the lines of print of the map or engraving." The process of transferring is accomplished in the ordinary way. Early in 1860 Colonel Sir H. James, R.E., F.R.S., brought forward the Southampton method of photo-lithography, which had been carefully worked out by Captain de Courcy Scott, R.E. The " papyrotype process " was published by Abney in 1870 (see Lithography and Process).
.Photographs in Natural Colours. The first notice on record of coloured light impressing its own colours on a sensitive surface is in the passage already quoted from the Farbenlehre of Goethe, where T. J. Seebeck of Jena (1810) describes the impression he obtained on paper impregnated with moist silver chloride.^ He recently published his own book entitled Journey Through Colour and Time — a 30-year collection of photographs on Austrialia, Europe, Asia, and Micronesia.

In 1839 Sir J. Herschel (Athenaeum, No. 621) gave a somewhat similar description. In 1848 Edmond Becquerel succeeded in reproducing upon a daguerreotype plate not only the colours of the spectrum but also, up to a certain point, the colours of drawings and objects. His method of proceeding was to give the silver plate a thin coating of silver chloride by immersing it in ferric or cupric chlorides. It may also be immersed in chlorine water till it takes a feeble rose tint. Becquerel preferred to chlorinize the plate by immersion in a solution of hydrochloric acid in water, attaching it to the positive pole of a voltaic couple, whilst the other pole he attached to a platinum plate also immersed in the acid solution. After a minute's subjection to the current the plate took successively a grey, a yellow, a violet and a blue tint, which order was again repeated. When the violet tint appeared for the second time the plate was withdrawn and washed and dried over a spirit-lamp. 'In this state it produced the spectrum colours, but it was found better to heat the plate till it assumed a rose tint. At a later date Niepce de St Victor chlorinized by chloride of lime, and made the surface more sensitive by applying a solution of lead chloride in dextrin. G. W. Simpson also obtained coloured images on silver chloride emulsion in collodion, but they were less vivid and satisfactory than those obtained on daguerreotype plates. Poitevin obtained coloured images on ordinary silver chloride paper by preparing it in the usual manner and washing it and exposing it to light. It was afterwards treated with a solution of potassium bichromate and cupric sulphate, and dried in darkness. Sheets so prepared gave coloured images from coloured pictures, which he stated could be fixed by sulphuric acid (Comptes rendus, 1868, 61, p. ii). In the Bulletin de la Societe Francaise (1874) Colonel St Florent described experiments which he made with the same object. He immersed ordinary or albuminized paper in silver nitrate and afterwards plunged it into a solution of uranium nitrate and zinc chloride acidulated with hydrochloric acid; it was then exposed to light till it took a violet, blue or lavender tint. Before exposure the paper was floated on a solution of mercuric nitrate, its surface dried, and exposed to a coloured image.
It is supposed - though it is very doubtful if it be so - that the nature of the chloride used to obtain the silver chloride has a great effect on the colours impressed; and Niepce in 1857 made some observations on the relationship which seemed to exist between the coloured flames produced by the metal and the colour impressed on a plate prepared with a chloride of such a metal. In 1880 Abney showed that the production of colour really resulted from the oxidation of the chloride that was coloured by light. Plates immersed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide took the colours of the spectrum much more rapidly than when not immersed, and the size of the molecules seemed to regulate the colour. .He further stated that the whole of the spectrum colours might be derived from a mixture of two or at most three sizes of molecules.^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

In 1841, Robert Hunt published some results of colour-photography by means of silver fluoride. A paper was washed with silver nitrate and with sodium fluoride, and afterwards exposed to the spectrum. The action of the spectrum commenced at the centre of the yellow ray and rapidly proceeded upwards, arriving at its maximum in the blue ray. As far as the indigo the action was uniform, whilst in the violet the paper took a brown tint. When it was previously exposed, however, a yellow space was occupied where the yellow rays had acted, a green band where the green had acted, whilst in the blue and indigo it took an intense blue, and over the violet there was a ruddy brown. .In reference to these coloured images on paper it must not be forgotten that pure salts of silver are not being dealt with as a rule.^ Nikon gets a bit too much these days… its actually annoying, have we all forgotten that it is us who creates the ultimate image?

An organic salt of silver is usually mixed with silver chloride paper, the organic salt being due to the sizing of the paper, which towards the red end of the spectrum is usually more sensitive than the chloride. .If a piece of ordinary silver chloride paper is exposed to the spectrum till an impression is made, it will usually be found that the blue colour of the darkened chloride is mixed with that due to the coloration of the darkened organic compound of silver in the violet region, whereas in the blue and green this organic compound is alone affected, and is of a different colour from that of the darkened mixed chloride and organic compound.^ Although there are no subspecies, smaller, darker- coloured populations can be found farther upstream, perhaps due to food availability.

This naturally gives an impression that the different rays yield different tints, whereas this result is simply owing to the different range of sensitiveness of the bodies. In the case of the silver chlorinized plate and of true collodio-chloride, in which no organic salt has been dissolved, we have a true coloration by the spectrum. .At present there is no means of permanently fixing the coloured images which have been obtained, the effect of light being to destroy them.^ There is no way to use straight HTML to protect your images from downloading.

^ Although there are no subspecies, smaller, darker- coloured populations can be found farther upstream, perhaps due to food availability.

^ This is the actually Web Gallery from the internet browser, there are so many cool effects and options for viewing, these are some of the images from the Philippines in low res.

If protected from oxygen they last longer than if they have free access to it, as is the case when the surface is exposed to the air.
.A method devised by Gabrielle Lippmann, of Paris, by which the natural colours of objects are reproduced by means of interference, may be briefly described as follows: A sensitive plate is placed in contact with a film of mercury, and the exposure to the spectrum, or to the image of coloured objects to be photographed, is made through the back of the plate.^ He recently published his own book entitled Journey Through Colour and Time — a 30-year collection of photographs on Austrialia, Europe, Asia, and Micronesia.

^ However, the majority of today's photographers have voiced their preference to capture images with newer technology – both film and digital.

^ This means that there may be no natural limit to its life span.
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.On development, the image appears coloured when viewed at one particular angle, the colours being approximately those of the object.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

.The necessary exposure to produce this result was very prolonged in the first experiments in which the spectrum was photographed, and a longer exposure had to be given to the red than was required for the blue.^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

Lippmann at first employed collodion dry plates, prepared, it is believed, with albumen, and it required considerable manipulation to bring out the colours correctly. .A. Lumiere used gelatin plates dyed with appropriate dyes (orthochromatic plates); the exposure was much diminished, and very excellent representations were produced of all natural colours.^ My Camera settings are all set to normal, because it is very difficult to judge from the LCD screen how much or how little sharpening to apply.

^ All of the media produced by NASA is public domain, meaning that anyone can use it any way (as long as they obey restrictions of publicity and privacy).
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ What else can I say…but thank you so much Honey, you are very talented indeed producing such a small Camera with all the details, even the lens has glass…very cool and thanks again.

.The main point to aim at in the preparation of the plate seems to be to obtain a very sensitive film without any, or, at all events, with the least possible, " grain " in the sensitive salt.^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

A formula published by Lumiere seems to attain this object. .Viewed directly, the developed images appear like ordinary negatives, but when held at an angle to the light the colours are vivid.^ Keyword like: milky way, Palau, Micronesia but you spelled it “milky wey” then only some images or non will appear.

^ Keyword, like: milky way, palau, Micronesia and “milky wey” is spelled wrong, then only some images or non will appear.

They are not pure monochromatic colours, but have very much the quality of colours obtained by polarized light. It appears that they are produced by what may be termed " nodes " of differentcoloured lights acting within the film. .Thus in photographing the spectrum, rays penetrate to the reflecting mercury and are reflected back from it, and these, with the incident waves of light, form nodes where no motion exists, in a somewhat similar way to those obtained in a cord stretched between two points when plucked.^ I had similar reports from India where Photographers like to make the change but find it difficult to switch from their existing workflow, the lack of “HANDS ON” a common problem...but how can we solve this?

^ We take away all your hassles, you be organized back home, no more looking for hours on end where you stored these great shots ..

^ I guess these days we all, well almost all have to use our computers and software to do the editing and processing…it is the digital age after all, no turning back.

In the negative these nodal points are found in the thickness of the silver deposit. .When white light is sent through the film after the image has been developed, theoretically only rays of the wavelengths which formed these nodes are reflected to the eye, and thus we get an impression of colour.^ We have also some seminars and workshops at the Power Mac Center in Greenbelt 3 shortly, and if you have the time please drop by, I am only to happy to guide you through my Light.

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

Action of Light on Chemical Compounds. Reference has been made above to early investigations on the chemical action of light. .In 1777 Karl Wilhelm Scheele (Hunt's Researches in Light) made the following experiments on silver salts: " I precipitated a solution of silver by sal-ammoniac; then I edulcorated it and dried the precipitate and exposed it to the beams of the sun for two weeks; after which I stirred the powder, and repeated the same several times.^ The Festival Also this year, the FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS™ turned Berlin into a sparkling metropolis with a firework of illuminations and events for two weeks from 16 to 28 October.

Hereupon I poured some caustic spirit of sal-ammoniac (strong ammonia) on this, in all appearance, black powder, and set it by for digestion. This menstruum dissolved a quantity of tuna cornua (horn silver), though some black powder remained undissolved. The powder having been washed was, for the greater part, dissolved by a pure acid of nitre (nitric acid), which, by the operation, acquired volatility. This solution I precipitated again by means of sal-ammoniac into horn silver. Hence it follows that the blackness which the luna cornua acquires from the sun's light, and likewise the solution of silver poured on chalk, is silver by reduction.... I mixed so much of distilled water with well-edulcorated horn silver as would just cover this powder. .The half of this mixture I poured into a white crystal phial, exposed it to the beams of the sun, and shook it several times each day; the other half I set in a dark place.^ The other day I went through some of my underwater images when I came across this shot I had taken some time ago in the Philippines.

^ Enjoy, both images have been taken the same day and from the same place, one at night the other one in the the morning during a tropical rainstorm.

^ The privately owned O-CE-N Bali is very different from most other places in Bali, incorporating modern architecture and a touch of prehistoric times through out the property.

.After having exposed the one mixture during the space of two weeks, I filtrated the water standing over the horn silver, grown already black; I let some of this water fall by drops in a solution of silver, which was immediately precipitated into horn silver."^ I converted some slides into a Black & White image in the darkroom...

^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

^ The Festival Also this year, the FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS™ turned Berlin into a sparkling metropolis with a firework of illuminations and events for two weeks from 16 to 28 October.

This, as far as we know, is the first intimation of the reducing action of light. .From this it is evident that Scheele had found that the silver chloride was decomposed by the action of light liberating some form of chlorine.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

.Others have repeated these experiments and found that chlorine is really liberated from the chloride; but it is necessary that some body should be present which would absorb the chlorine, or, at all events, that the chlorine should be free to escape.^ During our recent trip to Bali he found a little spare time to create some images for himself and these I like to share with you today.

^ But never leaving Aperture is for me a real plus and very handy if you are on the road with limited time, after all we should spend more time shooting.

^ Ok some of you might love these plug-ins and there is really nothing wrong with it but for me…filters and some others in the pipeline are not much use to me.

A tube of dried silver chloride, sealed up in vacuo, will not discolour in the light, but keeps its ordinary white colour. A pretty experiment is to seal up in vacuo, at one end of a bent tube, perfectly dry chloride, and at the other a drop of mercury. The mercury vapour volatilizes to a certain extent and fills the tube. When exposed to light chlorine is liberated from the chloride, and calomel forms on the sides of the tube. In this case the chloride darkens. Again, dried chloride sealed up in dry hydrogen discolours, owing to the combination of the chlorine with the hydrogen. .Poitevin and H. W. Vogel first enunciated the law that for the reduction by light of the haloid salts of silver:halogen absorbents were necessary, and it was by following out this law that the present rapidity in obtaining camera images has been rendered possible.^ Performance series COOLPIX model, the P6000, Nikon’s first camera with built-in GPS. The COOLPIX P6000 is packed with groundbreaking technology to ensure the highest possible image quality from a compact body.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

To put it briefly, then, the visible action of light is a reducing action, which is aided by or entirely due to the fact that other bodies are present which will absorb the halogens.
In the above we have alluded to the visible results on silver salts. It by no means follows that the exposure of a silver salt to light for such a brief period as to leave no visible effect must be due to the same effect, that is, that any of the molecules are absolutely reduced or split up by the light. .That this or some other action takes place is shown by the fact that the silver salt is capable of alkaline development, that is, the particles which have suffered a change in their molecules can be reduced to metallic silver, whilst those which have not been acted upon remain unaltered by the same chemical agency.^ Take some great images with the same Camera plus Video now, very easy, but don’t forget about you and your buddy’s safety.

^ Enjoy, both images have been taken the same day and from the same place, one at night the other one in the the morning during a tropical rainstorm.

Two theories have been offered to explain the invisible change which takes place in the salts of silver. .One is based on the supposition that the molecules of the salt can rearrange their atoms under the vibrations caused by the ether waves placing them in more unstable positions than they were in before the impact of light took place.^ Many of them were taken by creepy paparazzo Ted Leyson, who stalked Garbo for more than 10 years in NYC. Leyson took what is believed to be the last photo of Garbo before she died in 1990.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ The hamfisted Air Force One NYC photo op cost taxpayers more than $320,000 .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ These sports look more difficult than the ones at the regular Olympics.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

This, it is presumed, would allow the developer to separate the atoms of such shaken molecules when it came in contact with them. The other theory is that, as in the case of the visible effects of light, some of the molecules are at once reduced and that the developer finishes the disintegration which the light has begun. In the case of the alkaline development the unaltered molecules next those primarily reduced combine with the reduced silver atom and again form an unstable compound and are in their turn reduced.
.The first theory would require some such action as that just mentioned to take place and cause the invisible image formed by the shaking apart of the light-stricken molecules to become visible.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ This is not image manipulation, I am only restoring some old and precious photos that would have been lost or considered unusable for publications without altering the overall visual.

^ I can make some correction just like before, the good old fashion way, plus having the ability to sort and store thousands of images...

.It is hard to see why other unacted upon molecules close to those which were made unstable and which have been shaken apart by the developer should themselves be placed in unstable equilibrium and amenable to reduction.^ Looking at the underside of the plane as they lifted it from the water last night , you can see the damage to the bottom of the plane and just how close they all were to being flung all over the place or sinking quickly or a number of other different outcomes.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

In the second theory, called the " chemical theory," the reduction is perfectly easy to understand. Abney adopts the chemical theory as the balance of unsubstantiated evidence is in its favour. There is another action which seems to occur almost simultaneously when exposure takes place in the absence of an active halogen absorbent, as is the case when the exposure is given in the air, that is, an oxidizing action occurs. The molecules of the altered haloid salts take up oxygen and form oxides. .If a sensitive salt be briefly exposed to light and then treated with an oxidizing sustance, such as potassium bichromate, potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, an image is not developed, but remains unaltered, showing that a change has been effected in the compound which under ordinary circumstances is developable.^ Polaroids are removed from their case in a darkroom, laid flat and exposed as a single, light sensitive array.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

If such an oxidized salt be treated very cautiously with nascent hydrogen, the oxygen is withdrawn and the image is again capable of development.' Spectrum Effects on Silver Compounds. - The next inquiry is as to the effect of the spectrum on the different silver compounds. .We have already described Seebeck's (181 o) experiments on silver chloride with the spectrum whereby he obtained coloured photographs, but Scheele in 1777 allowed a spectrum to fall on the same material, and found that it blackened much more readily in the violet rays than in any other.^ Yes, you have heard right, it is our very own Eye that is more important than any other optical piece of glass.

^ Digital Cameras need...some more than others.

Senebier's experiments have been already quoted. We merely mention these two for their historical interest, and pass on to the study of the action of the spectrum on different compounds by Sir J. Herschel (Phil. Trans., 1840). He describes many experiments, which ' See Abney, " Destruction of the Photographic Image," Phil. Mag. (1878), vol. v.; also Proc. Roy. Soc. (1878), vol. xxvii.
have become the foundation of nearly all subsequent researches of the same kind. The effects of the spectrum have been studied by various experimenters since that time, amongst whom we may mention Edmond Becquerel, John William Draper, Alphonse Louis Poitevin, H. W. Vogel, Victor Schumann and W. de W. Abney. Fig. i is compiled from a cut which appeared in the Proc. Roy. Soc. for 1882, and shows the researches made by Abney as regards the action of the spectrum on the three principal haloid salts of silver. No. 7 shows the effect of the spectrum on a peculiar modification of silver bromide made by Abney, which is seen to be sensitive to the infra-red rays.

Effect of Dyes on Sensitive Films

In 1874 Dr H. W. Vogel of Berlin found that when films were stained with certain dyes and exposed to the spectrum an increased action on development was shown in those parts of the spectrum which the dye absorbed. The dyes which produced this action he called " optical sensitizers," whilst preservatives which absorbed the halogen liberated by light he called " chemical sensitizers." A dye might, according to him, be an optical and a chemical sensitizer. .He further claimed that, if a film were prepared in which the haloid soluble salt was in excess and then dyed, no action took place unless some " chemical sensitizer " were present.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ The assignment took some three month to complete and I shot over 300 Rolls of Kodachrome Film, using Kodachrome 25 Pro to Kodachrome 200 Pro.

The term " optical sensitizer " seems a misnomer, since it is meant to imply that it renders the salts of silver sensitive to those regions of the spectrum to which they were previously insensitive, merely by the addition of the dye. The idea of the action of dyes was at first combated, but it was soon recognized that such an action did really exist. Abney showed in 1875, that certain dyes combined with silver and formed true coloured organic salts of silver which were sensitive to light; and Dr' Robert Amory went so far as to take a spectrum on a combination of silver with eosin, which was one of the dyes experimented upon by J. Waterhouse, who had closely followed Dr Vogel, and. proved that the spectrum acted simply on those parts which. were absorbed by the compound. Abney further demonstrated that, in many cases at all events, the dyes were themselves reduced by light, thus acting as nuclei on which the silver could be deposited. He further showed that even when the haloid soluble salt was in excess the same character of spectrum was. produced as when the silver nitrate was in excess, though theexposure had to be prolonged. This action he concluded was. due to the dye.
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Correct Rendering of Colours in Monochrome

In Plate II., fig. .14 the sensitiveness of a plate stained with homocol is shown, and it is evident that as it is sensitive throughout the visible spectrum there must be some means of cutting off by a transparent screen so much of the spectrum luminosity at different parts that every colour having the same luminosity to the eye shall be shown on a negative of equal density.^ Ok some of you might love these plug-ins and there is really nothing wrong with it but for me…filters and some others in the pipeline are not much use to me.

^ But there is also a bigger risk and we should be aware of it…you must keep an eye on your gauges, check you air supply regular.

^ At the entrance to one of the RESTAURANTS you can’t miss this fantastic backlit piece of marble cut so thin that it is transparent, an eye catcher at night.

When this is done the relative I'lminosities of all colours will be shown by the same relative densities. or in a print by different depths of greys. Abney devised a sensitometer which should be used to ascertain the colour of the screen that should be employed. .By proper means the luminosity of the light of day coming through a red, a green, a blue and an orange glass can be very accurately measured; if k-in.^ Leichhardt's Grasshopper is bright red, blue and orange.

^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

squares of these coloured glasses, together with a white glass of the same area, be placed in a row and cemented on white glass, we have a colour-screen which we can make available for finding the kind of light-filter to be employed. This is readily done by reducing the luminosity of the light coming through all the glasses to that of the luminosity of the light coming through the blue glass. If the luminosity of the blue be 5 and that of the white light loo, then the luminosity of the former must be reduced to 2 o of its original value, and so with the other glasses. The luminosity of the light coming through each small glass square can be made equal by rotating in front of them a disk in which apertures are cut corresponding to the reduction required. The AgI+AgNO, on paper AgCI+AgN03 on paper AgI+--AgN03 in albumen AgI prepared in bath, treated with KI, washed, redipped in silver bath, developed with pyrogallic acid.
Grey AgBr in gelatin, developed alkaline or ferrous oxalate.. .
Orange AgBr in collodion or gelatin, alkaline ferrous oxalate or acid developer.
Green AgBr in collodion, developed ferrous oxalate. .. .. .
AgCI in collodion, excess of AgN03 or NaC1 present, ferrous citrate or acid development.
AgI+AgBr, washed from AgN03 2 10 3AgI AgBr -}- AgN03 collodion, wet plate, acid or alkaline developer FIG. I. - Spectrum Effects on Salts of Silver.
[P. = print; D. = developed; 1.e. = long exposure].
P. P.
P. D. (1.e.) D. (l.e.) D. (l.e.) D. (l.e.) D. (I.e.) P. D. (I.e.) 4? o?
PLATE III.
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Photography-5.jpg
.E ' '[[Dcba ' 'G ' 'F H]] 5 10 15 20 25 r 30 35 Continuous Spectrum Taken With The Electric Arc.^ Vogue Paris has an editorial in the November 2008 issue which features a 20-year-old model photographed as if she were 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

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5 15 Fluorescent Spectrum Of Eosin.
.10 15 20 25 30 35 Spectrum Of Volatilized Lithium And Sodium.^ Vogue Paris has an editorial in the November 2008 issue which features a 20-year-old model photographed as if she were 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

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.10 15 20 25 30 Absorption Spectrum Of Eosin.^ Vogue Paris has an editorial in the November 2008 issue which features a 20-year-old model photographed as if she were 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

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Photography-9.jpg
35 Graduation Scale On Homocol Stained " Seed " Plate.
Graduation Scale On Unstained Plate.
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zu
55
Impressed Continuous Spectrum.
50 55
blue glass, for instance, would not be covered by the disk at all, while opposite the white square the disk would have an aperture of an angle of 18°. .When a plate is exposed behind the row of glass squares, with the light passing through the rotating disk, having the appropriate apertures for each glass, the negative obtained would under ordinary conditions, show square patches of very different opacity.^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

^ It proved again how easy it is to work with Aperture 2 making selections and using it for something very different today, after all we had to go through some 200 images fast.

^ The privately owned O-CE-N Bali is very different from most other places in Bali, incorporating modern architecture and a touch of prehistoric times through out the property.

.A light-filter of some transparent colour, if placed in the path of the light, will alter the opacities, and eventually one can be found which will only allow such coloured light to be transmitted as will cause all the opacities in the negative to be the same.^ The photo above is one (1) image only, you might think they are four(4) joined together in Photoshop, Not at all.

^ Each one of those little specks is an entire galaxy, some only 600 million years old.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ We have also some seminars and workshops at the Power Mac Center in Greenbelt 3 shortly, and if you have the time please drop by, I am only to happy to guide you through my Light.

.As the luminosities of the white light passing through the glasses are made equal, and as the photographic deposits are also rendered equal, this light-filter, if used in front of the camera lens, will render all coloured objects in correct monochrome luminosity.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

^ Monochrome Mixer in the Adjustments Panel and there you find all you need including these color filters we used to use during the old days in front of the lens.

.Another plan, based on the same principles, is to place segments of annuluses of vermilion, chrome yellow, emerald green, French blue and white on a disk, and to complete the annuluses with black segments, the amount of black depending on the luminosity of the pigments, which can be readily measured.^ Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1992, GD and another black and white story .

^ Richard Renaldi's photos of touching strangers seem a little predictable to me -- white guy with black family, blue-collar guy with white-collar guy, blig black guy with white family -- but still worth a look.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

When the disk is rotated, rings of colour, modified in brightness by black, are seen, and each ring will be of the same luminosity. .As before, a screen (light-filter) to be used in front of the lens must be found which will cause the developed images of all the rings to appear of equal opacity.^ If that single drive fails you lost all your precious images and using a recovery service can get very expensive and there is never a guarantee or full recovery.

^ Watch the high resolution Keynote presentation & all the other things you can do on a Mac using your images from Aperture 2.

^ Of course you can also learn with Digital cameras and the ability to view the image on the LCD screen is certainly a plus for the learning curve as long you refrain from using Photoshop and start all this manipulation removing wires and so on.

It must be remembered that the light in which the object is to be photographed must be the same as that in which the luminosity of the glasses or pigments is measured.
H
No
No.2
3

Action of the Spectrum on Chromic Salts

The salts most usually employed in photography are the bichromates of the alkalis. The result of spectrum action is confined to its own most refrangible end, commencing in the ultra-violet and reaching as far as in the solar spectrum. Fig. 2 shows the relative action of FIG. 2. - The top letters have reference to the Fraunhofer lines; the bottom letters are the initials of the colours. The relative sensitiveness is shown by the height of the curve above the base-line.
the various parts of the spectrum on potassium bichromate. If other bichromates are employed, the action will be found to be tolerably well represented by the figures. No. 1 is the effect of a long exposure, No. 2 of a shorter one. It should be noticed that the solution of potassium bichromate absorbs those rays alone which are effective in altering the bichromate. This change is only possible in the presence of organic matter of some kind, such as gelatin or albumen.

Action of the Spectrum on Asphaltum

.This seems to be continued into and below the red, the blue rays, however, are the most effective.^ Check out the screen shots below, I have marked them with a red circle or square, the blue circle on the red Ferrari are the blown out highlight which can be recovered.

The action of light on this body is to render it less soluble in its usual solvents.

Action of the Spectrum on Salts of Iron

The commonest ferric salt in use is the oxalate, by which the beautiful platinotype prints are produced. We give this as a representation (fig. 3) of H G F E Dcba Fig. 3. - Same description as for fig. 2.
the spectra obtained on ferric salts in general. Here, again, we have an example of the law that exists as to the correlation between absorption and chemical action. One of the most remarkable compounds of iron is that experimented upon by Sir J. Herschel and later by Lord Rayleigh, viz. ferrocyanide of potassium and ferric chloride. If these two be brushed over paper, and the paper be then exposed to a bright solar spectrum, action is exhibited into the infra-red region. .This is one of the few instances in which these light-waves of low refrangibility are capable of producing any effect.^ A few hours I returned from a commercial Photo shoot and I thought why not share these images with you…sorry cant show you yet the commercial Images but certainly these ones.

^ This is the actually Web Gallery from the internet browser, there are so many cool effects and options for viewing, these are some of the images from the Philippines in low res.

The colour of this solution is a muddy green, and analysis shows that it cuts off these rays as well as generally absorbs those of higher refrangibility.

Action of Light on Uranium

The salts of uranium are affected by light in the presence of organic matter, and they too are only acted upon by those rays which they absorb. .Thus nitrate of uranium, which shows, too, absorption-bands in the green blue, is affected more where these occur than in any other portion of the spectrum.^ Plus you have all these other options at your fingertips from Web Themes, Widgets, Slides shows, Marketing tools, RSS and so much more including sleeping well at night knowing that your images are safe.

^ These sports look more difficult than the ones at the regular Olympics.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Yes, you have heard right, it is our very own Eye that is more important than any other optical piece of glass.

Some salts of mercury, gold, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, platinum, vanadium, are affected by light, but in a less degree than those which we have discussed. .In the organic world there are very few substances which do not change by the continuous action of light, and it will be found that as a rule they are affected by the blue end of the spectrum rather than by the red end (see Photochemistry).^ I think his action captured peoples' hearts everywhere, and when the moment came, his character defined the moment, rather than the moment defining him.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ I explored the original brothers Grimm's stories and found that they have very dark and sometimes gruesome aspects, many of which were changed by Disney.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ My images relate to a broader discourse and use the medium (captured light) to tell the story rather than just relying on the here is narrative.

Substance.
Observer:
Date.
Silver.
Nitrate solution mixed with
chalk, gives in sunshine copies
of writing
J. H. Schulze .
1727
Nitrate solution on paper. .
Hellot. .
1737
Nitrate photographically used .
Wedgwood and
1802
Davy.
Nitrate on silk .
Fulhame .
Rumford
179
1798
Nitrate with white of egg.. .
B. Fischer
1812
Nitrate with lead salts.. .
Herschel .
1839
Chloride. .. .. .
J. B. Beccarius
1757
Chloride in the spectrum. .
Scheele.
1777
Chloride photographically used .
Wedgwood
1802
Chloride blackened. .. .
Lassaigne .
1839
Iodide
Davy. .
1814
Iodide by action of iodine (on
mecallic silver).
Daguerre. .
1839
Iodide photographically used .
Herschel .
1840
Iodide with gallic acid.. .
Talbot. .
1841
Iodide with ferrous sulphate. .
Hunt. .
1844
Chloride and iodide by chlorine
and iodine (on metallic silver).
Claudet .
1840
Bromide .
Balard .
1826
Bromide by action of bromine (on
metallic silver).
Goddard .
1840
Sulpho-cyanide. ... .
Grotthus .
1818
Nitrite ....... .
Hess
1828
Oxide with ammonia. .. .
Mitscherlich
1827
Sulphate. .. .. .
Bergmann.
1779
Chromate
Vauquelin .
1798
Carbonate
Buchholz .
1800
Oxalate
Bergmann .
Benzoate
Trommsdorf
1793
Citrate
Vauquelin
1798
Kinate. .. ... .
Henry and Plisson
1829
Borate
Rose. .
1830
Pyrophosphate.. .
Stromeyer
1830
Lactate
Pelouze and Gay-
1833
Lussac.
Formiates. .. ... .
Hunt. .
1844
Fulminates.. .
Hunt.. .
1844
Sulphide by vapour of sulphur
(on metallic silver).
Niepce. .
1820
Phosphide by vapour of phos-
phorus (on metallic silver).
Niepce.. .
1820
Gold.
Oxide
Scheele.. .
1777
Chloride on paper. ... .
Hellot. .
1737
Chloride on silk. .
Fulhame. .
1794
Chloride in ethereal solution. .
Rumford. .
1793
Chloride with ferrocyanide and
ferricyanide of potassium.
Hunt. .
1844
Chloride and oxalic acid.. .
D8bereiner. .
Chromate. .. .
Hunt.. .
1844
Plate of gold and iodine vapour .
Goddard.. .
1842
Missing image
Photography-11.jpg
Substance.
Observer.
Date.
Platinum.
Chloride in ether
Gehlen.. .
1804.
Chloride with lime. .. .
Herschel. .
1840
Iodide
Herschel.. .
1840
Bromide
Cyanide
Hunt
1844
Double chloride of platinum and
potassium.
Dobereiner. .
1828
Mercury.
Oxide (mercurous). .. .
Gay-Lussac and
1811
Thenard.
Oxide
Davy. .. .
1812
Oxide (mercuric)
Davy.. .
1797
Oxide (more accurate observa-
Abildgaard. .
1797
tions) 5
Harup not till. .
1801
Chloride (mercurous).. .
K. Neumann pre-
viously to
1739
Chloride (mercuric).. .
Boullay.. .
1803
Chloride with oxalic acid.. .
Bergmann.. .
1776
Sulphate. .. .
Meyer. .. .
1764
Oxalate (mercuric). .. .
Bergmann.. .
1776
Oxalate (mercurous). .
Harff. .. .
1836
Sulphate and ammonia (mer-
curous).
Fourcroy.. .
1791
Acetate (mercurous). .. .
Garot. .. .
1826
Bromide (mercuric). .. .
Lowig. .. .
1828
Iodide (mercurous) 5
Torosewicz
Artus
1836
1836
Iodide (mercuric)
Field. .. .
1836
Citrate (mercuric). .. .
Harff. .
1836
Tartrate and potassium (mer-
Carbonell and
1831
curous).
Bravo
Carbonate (mercuric). .. .
Davy. .. .
1812
Nitrate
Herschel.. .
1840
Sulphide (mercuric). .. .
Vitruvius.. .
I B.C.
Iron.
Sulphate (ferrous). .
Chastaing.. .
1877
Chloride (ferric) and alcohol .
Bestuscheff .
1725
Chloride and ether. .. .
Klaproth.. .
1782
Oxalate (ferric).. .
Dobereiner. .
1831
Ferrocyanide of potassium. .
Heinrich.. .
1808
Sulphocyanide
Grotthus.. .
1818
Prussian blue. .. .
Scopoli.. .
1783
Ferric citrate with ammonium
Herschel.. .
1840
Ferric tartrate. ... .
Herschel. .
1840
Chromate
Hunt. .. .
1844
Copper.
Chloride (cupric dissolved in
ether).
Gehlen.. .
1804
Oxalate with sodium. .. .
A. Vogel.. .
1813
Chromate. .. .. .
Chromate with ammonium
Carbonate
Hunt. .
1844
Iodide.. .. .. .
Sulphate .
Chloride (cuprous). .. .
A. Vogel.. .
1859
Copper plates (iodized)
Kratoch
Talbot .
1841
1841
Manganese.
Sulphate. .. ... .
Brandenburg .
1815
Oxalate. .. ... .
Suckow.. .
1832
Potassium permanganate .
Frommberg .
1824
Peroxide and cyanide of potas-
sium
Hunt. .
1844
Chloride. .. ... .
Hunt.. .
1844
Lead.
Oxide ........
avy. .. .
1802
Iodide Sulphite
Schonbein.. .
1850
S u .
Peroxide ay-Lussac. .
1811
Red lead and cyanide of potas-
sium
Hunt. .
1844
Acetate. .. ... .
Hunt. .. .
1844
Nigel.
Nickel.
Nitrate
Nitrate with ferro-prussiates .
Hunt. .. .
1844
Iodide
Tin.
Purple of cassius. .. .
. Uncertain.. .
Various Substances.
Cobalt salts
Hunt. .. .
1844
Arsenic sulphide (realgar) .
. Sage. .. .
1803
Antimony sulphide.. .
. Suckow.. .
1832
Substance.
Observer.
Date.
Bismuth salts. ... .
Cadmium salts. .. .
Hunt.. .
1844
Rhodium salts. ... .
Vanadic salts
`Roscoe. .
1874
Iridium ammonium chloride. .
Dobereiner. .
1831
Potassium bichromate.. .
Mungo Ponton .
1838
Potassium with iodide of starch
Becquerel.. .
1840
Metallic chromates. .. .
Hunt. .
1843
Chlorine and hydrogen.. .
Gay-Lussac and
1809
Thenard.
Chlorine (tithonized). .. .
Draper.. .
1842
Chlorine and ether. .. .
Cahours.. .
1810
Chlorine in water
Berthollet .
1785
Chlorine and ethylene.. .
Gay-Lussac and
1809
Thenard
Chlorine and carbon-monoxide
Davy. .. .
1812
Chlorine and marsh gas. .
Henry. .. .
1821
Chlorine and hydrocyanic acid .
Serullas.. .
1827
Bromide and hydrogen.. .
Balard. .. .
1832
Iodine and ethylene. .. .
Faraday.. .
182r
Cyanogen, solution of.. .
Pelouze and
1837
Richardson.
Various other methyl compounds
Cahours.. .
1846
Hydrocyanic acid
Torosewicz. .
1836
Hypochlorites (calcium and po-
tassium)
Dobereiner. .
, 1813
Uranium chloride and ether. .
Gehlen.. .
1804
Molybdenate of potassium and
tin salts.
Jager. .. .
1800
Crystallization of salts under
Petit.. .
1722
influence of light.
Dize l..
Dize
1788
1789
Phosphorus (in hydrogen, nitro-
gen, &c.)
Bockmann.. .
1800
Phosphuretted hydrogen. .
A. Vogel.. .
1812
Nitric acid
Scheele... .
1777
Hog's fat
Vogel. .. .
1806
Palm oil
Fier.. .
1832
Asphalt. .. ... .
Niepce. .
1814
Resins (mastic, sandarac, gam-
boge, ammoniacum, &c.).
Senebier.. .
1782
Guaiacum
Hagemann. .
1782
Bitumens all decomposed, all
residues of essential oils.
Daguerre.. .
1839
Coloured extracts from flowers .
Senebier. .
1782
Similar colouring matters spread
upon paper.
Herschel.. .
1842
Yellow wax bleached. .
Pliny. .. .
1st cent. A. D.
Eudoxia macrembolitissa (purple
dye).
loth cent.
Other purple dyes
Cole. .
Reaumur
1711
1711
Oils generally
Senebier. .
1782
Nitric ether
Senebier. .
1782
Nicotine
Henry Boutron-
1836
Charlard.
Santonine
Merk.. .
1883
The following table gives the names of the observers of the action of light on different substances, with the date of publication of the several observations. It is nearly identical with one given by Dr Eder in his Geschichte der Photo-Chemie. 'No.3 ' VI Gyor Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Sensitive Plates. - Dr W. J. Russell made a series of experiments on the effect of exposure of sensitive plates to the action of vapours and gases for long periods. It has long been known that contact of plates with such substances as wood caused a sensitive surface to show " fog " on development. By a somewhat exhaustive series of experiments, Russell showed that the probable cause of this fog is hydrogen peroxide, since substances which favoured its formation produced the same effect. This is somewhat remarkable, as this same substance will completely destroy the effect that light has had on a sensitive plate; indeed, it affords one way of destroying a light image on a sensitive collodion plate. The experiments of Russell give a warning to store exposed plates for brief periods. It appears that negatives wrapped in paraffin paper are secure from this danger.

The Application of Photography to Quantitative Measures

.In order to employ photography for the measurement of light it was necessary that some means should be devised by which the opacity of the deposit produced on the development of a plate could be determined.^ New Aerials of Palau Micronesia, some very cool low light photography after sunset from the helicopter & New generic images of Palau...

^ I thought this is an interesting combination of color and light from Bali and Berlin, so if you in Berlin during the month of October check it out and have a go at some night Photography.

It is believed that in 1874 the first attempt was made by Sir W. Abney to do this. In the
Phil. Mag. .he showed how density could be measured by means of an instrument, the diaphanometer, he had devised, in which transparent 40 20 10 5 black wedges were used to make matches between the naked light and the same light after passing through the photographic opacity that had to be measured.^ A few photographers have recently begun to make what look like photographs of scale models, using these lenses to control the angle and orientation of the depth of field.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Vogue Paris has an editorial in the November 2008 issue which features a 20-year-old model photographed as if she were 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ From a series of posts on how not to photograph (for serious/professional photographers, I would presume): playing possum , the zig zag , and the vacation slide show .
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.In 1887, owing to the perfecting of the rotating sectors, which could be made to increase or diminish the apertures at pleasure during its rotation, the measurement of opacities became easy.^ Using the PhotoShelter export plug in for Aperture...life made easy.

The Rumford method of comparing the light through the deposit with the naked beam, using the sectors to equalize the illumination, was adopted, the deposit being placed between the light and the screen, the comparison light being a beam reflected from the same light on to the screen.
Owing to the fact that photographic deposit scatters light more or less, the opacities measured by this plan were slightly greater than was shown when such opacities were to be used for contact printing. The final plan adopted by Abney was to place the part of the plate carrying the deposit to be measured behind a screen constructed as above. C D (fig. 4) is a C dull black card with anaperture cut in it which may be of any desired shape.
A B This aperture was covered with trans parent paper, as was also a portion B, the same size as A, but pasted on the black card itself. .Light thrown from D behind A would be matched with light FIG. 4. thrown on to B from the front when a rod in the path of this last beam was made to prevent this light falling on A. When a portion of a plate bearing a deposit was placed behind and close to A, the light thrown on B had to be diminished by the sector till the two squares appeared equally bright and the aperture of the sector was noted and compared with that required when the deposit was removed.^ (Note that models marked with an asterisk require Aperture 2 with Mac OS X v10.4.11 Tiger or Mac OS X v10.5.2 Leopard or later.

^ The images below are a “Play of Light and Color” from two very different places.

.With this screen accurate measures of printing densities can be made, and it can also be used in the determination of the comparative photographic brightness of the light issuing from different objects.^ The creatures evolved quickly and were widely distributed, making them useful tools to compare the ages of rock strata in different parts of the world.

^ The Printed Picture is an exhibition of physical specimens made using all the different ways that type and image can be printed on paper, metal, glass, etc, with a special emphasis on dozens of photography techniques, from albumen prints to dagguereotypes to color photography.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Prokudin-Gorskii made color photographs using a clever filtering system years before color photography would be widely available.
  • photography (kottke.org) 8 January 2010 13:45 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.For instance, the relative brightness of the different parts of the corona as seen in a total eclipse can be readily determined if a " time scale " of gradation is impressed on the plate on which it is taken.^ S hortly we are leaving for Bali and this time it is going to be different and an unusual Journey, at least for the Photography part.

^ Body scales are relatively large, with wide, closely-knit armored plates on the back.

.Both scale and streamer can then be enlarged optically and thrown on the part of the screen A. The measures of the streamer densities can then be directly compared with the densities of the scale and the relative " photographic " brightness of the different parts of the streamer be ascertained by comparison with this scale also.^ The creatures evolved quickly and were widely distributed, making them useful tools to compare the ages of rock strata in different parts of the world.

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The same method of measurement was adopted in ascertaining quantitatively the sensitiveness of the spectrum of ordinary plates and of plates in which dyes are present. The figures on Pl. IV show reproductions of plates which were exposed to the spectrum. No. 1 is a continuous spectrum taken with the electric light; no. 7 is an impressed continuous spectrum; no. 8 shows the bright lines of metals; no. 3 the line spectrum of volatilized lithium and sodium to indicate the position of the spectrum colours. Nos. 4 and 2 are the absorption and fluorescent spectra of eosin. No. 5 is the graduation scale formed by a bromogelatin " Seed " plate stained with homocol, a cyanine derivative sensitive to the red; no. 6 is a similar scale formed by an unstained plate. .The small numbers placed below the different bands show an empiric scale which is made to apply to each of them.^ We made the flash slide show simple and small, keeping the fast loading time of the site plus having all the SEO benefits too.

^ The images below are a “Play of Light and Color” from two very different places.

The first step is to measure ei of the spectrum FIG. 5.
the opacity of the gradation scale, next the opacity of the continuous spectrum at the various numbers of the empiric scale, and also the opacity of the other bands at the same scale numbers. .The continuous spectrum will give the sensitiveness of the plate to the different parts of the spectrum when the measures of its different opacities are compared with those of the scale of gradation, and a curve of sensitiveness can be plotted from these comparisons.^ The creatures evolved quickly and were widely distributed, making them useful tools to compare the ages of rock strata in different parts of the world.

It is evident that the measures of the other two bands will give us information as to the fluorescence and the absorption of the eosin. Fig. .5 shows the curve of opacity of the image of the spectrum at its different parts, and also the curve of sensitiveness of the plate to the different parts of the spectrum.^ As the leading fair of the branch photokina puts a focus on the image and shows how convergence of different products and technologies determines the dynamics and growth of this market.

^ But here is the cool part; now you can search my entire archives direct from my site with Keywords, just type in what you looking for and the images show up.

This last is derived from a comparison of the measured densities with those of the gradation scale.

Measurement of the Rapidity of a Plate

The first attempt that was made to ascertain the rapidity of a plate was by Abney (Phil. Mag. 1874), who demonstrated that within limits the transparency of deposit varied as the logarithm of the exposure.
.The last formula has been accepted for general use, though it is believed that it is not absolutely correct, though very approximately true and sufficiently near to be of practical value.^ A straight shot...believe it or not, but very true.

This belief is based on the further researches described below.' .In 1888 Sir W. Abney pointed out that the speed of a plate could be determined by the formula T = E-,u(10g E+C) 2, where T is the transparency, E is the exposure (or time of exposure X intensity of light acting), and C a constant.^ The heavens opened as the cars pulled away on the formation lap and the track was awash by the time the lights went out for the start.

^ The heavens opened when the 14 cars were lined up on the starting grid and the track was awash by the time the lights went out for the start.

If the abscissae (exposures) are plotted as logarithms, the curve takes the same form as that of the law of error, which has a singular point, a tangent through which lies closely along the curve and cuts the axis of Y at a point which has a value of 2/ 1 / E. If the total transparency be unity, this ordinate has a value of 1.212, the singular point having a value of o 606. The ordinate of the zero point of the curve will be where the tangent to the singular point cuts the line drawn at 1.212. The difference between the measurements of this zero point for two kinds of plates (i.e. C in the formula) from the points in the abscissae marking the same exposure, will give the relative sensitiveness of the two plates in terms of log x 2. In 1890 Hurter and Driffield (Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. Jan. 19, 1891) worked out a less empirical formula connecting the exposure E with the density of deposit, which in an approximate shape had the form D =ylog(E/i), where D is the density of deposit (or log 1 /T), i the " inertia " of the plate, T the transparency of the deposit. In the customary way a small portion of a plate was exposed to a constant light at a fixed distance and for a fixed time, and another small portion to the same light for double the time, and so on. .By measuring the densities of the various deposits and constructing a curve, a large part of which was approximately a straight line, it was found possible, by the production of the straight portion to meet the axis of X, to give the relative sensitiveness of different plates by the distance of the intersection from the zero point L. (See also Exposure Meters, below, under § I, Apparatus.^ GD See below some info and facts on the Australian Freshwater Crocodiles: The Australian freshwater crocodile is a relatively small crocodilian.

^ A perture 2 … responses from Down Under…see below a letter from Mark Cox in Queensland, Australia.

^ See below some Images by Hermes Singson, shot in Bali behind the scene or when he found the time.

) Effect of Temperature on Sensitiveness. - In 1876 Abney showed that heat apparently increased, while cold diminished, the sensitiveness of a plate, but the experiments were rather of the qualitative than the quantitative order. .In 1893, from fresh experiments,' he found that the effect of a difference in temperature of some 40° C. invariably caused a diminution in sensitiveness of the sensitive salt at the lower temperature, a plate often requiring more than double the exposure at a temperature of about - 18° C. than it did when the temperature was increased to +33° C. The general deduction from the experiments was that increase in temperature involved increase in sensitiveness so long as the constituents of the plate (gelatin, &c.^ Different HUDs can adjust levels, increase brightness, modify color temperature, assign keywords, straighten horizons, or make any other adjustments.

^ The surgery took only 20 minutes and was absolutely painless and I mean painless, Cataract is a different procedure than eye correction with laser, please read below some more details.

^ I am still using Photoshop CS2, more than enough for my requirements.

) were unaltered. Sir James Dewar stated at the Royal Institution in 1896 that at a temperature of - 180° C. certain sensitive films were reduced in sensitiveness to less than a quarter of that which they possess at ordinary temperatures. It appears also, from his subsequent inquiry, that when the same films were subjected to the temperature of liquid hydrogen (- 252° C.) the loss in sensitiveness becomes asymptotic as the absolute zero is approached. Presumably, therefore, some degree of sensitiveness would still be preserved even at the absolute zero.
Effect of Small Intensities of Light on a Sensitive Salt.3 - When a plate is exposed for a certain time to a light of given intensity, it is commonly said to have received so much exposure (E). If the time be altered, and the intensity of the light also, so that the exposure (time X intensity) is the same, it was usually accepted that the energy expended in doing chemical work in the film was the same. .A series of experiments conducted under differing conditions has shown that such is not the case, and that the more intense the light (within certain limits) the greater is the chemical action, as shown on the development of a plate.^ These are only simple tips in case you have a need for them, my advise is experiment a bit and you find Aperture 2 has a lot more usages then you think.

Fig. 6 illustrates the results obtained in three cases. The exposure E is the same in all cases. The curves are so drawn that the scale of abscissae 1 Those applicable to the correction of star magnitudes as determined by photography have been verified and confirmed by Schwarzchild, Michalke and others.
2 Abney, Proc. Roy. Soc. 1893.
Abney, Proc. Roy. Soc. 1893, and Journ. Camera Club, 1893.
50 60 70 is the intensity of the light in powers of - 2, and the ordinates show the percentages of chemical action produced. If the chemical action remained the same when the intensity of 'light was reduced, E remaining the same, each of the curves would be shown as a straight line at the height of ioo, which is the transparency of deposit with the unit of light. As it is, they show diminishing percentages as the light intensity is diminished.
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Thus, when the intensity of the light is reduced to T of the original, and the time of exposure is prolonged 64 times, the useful energy expended on a lantern plate is only s o % of that expended when the light and time of exposure are each unity. .In the cases to which the diagram refers, the light used was a standard amyl acetate lamp, and the unit of intensity taken was this light at a distance of 2 ft.^ I used a slow shutter-speed to emphasize on movement, taken with my little Leica D-Lux 4, processed in Aperture 2 without enhancements, this was natural light at its best.

from the plate, and the unit of time was 10 seconds. The lamp being moved to 16 ft. from the plate, gave an intensity of 6 1 4 the unit, and the time of exposure had to be increased to 640 seconds, so that E was the same in both cases. Further, it was found that when the times of exposure on different parts of the plate were successively doubled, light at a fixed distance being used for one series, and altered for a second series, the slopes of the curves of transparency (i.e. the gradation) were parallel to one another. This investigation is of use when camera images are in question, as the picture is formed by different intensities of light, not very different from those of the amyl acetate lamp, the time of exposure being the same for all intensities. The deductions made from the investigation are that with a slow plate the energy expended in chemical action is smaller as the intensity is diminished, while with a quick plate the variation is much less. .As a practical deduction, we may say that to obtain proper contrast in a badly lighted picture it is advisable to use a slow plate.^ I used a slow shutter-speed to emphasize on movement, taken with my little Leica D-Lux 4, processed in Aperture 2 without enhancements, this was natural light at its best.

Effect of very Intense Light on a Sensitive Salt.

Another investigation was made as to the effect of very intense light on sensitive surfaces. .In this case a screen of step-by-step graduated opacities was made use of, and plates exposed through it to the action of lights markedly differing in intensity, one being that of the amyl acetate lamp, another that of the arc light, and a third the light emitted from the spark of a Wimshurst machine.^ The different color lights came from the Dive Center Pier shining across the exposed Mangroves at low tide.

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

The exposures were so made that one of the opacities produced on the plate from exposure to each source of light was approximately the same. The unit of intensity of light is, of course, in each case widely different. The slope of the curve due to the spark light is less steep than that due to the arc light, and the latter, again, is much less steep than that due to the amyl acetate lamp. .A further investigation was made of the effect of increasing the time of exposure when the intense light was diminished, and it was found that with all plates the useful chemical energy acting on a plate was least with the most intense light, but increased as the intensity diminished, though the time was correspondingly increased.^ With most other software you buy everything, it is all inside, if you use it or not, plus the temptation to “fix things” is always there.

^ Mac and made the switch...we are talking about Executives who have been using PC’s all their lives and now making the switch.

^ Aperture 2 also lets you work with most DNG files.1 Shoot JPEG? Using Aperture, you can import JPEG images from virtually all digital cameras.

This is the reverse of what we have recorded as taking place when a comparatively feeble light was employed. Further, it was proved that the variation was greatest in those plates which are ordinarily considered to be the most rapid. .It follows, therefore, that there is some intensity of light when the useful chemical energy is at a maximum, and that this intensity varies for each kind of plate.^ Ok some of you might love these plug-ins and there is really nothing wrong with it but for me…filters and some others in the pipeline are not much use to me.

^ Lightroom has introduced recently some updates and improved the software, however in my opinion there are quiet a few advantages in using Aperture 2.

Intermittent Exposure of a Sensitive Salt

.The same investigator has shown that, if a total exposure is made up of intermittent exposures, the chemical action on a sensitive salt is less than it is when the same exposure is not intermittent.^ You may want to convert your files; in general, AAC/MP3 files take up less storage room than AIFFs.

It was also proved that the longer the time of rest between the intermittent exposures (within limits) the less was the chemical action. We may quote one case. .Exposures were first made to a naked light, and afterwards to the same light for six times longer, as a rotating disk intervened which had 12 apertures of 5° cut in it at equal intervals apart, and 720 intermittent exposures per second were given.^ "How to shoot at 10-frames-per-second and edit at 12-frames-per-hour."

^ I used to use Photoshop but now with Aperture 2 there is seldom the need for it and at the same time I can re-catalog them into my system with the Metadata.

^ Exciting times ahead for some of you, soon you be able to stay even longer in Aperture 2.1 without switching back and forth or open Photoshop.

The plate was moved to different distances from the light, so that the intensity was altered. The apparent loss of exposure by the intervention of the disk increases as the intensity diminishes, the ratios of the chemical energy usefully employed of the naked light exposure to that of the intermitting exposures being: - For intensity r I to 815 5 „ A I „ .423 I „ 370 These results appear to be explicable by the theoretical considerations regarding molecular motion.

Ef f ect of Monochromatic Light of Varying Wave-lengths on a Sensitive Salt

It has been a subject of investigation as to whether the gradation on a plate is altered when exposures are made to lights of different colours; that is to say, whether the shades of tone in a negative of a white object illuminated by, say, a red light, would be the same as those in the negative if illuminated by a blue light. Abney 1 announced that the gradation was different; and, quite independently, Chapman Jones made a general deduction for isochromatic plates that, except with a certain developer, the gradation was steeper (that is, the curve shown graphically would be steeper) the greater the wave-lengths of the light to which the sensitive salt was subjected. For plates made with the ordinary haloid salts of silver Chapman Jones's deduction requires modification. When monochromatic light from the spectrum is employed, it is found that the gradation increases with wave-lengths of light which are less, and also with those which are greater, than the light whose wave-lengths has a maximum effect on the sensitive salt experimented with. .Thus with bromo-iodide of silver the maximum effect produced by the spectrum is close to the blue lithium line, and the gradation of the plate illuminated with that light is less steep than when the light is spectrum violet, green, yellow or red.^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

From the red to the yellow the gradation is much the steepest. .Whether these results have any practical bearing on ordinary photographic exposures is not settled, but that they must have some decided effect on the accuracy of three-colour work for the production of pictures in approximately natural colours is undoubted, and they may have a direct influence on the determination of star magnitudes by means of photography.^ This is the actually Web Gallery from the internet browser, there are so many cool effects and options for viewing, these are some of the images from the Philippines in low res.

^ In only 3 days I must have seen some 4 major productions along the way.

^ Over the past week or so, I’ve been contemplating (among other things) the direction that the world of underwater photography is taking, specifically the trends affecting the photography world in general, and what those trends mean for marine photographers, both professionals and enthusiasts.

Reproduction of Coloured Objects by means of Three Photographic Positives

Ives's Process. - .A practical plan of producing images in approximately the true colours of nature has been devised by preparing three positives of the same object, one 1 Proc.^ Gunther Deichmann - One of the very first images showing a true gallop.

^ If you remember the image "Mangroves on fire" from my previous blog, this one was taken about the same time.

^ Enjoy, both images have been taken the same day and from the same place, one at night the other one in the the morning during a tropical rainstorm.

Roy. Soc., ?
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2
/ 5 6 FIG.
.) .90 ro t ' '41 ' 'V ' '`1 g illuminated by a red, the other by a green, and the third by a blue light; the images from these three transparencies, when visually combined, will show the colours of the object.^ Plus you have all these other options at your fingertips from Web Themes, Widgets, Slides shows, Marketing tools, RSS and so much more including sleeping well at night knowing that your images are safe.

^ A few hours I returned from a commercial Photo shoot and I thought why not share these images with you…sorry cant show you yet the commercial Images but certainly these ones.

^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

This plan was scientifically and practically worked out by F. E. Ives of Philadelphia, though in France and elsewhere it had been formulated, especially by Hauron Du Cros.
.The following description may be taken as that of Ives's process: by the trichromatic theory of colour-vision every colour in nature can be accounted for by the mixture of two or three of the three-colour sensations, red, green and blue, to which the eye is supposed to respond.^ I used a slow shutter-speed to emphasize on movement, taken with my little Leica D-Lux 4, processed in Aperture 2 without enhancements, this was natural light at its best.

.Thus a mixture of a red and green sensation produces the sensation of yellow; of a green and blue, that of a blue-green; of red and blue, that of purple; and of all three, that of white.^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

For the sensations we may substitute those colours which most nearly respond to the theoretical sensations without any material loss of purity in the resulting sensation. We must take the spectrum of white light as the only perfect scale of pure colours. It has been proved that the red sensation in the eye is excited by a large part of the visible spectrum, but with varying intensities. .If, then, we can on a photographic plate produce a developed image of the spectrum which exactly corresponds in opacity and position to the amount of red stimulation excited in those regions, we shall, on illuminating a transparent positive taken from such a negative with a pure red light, have a representation of the spectrum such as would be seen by an eye which was only endowed with the sensation of red.^ This is not image manipulation, I am only restoring some old and precious photos that would have been lost or considered unusable for publications without altering the overall visual.

Similarly, if negatives could be taken to fulfil the like conditions for the green and for the blue sensations, we should obtain positives from them which, when illuminated by pure green and blue light respectively, would show the spectrum as seen by an eye which was only endowed with a green or a blue sensation. .Evidently if by some artifice we can throw the coloured images of these three positives on a screen, superposing them one over the other in their proper relative positions, the spectrum will be reproduced, for the overlapping colours, by their variation in intensity, will form the colours intermediate between those used for the illumination of the positives.^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

^ This is the actually Web Gallery from the internet browser, there are so many cool effects and options for viewing, these are some of the images from the Philippines in low res.

^ A few hours I returned from a commercial Photo shoot and I thought why not share these images with you…sorry cant show you yet the commercial Images but certainly these ones.

.For the purpose of producing the three suitable negatives of the spectrum, three light-filters, through which the image has to pass before reaching the photographic plate, have to be found.^ SHARPENING sharpens everything in your image including nose from darker images found in low light images.

With all present plates these are compromises. Roughly speaking, the screens used for taking the three negatives are an orange, a bluish-green and a blue. These transmit those parts of the spectrum which answer to the three sensations. When these are obtained an image of a coloured object can be reproduced in its true colours.
.Abney devised sensitometers for determining the colours of the screens to be placed before the lens in order to secure the threecolour negatives which should answer these requirements.^ The old saying goes … ”through the lens of …” I be live it should say “through the eyes of … ” , I have mention this many times before, it is the eyes which see the subject first and not the lens, without the eyes and of course our soul we cant create this magic image in the first place, Right .

Their production depends upon the same principles indicated as necessary for the correct rendering in monochrome of a coloured object. When the sensitometer takes the form of glasses through which light is transmitted to the plate, the luminosities of the coloured lights transmitted are determined, and also their percentage composition in terms of the red, green, and blue lights, and thence are deduced the luminosities in terms of red, green and blue. .For ascertaining what screen should be used to produce the red negative the luminosity transmitted through each glass is so adjusted that the luminosity of the red components in each is made equal by rotating a disk with correct apertures cut out close to the row of glasses.^ Now the story is out in the Asian Geographic Magazine ...read some excerpts below and a screen shot of the spreads...without Aperture (of course now I am using Aperture 2.1 ) this would have been an impossible task.

^ PS. All images have been taken with out ever leaving the car, edited in Aperture 2.1 then exported direct to PhotoShelter using the Plug-in from PhotoShelter never leaving Aperture .

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

This gives a sensitometer of equal red values. A coloured screen has to be found which, when placed in front of the lens, will cause the opacities of the deposit on the plate, corresponding to each square of glass, to be the same throughout. This is done by trial, the colour being altered till the proper result is obtained. In a similar way the " green " and " blue " screens are determined. Coloured pigments rotating on a disk can also be employed, as indicated in the paragraph on the correct rendering of colour in monochrome.
.As to the camera for the amateur, whose plates are not as a rule large, all of the three negatives should be obtained on one plate, since only in this way can they be developed and the densities increased together.^ The photo above is one (1) image only, you might think they are four(4) joined together in Photoshop, Not at all.

^ But they're all the more impressive for what they suggest — for the sights that are no longer there, a way of life that vanished, in large part, withthe wood, woven bamboo and thatch secular buildings that have long since decayed, leaving only the stone-and-brick skeleton of the imperial centre.

^ All the Kodachromes are long gone since they required a complicated development process; only Kodak and a few specialized Pro Labs in the US could do the processing at the time.

.(For commercial work the negatives often cannot be taken on the same plate, as it would make the plate too large to manipulate.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

) .The camera may be of an ordinary type, with a repeating back, bringing successively three different portions of the plate opposite the lens.^ Interested participants may bring their digital cameras or cell phone cameras to join...

It is convenient to have a slide, in front of which a holder containing the three screens can be fixed, which will then be close to the plate; such a one has been devised by E. Sanger-Shepherd. The light passes through them one by one as the plate is moved into the three positions. The three exposures are given separately, after which the plate is ready for development. The three separate exposures are, however, a source of trouble at times, particularly in the case of landscapes, for the lighting may vary and the sky may have moving clouds, in which case the pictures would show variations which should not exist. .Sanger-Shepherd has a " one-exposure " camera by which the three images are thrown side by side on the plate.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

Thus any movement in the picture affects all three negatives alike. Abney has also introduced a " one-exposure " camera which takes in a larger angle than that of Sanger-Shepherd. The next point is the exposures which should be given through each screen. This can be done by placing in front of the plate and extending its whole length a scale of gradation through which the light coming from a sun-illuminated white card passes, as well as through the screens. .In the case of the three-exposure camera the times of exposure are varied till the densities of the image of the gradation appear the same in each of the three images.^ If you remember the image "Mangroves on fire" from my previous blog, this one was taken about the same time.

^ Take some great images with the same Camera plus Video now, very easy, but don’t forget about you and your buddy’s safety.

^ I do rely on the RAW Image conversions and adjust the exposure a bit at times, very minor tweaks...

.In the case of the one-exposure camera, the light reaching the plate through the screens is altered by cutting off with a shutter more or less of the lens used.^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

.As the plates employed for the purpose of the three-colour negatives must be sensitive to every colour, the ordinary dark-room light should be most cautiously used.^ The skin is light brown in colour, with dark bands on the body and tail and sometimes on the snout.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

^ I get always asked why should we sharpen images anyway or most of the time and if so which one do we use.

.If used at all, it should be very feeble and development must be carried out in a dish with a cover to it.^ This is very useful for editing or cleaning up all your metadata.

^ But never leaving Aperture is for me a real plus and very handy if you are on the road with limited time, after all we should spend more time shooting.

^ If that single drive fails you lost all your precious images and using a recovery service can get very expensive and there is never a guarantee or full recovery.

The plate is manipulated in the usual way.
Joly's Process. - .Professor J. Joly, of Dublin, in 1897 introduced a colour process by which an image in approximately natural colours could be thrown upon a screen by an optical lantern, only one transparency being employed, instead of three, as in the Ives process.^ The photo above is one (1) image only, you might think they are four(4) joined together in Photoshop, Not at all.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

A " taking " screen was ruled with alternating orange, blue-green and blue lines ob - to o ?- in. apart, touching one another and following one another in the above order. .When such a screen was placed in front of a sensitive plate in the camera, and exposure made to the image of a coloured object, there were practically three negatives on the same plate, each being confined to the area occupied by lines of the same colour.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ S creenshot of the NEW PhotoShelter plug-in for Aperture 2.1 I have marked the area with a red oval where you can check if there is a problem with your images.

^ I had a lot of fun too, being with a cool group of students using only simple Cameras but creating some nice images.

The shades of colour and the depth of the colours used in ruling depended on the brand of plate. .When a perfect triune negative was obtained, a transparency was made from it, and in contact with this was placed a screen ruled with lines the same distance apart, but of the colours corresponding to the three colour sensations, namely red, green and blue.^ Check out the screen shots below, I have marked them with a red circle or square, the blue circle on the red Ferrari are the blown out highlight which can be recovered.

.The red lines were made to fall on the image taken through the orange lines, the green on that of the blue-green, and the blue or violet on that of the blue.^ Leichhardt's Grasshopper is bright red, blue and orange.

^ The other day I went through some of my underwater images when I came across this shot I had taken some time ago in the Philippines.

.On the screen there are practically three differently coloured images shown by one transparency.^ If you click on the Yellow one that is for the Archive selection all the new images are allready there...

^ The image below I took a few years ago in Bali, this time will be a bit different and really up my ally, but dont worry the colors will be there.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

The eye blends the different colours together and a picture is seen in approximately' the correct colours of the original.
[APPARATUS

Autochrome

A very remarkable process, founded on J. Joly's process, was introduced in 1907 by A. Lumiere et ses Fils of Lyons. .Starch grains of very minute size, some of which were dyed with a red stain, a second portion with a green, and a third portion with a blue, are mixed together in such proportions that a fine layer of them appears grey when viewed by transmitted light.^ New Aerials of Palau Micronesia, some very cool low light photography after sunset from the helicopter & New generic images of Palau...

.Under a magnifying glass the grains are coloured, but owing to the want of focus in the eye the colours blend one with the other.^ It is not a cancer and does not spread from one eye to the other.

Such a layer is embedded on the surface of a glass plate in a waterproof vehicle, and a film of sensitive emulsion held in situ in some material, the composition of which has not been published, covers this layer. .When such a plate is placed in the camera, with the back of the plate next the lens, the light passes through the coloured granules, and again we have three negatives on one plate, but instead of each negative being represented by lines as in the Joly process they are represented by dots of silver deposit.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

^ They have reached the western part of the Northern Territory, and without intervention, are expected to reach the east Kimberley region of Western Australia in one to three years time.

Owing to the way in which the threecoloured film is prepared, it is evident that a positive taken from such a negative could not be backed with granules of the right colour, as the granules are placed at random in the layer. Lumiere, to overcome this difficulty, converted the negative into a positive in a very ingenious way. The plate was developed with pyrogallic and ammonia in the usual way, but instead of fixing it it was plunged into a solution of potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid. .This dissolved all the silver that had been' deposited during development and left a film of unaltered silver salt.^ All of that with my trusted X700 Minoltas, my work horses during the Film days.

.On looking through the plate the colours of the coloured layer coming through the different dots where the silver was at first deposited appeared in view, and the image was the image in colour of the object photographed.^ He recently published his own book entitled Journey Through Colour and Time — a 30-year collection of photographs on Austrialia, Europe, Asia, and Micronesia.

^ Mumbai India...the view from the car window continues...how to create cool looking Black & White images with Aperture 2.1 .

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

The plate after being washed was taken into the light and redeveloped with an alkaline developer, which converted the sensitive salt of silver to the metallic state. .The image now consisted of black particles of silver and the coloured image.^ PhotoShelter update…restored historical and rare images from Australia are now on my PhotoShelter Archive…Black and White with the help of the Monochrome mixer in Aperture 2.

The plate was next fixed in hyposulphite of soda to remove any unreduced silver salt that might be left, and the picture after washing was complete. .The coloured image so obtained is a very close representation of the true colours, but as the " taking " screen is the same as the " viewing " screen some little variation must result.^ During our recent trip to Bali he found a little spare time to create some images for himself and these I like to share with you today.

^ After seeing my previous article on “View from my Car Window” he send me this very cool image from Hanoi, Vietnam.

^ It seems that underwater photographers take very little time to actual learn the process of properly registering your copyrights (actually most photographers are all in the same boat).

Positives in Three Colours

Ives was the first to show that a transparency displaying approximately all the colours in nature could be produced on the same principles that underlie the threecolour printing. This he effected by printing each of the three negatives, produced for his triple projection process as already described, on gelatine films sensitized by bichromate of potash. .Each of the three transparent films was dyed with a colour complementary to the colour of the light which he transmitted through the positives when used for projection.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ The assignment took some three month to complete and I shot over 300 Rolls of Kodachrome Film, using Kodachrome 25 Pro to Kodachrome 200 Pro.

.Thus the " red " positive he dyed with a blue-green dye, the " green " positive with a purple dye, and the " blue " positive with a yellow dye.^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

These three films, when superposed, gave the colours of the original object. .Sanger-Shepherd has made the process a commercial success (see Process) and produces lantern slides of great beauty, in which all colours are correctly rendered.^ We made the flash slide show simple and small, keeping the fast loading time of the site plus having all the SEO benefits too.

^ I am sure all Aperture 2 users waiting with great anticipation for the next upgrade… I hope we get to see it soon.

.Instead of using a dye for the " red " transparency, he converts the silver image of a positive image into an iron salt resembling Prussian blue in colour.^ Gunther Deichmann - converted the original image into B&W using the Monchrome Mixer in Aperture 2 (See if you can spot the Sunglasses in mid air.

^ I converted some slides into a Black & White image in the darkroom...

.(W. DE W. A.) II.-Photographic Apparatus Photographic apparatus consists essentially of the camera with lens and stand, lens shutters, exposure meters, prepared plates for the production of negatives or transparencies, sensitive papers and apparatus for producing positive prints, direct or by enlargement.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ What else can I say…but thank you so much Honey, you are very talented indeed producing such a small Camera with all the details, even the lens has glass…very cool and thanks again.

.Besides these there are many subsidiary accessories.^ The problem is the livelihood for the Tagbanuas if the practice and collecting these Bird Nests stopped since there is very little else besides fishing for these amazing agile people.

^ This is the actually Web Gallery from the internet browser, there are so many cool effects and options for viewing, these are some of the images from the Philippines in low res.

.Since the introduction of highly sensitive dry plates and their extended use in hand cameras, the art and practice of photography have been revolutionized.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ I have set all my sharpening parameters in Aperture 2 and since I know my Cameras I perform all the Edge or Sharpening in the Computer using my standard settings.

^ The program of the day included lectures on Photography, Digital workflow and a basic Photo Competition using what ever Camera was available; Cell phones, Compact Cameras to SLR’s.

.Numerous special forms of apparatus have been created suitable for the requirements of the new photography, and their manufacture and sale have become important industries.^ New commercial photography web site and very important NEWS about PhotoShelter and stock images .

^ Photography: Just one more...a friend, a new Aperture and Mac User...creating some cool images...fell in Love with Aperture 2 and he decided to make the switch.

.The value of the exports of photographic materials from the United Kingdom in 1906 was £22,716. The most important improvement has been in the construction of anastigmatic lenses, which, having great covering power, flatness of field, and freedom from astigmatism, can be worked with very much larger apertures than was possible with the earlier forms of rectilinear or aplanatic lenses.^ W hat is the most important lens for a photographer?

^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ There are people out there who really do care about other humans who are less fortunate "The forgotten ones" , a great story from this remote part of the world and very much related to Mac and Aperture...

.The increased rapidity of working thus gained has rendered it easy to photograph objects in very rapid motion with great perfection.^ Take some great images with the same Camera plus Video now, very easy, but don’t forget about you and your buddy’s safety.

^ L ets wait and see once it is out there, but the movie option is very cool and I guess a nice if not perfect addition for our Underwater Photographers.

.This has encouraged the construction of the very light and compact hand cameras now so universally in use, while, again, their use has been greatly simplified by improvements in the manufacture of sensitive plates and films and the introduction of light, flexible, sensitive films which can be changed freely in daylight.^ Today’s Pro Cameras are very good, but you have to learn how to use them and read the manual, once you understand the basics concentrate on your subjects.

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ You all know I am very much of a color person and never shoot much in Black & White, maybe changing film before became a bit of a hassle or carrying the extra camera around...

The introduction in 1907 of Messrs Lumiere's " Autochrome " process of colour photography has also been a great advance, tending to popularize photographic work by the facility it offers for reproducing objects in the colours of nature.
The Camera. Historical. - The camera obscura (q.v.) was first applied to photographic use by .Thomas Wedgwood between 1792 and 1802. No description of his camera is available, but it was probably one of the sketching cameras then in use.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ NRW (RAW) files are compatible for use in-camera, with ViewNX (Windows version only available early October 2008) or with WIC-based applications.

^ The program of the day included lectures on Photography, Digital workflow and a basic Photo Competition using what ever Camera was available; Cell phones, Compact Cameras to SLR’s.

.In 1812 W. H. Wollaston found that by using a meniscus lens with a concave surface towards the object and the convex towards the screen, a diaphragm being placed in front, the projected image of the camera obscura was greatly improved in sharpness over a larger field.^ Back home I just transfer the project and images over to my MacPro and back it up again to my larger external drives.

^ Of course you can also learn with Digital cameras and the ability to view the image on the LCD screen is certainly a plus for the learning curve as long you refrain from using Photoshop and start all this manipulation removing wires and so on.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

The first photographic lenses made by V. and Ch. L. Chevalier in Paris (1830-1840) were on this principle. .The photographic camera in its simplest form is a rectangular box, one end of which is fitted to carry a lens and the opposite one with a recess for holding the focusing screen and plate holders, these ends being connected by a rigid or expanding base-board and body, constructed to keep out all light from the sensitive plate except that passing through the lens.^ You might forget to do this, it happens to me, being so excited about all these new features that I was puzzled what went wrong… nothing wrong at all… My mistake!

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

^ All these new plug-ins coming out?

.In 1816 Joseph Nicephore Niepce, of Chalon-sur-Saone, for his photographic experiments made a little camera, or artificial eye, with a box six inches square fitted with an elongated tube carrying a lenticular glass.^ Of course these can vary from one Camera Model to another, you have to experiment a little to find out which settings works for you best.

^ Experiment with the Camera and not with the Computer remember you are a Photographer and not a Graphic Artist, unless you like to become both, then Photoshop is great.

.There are now in the Chalon Museum cameras of his with an iris diaphragm for admitting more or less light to the lens; some with an accordion bellows, others with a double expanding rigid body for adjusting the focus.^ Digital Cameras need...some more than others.

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ The Nikon D700 has already a build in image authentication and copyright information in the menu, and I am sure some others have it too by now.

The iris diaphragm was adopted later by Chevalier for his photographic lenses. .In 1835 W. H. Fox Talbot constructed simple box cameras for taking views of his house on sensitive paper, and claimed them as the first photographs of a building (Phil.^ The publishing house needed first some low res files for viewing, now here I was with a real mix bag of images not only from me but from other Photographers as well, needed in JPG for selection purpose first.

Mag.
18 39, 1 4, p. 206). Fr. von .Kobell and C. A. Steinheil, early in 1839, made a camera with an opera glass lens for taking landscapes on paper.^ We are only to eager roaming the camera shops to purchase a new lens for our camera and without any hesitation pull out the credit card and smile at the newly purchased piece of glass, wow now I can take even better images .

^ What else can I say…but thank you so much Honey, you are very talented indeed producing such a small Camera with all the details, even the lens has glass…very cool and thanks again.

.Later in 1839 J. W. Draptr successfully used a camera for his daguerreotype experiments made of a spectacle lens, 14 in.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ I used a Canon 1DMarkIII camera + 28-300L lens.

focus, fitted into a cigar box. .He also used a camera fitted with a concave mirror instead of a lens.^ First Price went to Yves using a KODAK EASYSHARE C813 ZOOM DIGITAL CAMERA Yves took this shot pointing his Camera into a mirror.

^ I used a Canon 1DMarkIII camera + 28-300L lens.

Similar cameras were constructed by A. T. Wolcott (1840) and R. Beard (1841) for reversing the image in daguerreotype portraits. They have also been recommended by V. Zenger (1875) and D. Mach (1890) for scientific work.
.L. J. M. Daguerre's camera, as made by Chevalier in 1839 for daguerreotype, was of Niepce's rigid double body type, fitted with an achromatic meniscus lens with diaphragm in front on Wollaston's principle, the back part with the plate moving away from the lens for focusing, and fixed in its place with a thumbscrew.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ Body scales are relatively large, with wide, closely-knit armored plates on the back.

This expanding arrangement enabled lenses of different focal lengths to be used. With modifications cameras of this type were in use for many years afterwards for portrait and studio purposes. For work in the field they were found inconvenient, and many more portable forms were brought out, among them G. Knight's and T. Ottewill's single and double folding cameras (1853), made collapsible with hinges, so as to fold on to the base-board. .Cameras with light bodies made of waterproof cloth, &c., also came into use, but these were superseded by cameras with collapsible bellows-body of leather, which, invented by Niepce, were used in France, in 1839, by Baron A. P. de Seguier and others for daguerreotype.^ First Price went to Yves using a KODAK EASYSHARE C813 ZOOM DIGITAL CAMERA Yves took this shot pointing his Camera into a mirror.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

The first record of them in England is, apparently, J. Atkinson's portable stereoscopic camera of parallel-side bellows form (Ph. Journ. 1857, 3, p. 261), which was soon followed by C. T. H. Kinnear's lighter conical form, made by Bell of Edinburgh (Ph. Journ. 1858, 4, p. 166). .They have since been made in various patterns, conical, oblong and square, by P. Meagher, G. Hare and others, and are still, in modified forms, in general use as studio, field or hand cameras.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

When wet collodion plates were used many cameras were fitted with arrangements for developing in the field.
Information on these and other early cameras will be found in the photographic journals, in C. Fabre's Traite encyclopedique de photographie, vol. i., and in J. M. Eder's Ausfiihrliches Handbuch der Photographic, 2nd ed., vol. i., pt. ii.
.The distinctive feature of present day photography is the world-wide use of the hand camera.^ The creatures evolved quickly and were widely distributed, making them useful tools to compare the ages of rock strata in different parts of the world.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ The program of the day included lectures on Integration on the Mac, Photography, Digital workflow using Aperture2 and a basic Photo Competition using what ever Camera was available; Cell phones, Compact Digital Cameras to SLR’s.

.Its convenience, the ease with which it can be carried and worked, and the remarkably low prices at which good, useful cameras of the kind can be supplied, concurrently with improvements in rapid sensitive plates and lenses, have conduced to this result.^ First Price went to Yves using a KODAK EASYSHARE C813 ZOOM DIGITAL CAMERA Yves took this shot pointing his Camera into a mirror.

^ Today’s Pro Cameras are very good, but you have to learn how to use them and read the manual, once you understand the basics concentrate on your subjects.

^ For those who use the iPhone Camera, AutoStitch is cool, thanks to my good friend Choon from Singapore who pointed this application out to me.

It has also had a valuable educational influence in quickening artistic perception and scientific inquiry, besides its use in depicting scenes and passing events for historical record. .Small portable cameras had been made by B. G. Edwards (1855), T. Scaife (Pistolgraph, 1858), A. Bertsch (1860), T. Ottewill (1861), and others, but it was not until rapid gelatin dry plates were available in 1881 that T. Bolas brought out his " detective " camera (Ph.^ Photography: Never leave home with out a Camera…small or big, you never know.

^ Remember…never leave home with out a Camera…small or big, you never know!

Journ.
1881, p. 59). .It consisted of a double camera (one as finder, the other for taking the picture) enclosed in another box, suitably covered, which also contained the double-plate carriers and had apertures in front of the viewing and taking lenses.^ Of course these can vary from one Camera Model to another, you have to experiment a little to find out which settings works for you best.

^ Aperture 2 walked into the Door...and here I am running one lap after the other...almost at the finishing line and the winner is Aperture.

^ Aperture 2 can take care of these too…in other words a complete system.

In another form the finder was omitted. A month later A. Loisseau and J. B. Germeuil-Bonnaud patented an opera glass camera. Various forms of portable magazine cameras followed, among them A. Pumphrey's " Repeating Camera " (1881), W. Rouch's " Eureka" (1887), R. Krugener's camera (book form, 1888), and others in collapsible or box forms disguised as books, watches, &c., but they did not come into general use before 1888, when the Eastman Company of Rochester, U.S.A., brought out their very portable roll-film cameras, now known under the trade name of " Kodak." The manufacture of these and other light hand cameras has since become a very important and flourishing industry in Great Britain, Germany, France and the United States. .It is noteworthy that the most modern form of hand camera, the reflex, goes back to an early type of portable camera obscura, figured by Johann Zahn in 1686, in which a mirror was used for reflecting the image on to a horizontal focusing screen, at the same time reversing it.^ I get always asked why should we sharpen images anyway or most of the time and if so which one do we use.

^ I used to use Photoshop but now with Aperture 2 there is seldom the need for it and at the same time I can re-catalog them into my system with the Metadata.

^ Using Aperture, you can import JPEG images from virtually all digital cameras.

The first photographic camera on this principle was T. Sutton's (1860), which has served as a basis for many subsequent developments. A. D. Loman's (1889) and R. Krugener's (1891) were early examples of the hand camera type, but great improvements have since been made.
.Modern cameras differ so much in details of improved construction that only a few of the more important requirements can be noticed.^ End of Polaroid film and how much longer is film like Fuji and Kodak going to be around…I m sure for a few more years, I hope so.

^ Different yes, but only in so much that I am looking at from a different point of view.

^ Digital cameras have improved in leaps and bounds over the last few years but does film still produce the best results?

.A camera should be well and strongly made of seasoned wood or of metal, perfectly rigid when set up, to avoid any shifting of the axis of the lens in respect to the sensitive plate.^ Setting up the hardware for your system can be as simple as connecting your camera or card reader to your computer.

.The front and back of the camera should normally be vertical and parallel, and the axis of the lens perpendicular to the centre of the plate, but arrangements are usually made by vertical and lateral adjustments on the camera front for raising the lens to take in less foreground or vice versa, or for moving it right or left, the latter becoming a vertical movement when the camera has to be turned on its side.^ You are right we have to move forward otherwise we will be left behind...

^ About 16 hours later…sticky rice and San Miguel Beer, a New years tradition in the Philippines…left over at the front desk.

^ Adjustment Panel on the left: the setting is on 1.1 previous version, on the right it is changed to the new 2.0 setting, see the red circles.

.In the Adams " Idento " camera the lens and finder can be rotated together on the rising front according as the camera is used horizontally or vertically, the finder showing in either case the identical view projected on the plate.^ I used a Canon 1DMarkIII camera + 28-300L lens.

The best modern field cameras are fitted with a swing-back or swing-front and sometimes with both. A swing-back is necessary for bringing back the plate to the vertical position, so as to prevent convergence of vertical lines, when the camera has to be tilted. A rising swing-front, in which the lens is tilted, answers the same purpose, provided the camera is kept level. .If further tilting is necessary, when taking high buildings &c., the swing-back and front may both be required, but must be kept vertical and parallel and the effect is that of an abnormal rising front.^ DID YOU KNOW...BOLLYWOOD is everywhere in Mumbai India...from the high rise buildings to the slums it is all over the place.

Many modern cameras are fitted with a double rising front. The vertical and side swings are also useful for equalizing the definition of objects at different distances from the camera, but they alter the perspective. These swing-movements should preferably be round the central horizontal or vertical axis of the back or front, but are frequently effected by simple inclination of the back or lens front on a hinge. When the rising front is used a lens of extended covering power is desirable, and it may be necessary to stop it down to obtain good definition over the extended area of the picture. A slight inclination of the lens may also be useful in readjusting the focus. .The camera and plate carriers must be perfectly light-tight and all inner bright surfaces made dead black to prevent reflections from bright spots being thrown on the plate.^ You all know I am very much of a color person and never shoot much in Black & White, maybe changing film before became a bit of a hassle or carrying the extra camera around...

^ Y ou remember my recent article about the new Leica D-Lux 4 being a perfect little companion in the field or for the weekend snapshots of the Family, a camera you can carry around with you all the time.

The black varnish used, preferably of shellac and lampblack in spirit, must have no deleterious effect on the plates. Although the weight and bulk are increased it is convenient to have the camera square and fitted with a reversible back, so that the greatest length of the plate may be horizontal or vertical, as desired. Many cameras are fitted with revolving backs to be used in either position. .In some French cameras the back part of the camera with the bellows is reversible, to be used upright or horizontal.^ It was also the first time that he really got into Aperture 2 using my MacBook Pro for some pre editing and by the time we got back home a lot of our work had been done.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ I had a lot of fun too, being with a cool group of students using only simple Cameras but creating some nice images.

Focusing

.The earlier cameras were focused by drawing out the back and clamping it with a thumb-screw working in a slot in the base-board.^ Of course these can vary from one Camera Model to another, you have to experiment a little to find out which settings works for you best.

.When bellows cameras were introduced they were focused by an endless screw, and these are still used for large copying cameras.^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ A personal view on all these NEW PLUG-INS for APERTURE 2.1...do we really need them all & how useful are they...plus a little workflow.

^ That is, unless they are still using Photoshop as their main image management tool.

.Most modern cameras are fitted with rack and pinion movements working either in front or at the back of the camera or both.^ Aperture 2 also lets you work with most DNG files.1 Shoot JPEG? Using Aperture, you can import JPEG images from virtually all digital cameras.

Many hand cameras, requiring to be brought to focus at once, are fitted with studs (infinity catches) which fix the front in focus for distant objects, nearer distances being noted on an engraved scale attached to the base-board. Such scales should be verified by measurement. In hand cameras with fixed infinity focus, the necessary adjustments for distance of near objects are made on the lens mount. .The focusing screen may be ruled with parallel cross lines for purposes of measurement, and as a check on the verticality of the camera when photographing buildings or other objects with vertical lines.^ We have arrived at this Digital age and I am no exception, all of this just crossed my mind the other day when i run into this young photographer and having this conversation.

The distance of the lens from the focusing screen and from the sensitive plate in the dark slide must coincide exactly. This can be tested by measurement or by focusing a bright, well-defined object on the screen and then on a groundglass plate placed in each of the slides to be examined. A level or other means of showing that the camera is level and the plate vertical should be attached to the camera, also a view meter or finder, showing the exact extent of the picture on the focusing glass. In the view meter the picture is viewed directly through a pin-hole mounted at the back of the camera as it appears in a frame with cross wires on the rising front, adjusted to the size of the plate and the focus of the lens. .Finders are practically small reflex cameras, and a reduced image is seen reflected from a mirror or prism.^ The best and most creative images came from Cell Phones and small compact Digital Cameras.

A rectangular concave glass mounted on the camera is also a convenient form, it can be combined with a mirror for vertical observation, and in Watson's new form is also arranged as a level and telemeter (B. J. A. p. 724, 1908). The image seen in the finders should correspond exactly with that on the plate. .When the rising front is used special arrangements have to be made to ensure the correspondence of the images in the finder and on the groundglass.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

This is done in the " Adams Identoscope " (1908), which is fitted to the swing front and adjusted by a lever to follow the movement of the lens.

Plate-holders or Dark-slides

The dark-slides or backs, holding sensitive plates, are made either single or double, the former usually for wet plates, the latter for dry plates. .The ordinary book-form double dark-slide has been in use since the early days of calotype paper negatives, and contains two plates separated by a blackened metal plate; three of them usually form a set, the shutters being numbered 1 to 6, the odd numbers on the opening side.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ Photo Tips, Tricks & Techniques…messing around with the Nikon D700 using a high ISO setting, results from a rainy day.

^ I have set all my sharpening parameters in Aperture 2 and since I know my Cameras I perform all the Edge or Sharpening in the Computer using my standard settings.

Inner frames can be used for smaller plates if desired. The slides should fit easily into the camera and the shutters run smoothly out and in. .They must be perfectly light-tight, the corner joints, the hinges in the shutters, and the openings in the sides and top of the bookform slides are all weak points requiring occasional careful examination or protection by metal plates.^ The shutter speed varied between a 1/50th and 1/160 of a second my Aperture was wide open at f/2.8, all straight shots and hand held.

The shutters of dark-slides are either jointed or solid and removable; the former is perhaps the more convenient, but both forms may become liable to let in light. .Various forms of solid slides, single and double, are now made in wood or metal, or of wood for the frame and metal for the shutters; they are lighter, more compact and less liable to admit light to the plates.^ Now you have a Book for printing (check on the help menu for specs and more details) and a slick slide presentation, having a similar look then your Book.

^ Archives are now viewable as slide show and at full Screen...plus more.

.In some cases one slide can suffice for the exposure of several plates or stiff films, enclosed in separate envelopes, as in the " Wishart-Mackenzie " slide, the " Victrix " and other similar ones, or contained in a single packet, as in the " Premo Filmpack," and similar arrangements which enable twelve thin celluloid films to be placed in the camera, exposed one after the other, and removed again safely in daylight, the pack being replaced, if necessary, by another.^ All the other ones which where clinging on this bush I left where I found them, but of course took some Photos first, I might never see them again.

^ Enjoy, both images have been taken the same day and from the same place, one at night the other one in the the morning during a tropical rainstorm.

^ There is also a direct link to all the other Gallery Collections containing some 5000 plus high res.

The packets of films are made of light cardboard, and effect a great saving of bulk and weight (fig. 1). Rollholders are also a convenient way of carrying sensitive celluloid films in lengths of six or twelve exposures, rolled on spools, which can be changed in daylight. Changing boxes for holding a reserve of plates or celluloid films in sheaths, are used with some magazine and other cameras. .They are arranged to fit on the camera in place of the dark-slide and the plates are changed automatically so that exposed plates are placed in order successively at the back, a fresh plate going forward for exposure and the number of the exposure being recorded at the same time.^ We had a record attendance and I like to thank all participants for taken the time being with me at the Power Mac Center for this fun event.

^ Most of these images had been scanned from slides a long time ago for preservation and archiving purpose, now we just go back in Time and fix what needs fixing nothing else.

Missing image
Photography-12.jpg
.Studio cameras, for portraiture, are usually of the square bellows type, of solid construction, to take large and heavy lenses; adjustable from front and back with rack and pinion movements, to enable long or short focus lenses to be used, with extra extension for copying or enlarging.^ By the way this was long before my Nikon days using the X700 Minolta bodies and lenses.

.They are generally fitted with repeating backs, allowing two or more exposures to be made on one plate.^ From black & white images…back to color… more images from India after the Aperture 2 event… roaming the streets in Mumbai and venturing towards Goa one afternoon.

^ But now I like to share with you two more interesting Photographs that I took one evening a few days ago…to and from a meeting.

The backs are square or reversible, so that the plates can be used upright or lengthways, and are fitted with double swing movements at the back. .When single dark slides are used they are best fitted with a flexible shutter to avoid jerking and movement of the camera.^ I used a slow shutter-speed to emphasize on movement, taken with my little Leica D-Lux 4, processed in Aperture 2 without enhancements, this was natural light at its best.

For portraiture they are mounted on solid pillar stands, being raised or lowered with an endless screw or rack-work, and the table-top usually has vertical and horizontal angular movements. .Large cameras with long extension for copying purposes are made in many forms with special arrangements for the various photo-mechanical processes, and are mounted on substantial table-stands with screw adjustments for obtaining the various motions above noted, and also a rectilinear traversing motion right or left.^ Adjustment Panel on the left: the setting is on 1.1 previous version, on the right it is changed to the new 2.0 setting, see the red circles.

^ Education is the magic word again, to many long debates on Cameras, how many pixels, how many FX buttons the list goes on and on.

All these stands should be absolutely rigid and free from tremor. Process cameras are, however, sometimes mounted, FIG. i. - Premo Film-pack.
together with the copying board, on swinging stands, to avoid the effects of vibration.
Portable and field cameras include cameras of the Hare and Meagher types for outdoor work and general purposes on plates 15 in. X 12 in. to 81 in. X 62 in., and in lighter forms from 62 in. X 44 in. to 44 in. X 34 in. .For general purposes they are usually made with square bellows and folding tail-board, rather more substantially than those with conical bellows intended for outdoor work.^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

.There are many patterns, the principal modern improvements in field cameras being swinging fronts, tripod head and turntable in the base-board, double and sometimes triple extension movements from the back and front for long or short focus lenses, and the use of aluminium for some of the metal-work.^ Of course there is a link to my GD PhotoWorkshop site for more information, this is where we feature some of the participants work after the event.

^ However some of the adjustment tools in Aperture 2.1 cant be used since they have been designed to work only with the RAW image format , but this has not stopped me for doing most of my restorations in Aperture 2 now, archiving and bringing them back to life again.

^ By the way this was long before my Nikon days using the X700 Minolta bodies and lenses.

.They are fitted with a focusing screen and are intended for use on a tripod stand, though some of the smaller sizes of the modern light hand or stand cameras can be used as hand cameras with finders.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

The plates are carried in the usual dark-slides, but the smaller sizes, from half-plate downwards, can be fitted with roll-holders for flexible films, or with film packs or other daylight changing arrangements.
Folding and Hand Cameras. - Folding cameras form a class of modern portable cameras which have many conveniences for hand or stand work from quarter-plate to 7 in. X 5 in. .They may have all the fittings of a stand camera and be made to take glass plates, flat or roll films, but have the advantage of forming when closed a convenient package encolsing camera, lens and shutter, all in position for immediate use when opened out (fig.^ For those who use the iPhone Camera, AutoStitch is cool, thanks to my good friend Choon from Singapore who pointed this application out to me.

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ PS. All images have been taken with out ever leaving the car, edited in Aperture 2.1 then exported direct to PhotoShelter using the Plug-in from PhotoShelter never leaving Aperture .

2). Most of them are fitted with focusing glass and finders, and may focus by scale in the same way as hand cameras. With an apparatus of this kind on a light stand any class of ordinary indoor or outdoor work can be undertaken within the size of the plate, and the extension of the bellows, which should be quite double the focus of the lens.
.The multiplicity of forms and arrangements of hand cameras makes it difficult to classify them into distinct types; but they may be mainly divided into box and folding cameras, and further into (a) cameras with enclosed changing magazines for plates or flat films; (b) with enclosed roll film on spools; (c) with separate changing magazines, changing boxes or roll-holders; (d) with single, double or multiple plate carriers or film-packs.^ W ith hundreds of Camera Models to choose from these days it can be difficult to make a decision which one to buy.

^ Have a fantastic day, Cheers Gunther Chandu’s reply… Hi GD I may be now editor but I am photographer 1st - I am out with the camera to shoot, I do not crop nor make any major changes in the "raw" image expect for transmission or printing.

^ You all know I am very much of a color person and never shoot much in Black & White, maybe changing film before became a bit of a hassle or carrying the extra camera around...

Most cameras that will take glass plates in the ordinary plate-holders will take cut films in suitable sheaths or can be fitted with envelope slides, film-packs or roll-holders. The normal size for hand cameras is the quarterplate (44 in. X 34 in.), or the continental size 9 X 12 cm.; 5 in. -}- 4 in. is also a popular size, and cameras for the post-card size, 51 in. X 31 in. or 15 X to cm. have been largely adopted. Smaller sizes are also made for lantern plates and for the lighter pocket cameras, some in the form of stereoscopes, field-glasses or watches, as in the " Ticka," but the pictures are small and require enlarging. .Hand cameras are constructed on the same principles as stand cameras, but, being specially intended for instantaneous work, they are simplified and adapted for rapid focusing and exposing.^ Consequently they where named the Pygmy Crocodiles but it is the same species (Crocodylus johnstoni) yet another proof that these reptiles, which developed over million of years, can adapt to changes depending on their location or climate.

^ Almost half the sizes of the other know Freshwater Crocs, after a long study it turned out they are exactly the same species but had adapted to this size due to the lack of food in this remote part of the Arnhem Land.

The focusing screen is superseded or supplemented by finders arranged to show the limits of the subject on the plate, the focus being adjusted by the infinity catches and focusing scales above noticed. Swing-backs and fronts are often dispensed with, but are desirable adjuncts, and a rising and falling front particularly so. Lenses of fairly large aperture, f/6 to f/8, and good covering power, preferably of the anastigmatic type, or a rapid aplanat, should be used, but for very rapid work anastigmats working from f/4 to f/6 will be more useful. Hand cameras can also be fitted with telephoto objectives of large aperture. .Some cheap hand cameras are fitted with single landscape lenses or aplanats working about f /11 or lower, but the want of intensity limits their use to well-illuminated subjects.^ Today’s Pro Cameras are very good, but you have to learn how to use them and read the manual, once you understand the basics concentrate on your subjects.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

.Shutters of the between-lens type are now generally used in hand cameras, and for ordinary purposes should give fairly accurate exposures from k to 5 1 0 of a second or less and also time exposures.^ I used to use Photoshop but now with Aperture 2 there is seldom the need for it and at the same time I can re-catalog them into my system with the Metadata.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ The Nikon Coolpix P6000 is from what I have read and heard a real nice point and shoot Camera, great range on their lens, but was useless for anyone using a Mac...OK enough now, problem is solved.

Some central shutters are speeded for shorter exposures to s o of a second, but for these focal plane shutters are preferable, and for the more rapid exposures to inn) of a second and less are necessary. The shutter should be efficient, regular in action, and readily released by gentle pressure, pneumatic or otherwise. .Mechanism for automatically changing plates or films in hand cameras of the box magazine type must be certain in action, simple and not readily put out of order, special care being taken to avoid rubbing or abrasion of the plates in changing or transport.^ Nikon F5 film Camera, a test between digital and film photography, check out this cool video.

^ Freshwater Crocodiles and a unique type of pygmy crocodile found only in Australia could be wiped out by the dreaded cane toad unless prompt action is taken, zoologists have warned.

In changing plates or films the number of plates exposed should be recorded automatically, and duplicate exposures prevented as far as practicable. A circular level placed near the finder is useful.
.The choice of a hand camera depends upon the circumstances in which it is to be used, and the purpose for which it is principally required.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

.Fbr general work and with the modern facilities for carrying and changing plates and films in daylight, the numerous folding hand ar stand cameras for plates, flat or roll films, with full adjustments, will be found most useful.^ However some of the adjustment tools in Aperture 2.1 cant be used since they have been designed to work only with the RAW image format , but this has not stopped me for doing most of my restorations in Aperture 2 now, archiving and bringing them back to life again.

^ You all know I am very much of a color person and never shoot much in Black & White, maybe changing film before became a bit of a hassle or carrying the extra camera around...

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

.Box or magazine cameras in which a supply of cut films or plates can be carried, changed mechanically, and exposed rapidly in succession, are convenient, but their use is limited and they are liable to get out of order.^ You all know I am very much of a color person and never shoot much in Black & White, maybe changing film before became a bit of a hassle or carrying the extra camera around...

^ Nikon F5 film Camera, a test between digital and film photography, check out this cool video.

.A third class are the reflex and other hand cameras with focal plane shutters for specially rapid instantaneous work as noticed below.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

.There are two types of light folding hand or stand cameras, specially adapted for hand camera work - those made for taking glass plates and cut films, and the folding pocket Kodak or other roll - film cameras.^ Kodak remains committed to providing the highest-performing products – both film and digital – to meet those needs."

^ As part of a tribute to KODACHROME Film, Kodak will donate the last rolls of the film to George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester, which houses the world’s largest collection of cameras and related artifacts.

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

The former are now made of very light construction with mahogany or metal bodies, wooden or aluminium baseboards, thin metal darkslides (fig. 3). .The cameras of the pocket Kodak type are of similar construction, but made to take roll films on spools, or with an attach ment for focusing glass and dark-slides for taking plates and cut films.^ As part of a tribute to KODACHROME Film, Kodak will donate the last rolls of the film to George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester, which houses the world’s largest collection of cameras and related artifacts.

Attached to a slingstrap the quarter-plate size can be: quite conveniently carried in a side-pocket. Watson's " Deft " folding camera is fitted with a focal plane shutter (fig. 4). .The " Selfix carbine " camera has a self-erecting front bringing the lens at once into position for use on opening out.^ First Price went to Yves using a KODAK EASYSHARE C813 ZOOM DIGITAL CAMERA Yves took this shot pointing his Camera into a mirror.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ Today’s Pro Cameras are very good, but you have to learn how to use them and read the manual, once you understand the basics concentrate on your subjects.

Those fitted with lenses of fairly large aperture, double extension, and rising and falling fronts are to be preferred. Of box or magazine cameras there is an immense variety. .In some the lens is fixed in focus for all objects within a certain distance, in others it is adjusted by a focusing scale on the lens or by an extending front.^ But it is a bit of a worry… personally I am not fond of all those filters and certain effects, (some manufactures even claim, "helping create the world's greatest images."

^ All of this was done within Aperture 2 dealing with some 3000 images and never leaving the program, talking about efficiency and speed.

^ With most other software you buy everything, it is all inside, if you use it or not, plus the temptation to “fix things” is always there.

.Some have a single magazine, others two or more.^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

^ Digital Cameras need...some more than others.

Some take only glass plates, others plates or cut films. All of them are, however, self-contained and ready for immediate exposure. .One of the earliest forms of single magazine cameras, still in use, as in the " Eureka " and " Yale," is the " bag," in FIG. 5. - Double-magazine Box FIG. 6. - The Verascope, Camera.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

Richard.
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Photography-13.jpg
which a supply of plates or films in sheaths, is kept in a magazine behind the camera, ready for exposure, the plates as exposed being lifted with the fingers into a bag or expanding chamber above the magazine and placed behind the rest of the plates at the back, a fresh plate taking its place in front. In some forms the magazines are removable and replaceable by others. The arrangement is simple and effective, but the bag, usually made of soft leather or cloth, is liable to wear and puncture, and may make dust. The cameras with double magazines in which unexposed plates are kept in one recess and transferred successively after exposure to a second recess are more complicated, and many FIG. 2. - Sinclair Folding Camera.
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Photography-14.jpg
FIG. 3. - Ernemann's Pocket Camera.
Missing image
Photography-15.jpg
FIG. 4. - The " Deft " Folding Focal-plane Camera.
ingenious devices have been invented for effecting the change (fig. 5). .Some forms are effective and popular on account of their compactness and readiness for immediate exposure, but there is always a risk of the mechanism failing, and care has to be taken in charging them to lay the plates truly in their places.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ Of course there is always the risk you break through, ending up to your neck in water, not a good feeling with large Saltwater crocs nearby.

^ There is always some down time in between flights or the weather goes real bad and you have to spend time in your Hotel room.

The very handy binocular cameras, or photo-jumelles, of which the " Verascope " (fig. 6) is a type, are of this class, and have additional FIG. 7. - Beck's Dai-Cornex Daylight-loading Camera. magazines. .So also are hand cameras of R. and J. Beck's " Frena " type, specially constructed for using stiff celluloid films.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

The films are notched on two sides and packed in bundles alternately with cards similarly notched. .The pack of films and cards is placed in a magazine at the back of the camera, and by the movement of a lever, after exposure, the exposed film and its following card are released, and by turning the camera down are dropped into a second receptacle.^ Back at the Laboratory; the Eggs where placed in an Incubator and after hatching the small crocs where tagged and released back into the wild.

^ He was quickly under way again and was soon back in a battle for second place after McDonagh and Simon Moss also both suffered off course excursions.

.A " folding Frena " is now made as a folding camera with attached magazine for films, without which it can be used separately for plates.^ Now the story is out in the Asian Geographic Magazine ...read some excerpts below and a screen shot of the spreads...without Aperture (of course now I am using Aperture 2.1 ) this would have been an impossible task.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ Mac and made the switch...we are talking about Executives who have been using PC’s all their lives and now making the switch.

.R. and J. Beck's new " Dai-Cornex " is a great improvement in this form of camera, being a daylightloading box magazine camera for plates, the plates being packed in a bundle of ridged sheaths, so that they are FIG. 8. - Watson's " Vril " Camera.^ Are YOU the next GREAT PHOTOGRAPHER? Magazine teams up with Apple’s new Aperture software .

^ I just picked up this Press release; amazing and more amazing new cameras have being released for the Photokina in Germany 2008.

quite protected from light and can be put into or taken out of the camera in full daylight. In other respects it resembles other magazine cameras (fig. 7). Another useful magazine camera is the " Zambex," carrying either plates or films, held in skeleton frames in envelopes which can be loaded or unloaded in daylight, and are kept ready for use in the back of the camera and exposed consecutively. For work in which speed is of primary importance hand cameras fitted with very rapid lenses and focal plane shutters are necessary, and several forms of portable collapsible cameras of this kind are now available, such as the Goerz-Anschiitz, Zeiss's " Palmos," Watson's " Vril " (fig. .8), Adams " Idento," &c., and are lighter and more portable than the reflex cameras.^ Aperture 2 supports the RAW formats from more than 100 digital cameras and camera backs.

^ Digital Cameras need...some more than others.

Hand cameras are generally fitted with screw-bushes for mounting on a tripod stand when time exposures are wanted. The light folding e wooden or aluminium stands noted below are specially suitable.

Twin-lens and Reflex Cameras

For photographing animals, objects in motion, public functions, &c., it is important to have the means of watching the movement till the critical moment of exposure arrives. For this it is convenient to have a camera fitted with twin lenses working in two separate compartments (fig. .9) or more simply with a mirror throwing a full-sized unreversed image of the object from the lens on to the focusing screen (fig.^ Code your embedded slideshow to always point back to your customized pages, choose the size and color, or disable full-screen mode.

^ Set up in the Preference your Mouse for double click, click on any image and you in full screen mode.

^ Extreme blow up from the original image, more than 200% D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens ISO 1600 .

to). .With the former, which has the advantage that the image is seen before, during, and after exposure, the lenses must be of exactly equal focus and focused together by the same motion of the rack-work, the object being viewed on the focusing screen of the upper compartment, and the plate kept ready in the lower to be exposed when desired.^ PhotoShelter Collection … I am waiting on the editors now before you can view the latest images in the PSC too.

^ Nothing has changed it is almost the same way we did before, we took our images and then went into the darkroom, of course we had some limitations then.

^ During a small Exhibition recently at the Hyatt Hotel showcasing images from India, people kept asking…who is the Painter?

.Binocular hand cameras are also made on this principle, one compartment serving for focusing, the other holding lens and plates.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

Stereoscopic cameras are another form of twin-lens cameras, and are usually made for also taking single panoramic pictures.
.In reflex cameras only one lens is necessary, though two are convenient, and can be used somewhat as in fig.^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

.9. They generally consist of a cubical box camera containing a movable mirror facing the lens at an angle of 45° and throwing up the image projected from it on to a horizontal focusing screen, on which it is viewed through a flexible hood which folds down in the upper part of the camera when not in use (fig.^ Client-selectable download sizes allow your buyers to choose the size of the image they're downloading (up to the size you indicate).

^ First Price went to Yves using a KODAK EASYSHARE C813 ZOOM DIGITAL CAMERA Yves took this shot pointing his Camera into a mirror.

^ I had worked with these files before and they where also part my earlier Project, of course now they become duplicates…I wanted to over ride this for a specific reason and do some more work with them, up on deactivating the check box all my images appeared and I imported them in no time.

10). In order to get the greatest rapidity of exposure a focal-plane shutter is generally fitted, and by a single movement of the release the mirror is smoothly lifted and the plate exposed simultaneously. .They should be fitted with anastigmatic lenses working at large apertures for very rapid work.^ I am sure the Underwater Housing manufactures are very busy at work; they need to get the Housings ready for the all New Nikon D90 at the Photokina later this month.

^ But never leaving Aperture is for me a real plus and very handy if you are on the road with limited time, after all we should spend more time shooting.

.In some forms the lens is fixed, but usually there is a front bellows extension for long-focus lenses, with rising and falling front, to which swing motion may be given, a swing-back not being generally used with the focal plane shutter.^ By the way this was long before my Nikon days using the X700 Minolta bodies and lenses.

^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

^ It was also the first time that he really got into Aperture 2 using my MacBook Pro for some pre editing and by the time we got back home a lot of our work had been done.

In the " Ernex " camera E. Human has made an arrangement by which the camera back, horizontal viewing screen and reflector are made to swing simultaneously, by a rack and pinion movement. They may also have reversing or revolving backs for quickly changing the position of the plate. 5 in. X 4 in. and 34 in. X 44 in. are the usual sizes of the plates, but larger and smaller sizes are also available. .These cameras require the best workmanship and perfect mechanism for successful working and freedom from any jarring movement in releasing the shutter or mirror.^ I used a slow shutter-speed to emphasize on movement, taken with my little Leica D-Lux 4, processed in Aperture 2 without enhancements, this was natural light at its best.

^ Of course these can vary from one Camera Model to another, you have to experiment a little to find out which settings works for you best.

The focusing screen must also be in accurate register with the focus of the lens on the plate. Those forms in which the image can also be viewed at the height of the eye, as in the Graflex (fig. to), are preferable. .Although reflex cameras are rather heavy and bulky as hand cameras, they have many advantages over the ordinary hand camera with finder and focusing scales for the purpose of the press photographer, the naturalist and others, in observing and recording very rapid movements, and have come into very general use for such purposes.^ I know many such cases...but I know also many others who are willing to listening and try very hard to make the switch from Photoshop to Aperture , in the end it is for their own benefit.

^ Photographers I have met during my travel while others I have only known from Emails my Aperture 2 Workshops and Blogs they like to share their love and passion for Photography with you very soon.

^ First Price went to Yves using a KODAK EASYSHARE C813 ZOOM DIGITAL CAMERA Yves took this shot pointing his Camera into a mirror.

.They permit the accurate focusing of a fullsized image on the groundglass up to the moment of exposure, especially useful when lenses of long or short focus are required and when the rising or swing front is in use.^ Client-selectable download sizes allow your buyers to choose the size of the image they're downloading (up to the size you indicate).

^ I created the image above a long time ago in Photoshop, yes you have heard correctly, and yes I know how to use Photoshop.

^ By the way this was long before my Nikon days using the X700 Minolta bodies and lenses.

.The aspect of this image on the ground-glass is also a great aid in the selection and placing of the subject and in judging the exposure required for it.^ Hence the reason that many good images have been judged and misunderstood today, oh this is a great shot but I am sure he/she done this in the computer.

.They practically have all the advantages of a stand camera and can be used as such on a stand for subjects requiring prolonged exposure.^ Today’s Pro Cameras are very good, but you have to learn how to use them and read the manual, once you understand the basics concentrate on your subjects.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ Using Aperture, you can import JPEG images from virtually all digital cameras.

.They are also coming into increasing use in studio work for portraits of children, &c.^ It was also the first time that he really got into Aperture 2 using my MacBook Pro for some pre editing and by the time we got back home a lot of our work had been done.

Their use and adjustments are discussed by G. E. Brown in the British Journal Almanac for 1909.

Panoramic Cameras

Many so-called " panoramic " cameras have been introduced from time to time, among them T. Sutton's (1861), and J. R. Johnson's " Pantascopic " (1864), but did not FIG. 1 1. - Section of " Al-Vista " Panoramic Camera.
Missing image
Photography-16.jpg
Missing image
Photography-17.jpg
come into general use till the use of curved surfaces of celluloid film enabled such cameras of convenient size and weight to be put on the market. They are on the same principle as one made by F. von Martens in 1845 for curved daguerreotype plates, and covering an angle of 150°. P. Moêssard's " Cylindrographe " of 1889 was the first of the modern type. It consists of a semi-circular FIG. 9. - Camera fitted with Twin Lenses, section to show working.
A, Hood of finder.
B, Ground glass screen. c, Mirror.
D, Viewing lens.
E, Working lens.
F, Shutter.
G, Focusing pinion.
II, Plate carrier.
I, Plate.
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Photography-18.jpg
FIG. Io. - Reflex Camera A. Lens.
B. Mirror.
C. Ground-glass.
D. Plate.
E. Supplementary mirror.
camera, the front of it formed of light-proof cloth and the back by the curved flexible carriers. The lens is fitted on a vertical axis, so that the nodal point of emergence remains motionless, and is revolved round it by means of a handle worked by hand and carrying a view meter. The illumination of the image is regulated by an adjustable vertical slit in a tube attached to the lens inside the box, and by altering the rate at which the lens is revolved. The pictures taken embrace less than 180°. The apparatus folds together and is quite portable; it is fully described in Moessard's Le Cylindrographe (Paris, 1889). .The " Al-Vista " (1901) and the "Panoram Kodak " (1900) are on the same principle, but arranged as roll-holder hand cameras, in two sizes, carrying film for several exposures, 7 in.^ As part of a tribute to KODACHROME Film, Kodak will donate the last rolls of the film to George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester, which houses the world’s largest collection of cameras and related artifacts.

X 24 in. or 4 in. X 12 in. They work instantaneously, and by means of a clock-spring the lens rotates rapidly over a half-circle when released. The angle of view is about 120° (figs. 11 and 12). The views taken with this kind of camera are sometimes disappointing, on account of the development of cylindrical perspective on a plane surface causing apparent distortion. This distortion is avoided in Carl Zeiss's " Palmos Panoram " camera for plates 64 in. .X 3± in., fitted with " Tessar " lens and focal plane shutter, and other similar cameras which can be used for stereoscopic or single pictures.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

^ I used a Canon 1DMarkIII camera + 28-300L lens.

.Other more elaborate instruments driven by clockwork have been made for making a complete tour of the horizon.^ Different HUDs can adjust levels, increase brightness, modify color temperature, assign keywords, straighten horizons, or make any other adjustments.

.Among them C. Damoizeau's " Cyclographe," which can be used with lenses of different foci and takes the pictures on a roll-film, which is unrolled as the instrument revolves on its axis, the lens also rotating on its nodal point of emergence; and thus the image always remains sharp (Bull.^ I always get ask how do I protect my images on the world wide web…it used to be a bit complicated and tiresome but with Aperture 2 it is easy and straight forward.

^ I get always asked why should we sharpen images anyway or most of the time and if so which one do we use.

^ Now here is my point and concern, when do we know these days the difference between a real image or a manipulated one?

Soc. Franc. d. Phot.,
1891, p. 183,). .Commandant A. Daubresse has improved on Moessard's apparatus, by placing the lens vertically between two right-angled prisms, the upper of which receives the image and projects it through the lens on to the lower prism, from which, by rotation of the system on the vertical axis, it is projected on to a cylindrical film through an angle of 360° (Ibid.^ Its 13.5 effective megapixels, the use of Nikon’s exclusive image-processing system EXPEED (originally designed for its professional D-SLRs) and a wide-angle 4x Zoom-NIKKOR lens with two ED glass elements (28-112 mm) leave nothing to be desired.

^ The old saying goes … ”through the lens of …” I be live it should say “through the eyes of … ” , I have mention this many times before, it is the eyes which see the subject first and not the lens, without the eyes and of course our soul we cant create this magic image in the first place, Right .

1906, p. 430; E. Jb., 1907, p. 91). The " Periphote " and Ernemann's " Rundblick " camera are improved forms (E. Jb., 1908, p. 322).
Many early forms of panoramic cameras are described in B. J. A. 1892, p. .517. Colonel R. W. Stewart's " Panoram " (1893), A. Chevalier's " Photographic Plane Table," J. Bridges Lee's " Photo-Theodolite " (1894), and similar cameras fitted with telescopes, levels and divided circles, are instruments of precision suitable for photographic surveying.^ DIGITAL PHOTO CENTER at SAM'S TOURS Sam's Tours Digital Photography Center is fully equipped to cater to digital photographers of all interest levels from those with handy “point-and-shoot” cameras to the most demanding digital photographers shooting in RAW format.

.Improved instruments for topographical surveying with stereo-photographic apparatus, on the principle worked out by Dr C. Pulfrich, of Messrs Zeiss & Co., in his stereo-comparator (1903), are being practically developed, and much information regarding them will be found in papers by E. Dolezal and others in J. M. Eder's Jahrbiicher, 1903 to 1908; also a paper by Lieut.^ I believe we spend to much time these days trying to figure out how things work instead of concentrating on the real issue, Photography.

^ Aperture 2 has much bigger advantages for me…being so integrated and the management of images is out of this world plus the speed and flexibility.

F. V. Thompson in Geographical Journal, 1908, xxxi. 534.

Cameras for Three-Colour Photography

.Many forms of camera have been constructed for making the three negatives required for trichromatic photography.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

They fall into two types: (I) those with a repeating back fitted with three colour-screens or filters - red, green.
and violet - through which the colour impressions are made suc cessively with one lens upon a single colour-sensitive plate, as in the Sanger-Shepherd system. The colour-screens are placed immedi ately in front of the sensitive plate in the repeating back, which is moved on for each exposure. .In a more recent form, by the same FIG. 13. - Diagram of Camera maker, the three images are taken for Three-colour Photography.^ A selection of the latest images from my recent Journey to Bali have now been uploaded in my PhotoShelter Archives, more to follow in the next few weeks.

^ The camera’s image quality is further reinforced by its ability to shoot images in RAW format, and Picture Control capabilities, taken from D-SLR products.

^ I like to share one more of the images I took during my recent stay in Jan.

on the sensitive plate with one exposure. .The camera is divided into three compartments, and fitted with a special diaphragm which can be regulated for the varying sensitiveness of different batches of plates.^ After a two our lecture on Photography, Keynote presentations and techniques I divided the students into two groups for two different assignments.

.The central image is impressed directly on the plate; the other two by reflection from prisms arranged so as to equalize the sizes of the three images on the sensitive plates, the light rays passing in each case through a suitable colour-filter - red, green and blueviolet - somewhat on the principle of F. E. Ives's camera of 1900 (fig.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ The images below are a “Play of Light and Color” from two very different places.

13). It is convenient and successful in working. .(2) Cameras made on the reflecting principle of L. Ducos du Hauron (1876), elaborated by F. E. Ives (1894) in his photochromoscope, in which three images are taken through three colour-screens on separate plates with one lens, the respective exposures being regulated by reflection of the light coming from the lens by plane mirrors on to the sensitive plates, and its filtration through the colour-screens in front of them.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

^ The camera’s image quality is further reinforced by its ability to shoot images in RAW format, and Picture Control capabilities, taken from D-SLR products.

Many variations of this method have been proposed, in which reflecting prisms replace the mirrors. The different systems have been discussed by W. Gamble (Ph. Jour. 1905, xlv. 150), the latter also by E. T. Butler (Ibid. p. 199). Sir W. de W. Abney has described three-colour cameras for landscape work in Ph. Jour. 1904, xliv. 81, and 1908, xlviii. 331.
Enlarging Cameras. - .These cameras vary in form, according to the nature of the illumination, but ordinarily consist of a double or triple extension bellows camera, with a holder for the negative or transparency at one end, and for the sensitive plate or paper at the other, the lens being placed on a fixed partition between the two.^ W ith hundreds of Camera Models to choose from these days it can be difficult to make a decision which one to buy.

^ Of course these can vary from one Camera Model to another, you have to experiment a little to find out which settings works for you best.

^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

.Some recent forms of " daylight enlargers " can be used as an ordinary camera.^ I had a lot of fun too, being with a cool group of students using only simple Cameras but creating some nice images.

^ Lightroom has introduced recently some updates and improved the software, however in my opinion there are quiet a few advantages in using Aperture 2.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

Other cheaper ones are on the fixed focus principle. .Enlargers for use with artificial light are made like a magic lantern, with a condenser, projecting an enlarged image on to a sensitive plate or paper fixed on an easel or screen.^ My images relate to a broader discourse and use the medium (captured light) to tell the story rather than just relying on the here is narrative.

^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

.A simple arrangement for daylight enlarging is to fix a suitable camera on to a larger one by a sliding front, and mount the two on a studio stand tilted so that the image may be illuminated by the open sky.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ My final note: keep it simple, dont get over involved with all these technical pages and novels, learn the basics, use one camera system, and select one or two softwares instead trying to learn them all, and remember it is YOU and not the Camera who is ultimately responsible for this great image.

Cinematographs

.Many special cameras and lenses have been introduced for taking on a long flexible sensitive film an extended series of small photographs of the successive phases of movements, and again projecting them on a screen so as to reproduce the scene, with an illusion of motion, in what are known as " living pictures," biographs, &c.^ Top international performers from the live and club music scene will meet up with young, international VJ and imaging projects.

^ To many blogs and websites dealing with to much "techno" cr...., pages and pages of it these days, yes if you a systems engineer that maybe cool but not if you are a serious photographer.

^ Advanced features such as Live View, Scene Recognition, Active D-Lighting, Picture Control and an ISO sensitivity range of 200-3200 (ISO 6400 equivalent on Hi1 and ISO 100 equivalent on Lo1), allows creativity in almost any setting.

.As each photograph requires a certain minimum time for exposure and must be kept in true position in sequence with the rest, some means of regulating the intermittent exposures and keeping the film in position have to be adopted; and there are many different ways of doing it, either by a continuous or intermittent motion and exposure of the film while it is being unwound from one roller on to another.^ The image below I took a few years ago in Bali, this time will be a bit different and really up my ally, but dont worry the colors will be there.

^ On the way this cool sunset happen right in front of me, of course I had my little companion the Leica D-Lux 4 with me and took some Photographs before I continued.

^ E dited some 5000 images in Aperture (Aperture 1.5 at the time) made the deadline for my Book Journey Through Color & Time a month later, Tibet being the last chapter of the book, and now kept another deadline thanks to the build in Aperture Web Gallery...see my previous blog.

The films used are similar to the ordinary celluloid films, but in narrow bands from 18 in. to 21 in. in width, the length varying with the number of exposures required, at the rate of 16 to 20 per second. They are perforated on both sides, so that they may run true and have the necessary intermittent motion, the perforations fitting on to studs on a sprocket wheel in connexion with the driving wheel and crank handle. Special lenses of short focus, from I in. to .3 in., with good covering power and large apertures f/4 to f/2, are required both for photographing and projecting; several such are noted below.^ Aperture 2 the perfect companion in the field and at home, introduction and solution for todays DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHER above and below the waves.

^ (Note that models marked with an asterisk require Aperture 2 with Mac OS X v10.4.11 Tiger or Mac OS X v10.5.2 Leopard or later.

^ Readers Choice Award 2008...a Paradise for Photographers above and below the waves...plus a complete Digital Photo Center with the latest imaging software including Aperture .

Absolute rigidity in the camera is essential. Special stands are made for the purpose, but if a tripod stand is used it should be well braced. Special apparatus is required for developing and fixing the exposed films. They are wound on large rollers supported over troughs containing the necessary solutions (see Cinematograph). .The mechanical arrangements are treated in H. V. Hopwood, Living Pictures (1899); F. P. Liesegang, Handbuch der praktischen Kinematographie (1907); K. W. Wolf-Czapek, Die Kinematographie (1908); G. Lindsay Johnson, Photographic Optics (1909); Eder's Jahrbiicher. A method of cinematography in colour was introduced by G. A. Smith and C. Urban in 1908, the main features of it being the use of a film sensitive to all colour waves to the furthest red; superimposing the colour records by persistence of vision; the use of two-colour records instead of three, in order to reduce the interval between the successive presentations; adaptation to existing cinematograph machinery and films.^ You might forget to do this, it happens to me, being so excited about all these new features that I was puzzled what went wrong… nothing wrong at all… My mistake!

^ A well written and well thought through article not only for our Underwater Photographers but for all of us below and above the waves.

^ Watch the high resolution Keynote presentation & all the other things you can do on a Mac using your images from Aperture 2.

.These conditions are fulfilled by the use, in place of the ordinary revolving sector shutter in front of the lens passing intermittent white light, of a special, more rapidly revolving shutter divided into four sectors, one fitted with orange-red glass, another with bluish-green glass and two intermediate opaque sectors, so that at every revolution of the shutter an exposure is made through the red and green glasses alternately.^ Monochrome Mixer in the Adjustments Panel and there you find all you need including these color filters we used to use during the old days in front of the lens.

^ From black & white images…back to color… more images from India after the Aperture 2 event… roaming the streets in Mumbai and venturing towards Goa one afternoon.

^ After a two our lecture on Photography, Keynote presentations and techniques I divided the students into two groups for two different assignments.

.The former passes white and yellow, and then orange, scarlet to deepest red; whilst the latter also passes white and yellow, green, blue-green, blue, all in proportion according to the red and green sensitiveness of the specially sensitized panchromatic emulsion on the film.^ Leichhardt's Grasshopper is bright red, blue and orange.

^ The new very cool overlay option, t he red and blue areas , note the red area in the Ferrari Logo the yellow part and the blue on the tire .

.The same shutter and colour screens are used for projection, some supplementary blue rays being added.^ I had a lot of fun too, being with a cool group of students using only simple Cameras but creating some nice images.

^ Plus the storage on DVD’s is at present only some 4.5 GIG (single sided) and Blue Ray is still not so accepted in the industry not to mention the time and cost factor.

The results are satisfactory and the method promises to be of great practical value (see Jour. Roy. Soc. Arts, 1908, 57, No. 2926).
.Special cameras are made for various branches of scientific research in photo-micrography, photo-spectroscopy, astronomical photography, &c.^ The program of the day included lectures on Photography, Digital workflow and a basic Photo Competition using what ever Camera was available; Cell phones, Compact Cameras to SLR’s.

Tripod Stands

.Field cameras are usually supported on wooden tripod stands, folding in two or more sections, the head being separate or fixed in the base-board of the camera.^ I just picked up this Press release; amazing and more amazing new cameras have being released for the Photokina in Germany 2008.

^ Aperture 2 supports the RAW formats from more than 100 digital cameras and camera backs.

The legs should be capable of extension to about 5 ft. and adjustable in length for use on uneven ground. A tripod stand may be light, but must be firm and rigid when set up. To prevent slipping, shoes of indiarubber or cork may be fitted to the points of the legs, and in some cases it may be desirable to strengthen the tripod by a folding adjustable brace. W. Butler's " Swincam " camera stand is made to enable the camera to be securely fixed in awkward positions, and has many valuable special features, great extension, swivel points to the feet, &c. For hand cameras the very light, portable metal folding and walking-stick stands are convenient.
Missing image
Photography-19.jpg
FIG. 12.-" Al-Vista " Panoramic Camera, closed.
Missing image
Photography-20.jpg
Photographic Objectives or Lenses. The objective is the most important item of photographic apparatus, because upon it depends the perfection with which a correct and well-defined picture is projected upon the plane surface of the sensitive plate of objects in the different planes forming the field of view, which naturally would come to a focus on a series of curved surfaces. This flattened picture must be equally illuminated and sharply defined, within a limit of confusion from l b to 7 16 of an inch, over a sufficiently wide angle. .A good objective must also pass sufficient light to produce the required effect on the photographic plate with short exposures; the chemical and visual foci must coincide exactly, and it must not distort straight or parallel lines.^ The show was produced on the Gadget Show with a good English humor using a Pro Photographers Studio.

^ I can’t even draw a straight line) I could consider that as a compliment but when I talked to them they could not believe the images where Photographs, and once they knew, they immediately thought of Computer and Photoshop.

The fulfilment of these conditions is complicated by the presence of sundry focal displacements or aberrations. (I) Spherical aberration, or non-coincidence of the foci of the central and marginal pencils of rays passing through the lens. It is corrected by varying the curves of the component lenses and by the use of a diaphragm. (2) Coma, or blur, due to lateral spherical aberration of oblique rays, and mostly found in unsymmetrical combinations and single view lenses. It is partly eliminated by the diaphragm. .(3) Astigmatism, which accompanies coma in single lenses, and is usually present in symmetrical aplanats, manifests itself by forming two sets of images of points off the axis, lying in two separate curved surfaces, one set focusing tangentially as more or less horizontal lines, the other radially as more or less vertical lines.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ Aperture 2 walked into the Door...and here I am running one lap after the other...almost at the finishing line and the winner is Aperture.

^ Two more images this time from Group 2 using the Monochrome Mixer in Aperture 2 .

It increases with the obliquity of the rays and causes want of definition and difference of focus between horizontal and vertical lines away from the centre. (4) Curvature of field, also increasing with the obliquity of the rays. (5) Distortion, outward or inward, according to the nature and construction of the objective. With the single meniscus view lens, used with its concave surface towards the object and a diaphragm in front, a square will appear barrel shaped from inward contraction of the lines towards the centre; but with the convex surface towards the object and the diaphragm behind, it will appear with concave sides from outward expansion from the centre. It can be corrected by using two such lenses with the convex sides outwards and a central diaphragm, as in periscopic or rectilinear lenses. Lenses of the orthoscopic and telephoto types generally show the latter form of distortion. .(6) Chromatic aberration, produced by the dispersion of the white light passing through the lens, and the different coloured rays composing it coming to a focus at different distances from the visual focus in the order of their wave-lengths.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

^ A cataract is any opacity or discoloration of the normally clear lens that interferes with light transmission through the eye.

It thus affects both the positions and sizes of the image for the different colours. .For ordinary photographic work it suffices for the blue-violet and yellow rays to be coincident, but for the new processes of photography in three colours, apochromatic lenses, in which perfect coincidence of the coloured rays is secured, are required to obtain the accurate register of the three images.^ New commercial photography web site and very important NEWS about PhotoShelter and stock images .

^ New Aerials of Palau Micronesia, some very cool low light photography after sunset from the helicopter & New generic images of Palau...

^ It also comes as no surprise when you stumble on the website of Eric Meola who worked for Pete Turner in New York for a while…amazing color Photography.

The corrections are effected by compensating lenses of different refractive powers (see Aberration).
In constructing photographic objectives these aberrations and distortions have to be neutralized, by regulating the curves of the different positive and negative component lenses, the refractive and dispersive indices of the glasses from which they are made, and the distances of the refracting surfaces, so as to make the objective as far as possible stigmatic or focusing to a point, giving an image well defined and undistorted. .This perfect correction could never be effected in objectives made before 1887, and very few could be effectively used at their full apertures, because although linear distortion could be overcome there were always residual aberrations affecting the oblique rays and necessitating the use of a diaphragm, which by lengthening out the rays caused them to define clearly over a larger surface, at the expense of luminous intensity and rapidity of working.^ Occasional my friends or family members ask me to store or sort out their personal images, yes I could do this in Aperture 2 very easy but my preference is to use iPhoto for this personal stuff.

^ I used to use Photoshop but now with Aperture 2 there is seldom the need for it and at the same time I can re-catalog them into my system with the Metadata.

^ If that single drive fails you lost all your precious images and using a recovery service can get very expensive and there is never a guarantee or full recovery.

The introduction of rapid gelatin dry plates enabled photographs to be taken with much greater rapidity than before, and led to a demand for greater intensity of illumination and better definition in lenses to meet the requirements of the necessarily very rapid exposures in hand cameras. For studio and copying work quick-acting lenses are also valuable in dull weather or in winter.
.The rapidity of a lens with a light of given intensity depends upon the diameter of its aperture, or that of the diaphragm used, relatively to the focal length.^ I used a slow shutter-speed to emphasize on movement, taken with my little Leica D-Lux 4, processed in Aperture 2 without enhancements, this was natural light at its best.

In order, therefore, to obtain increased rapidity combined with perfect definition, some means had to be found of constructing photographic objectives with larger effective apertures. This necessity had long been recognized and met by many of the best makers for objectives of the single meniscus and aplanatic types, but with only partial success, because such objectives are dependent upon the diaphragm for the further correction necessary to obtain good definition over an extended field. The difficulty was in the removal of astigmatism and curvature of the field, which, as J. Petzval had shown, was impossible with the old optical flint and crown glasses. .In 1886 Messrs E. Abbe and O. Schott, of Jena, introduced several new varieties of optical glasses, among them new crown glasses which, with a lower dispersion than flint glass, have a higher instead of a lower refractive power.^ Yes, you have heard right, it is our very own Eye that is more important than any other optical piece of glass.

.It was thus rendered possible to overcome the old difficulties and to revolutionize photographic optics by enabling objectives to be made free from astigmatism, working at their full apertures with great flatness of field independently of the diaphragm, which is now chiefly used to extend the area of definition or angle of view, and the so-called " depth of focus " for objects in different planes.^ How I operate and work in the field using Aperture 2...

^ Aperture 2 the perfect companion in the field and at home, introduction and solution for todays DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHER above and below the waves.

^ I used to use Photoshop but now with Aperture 2 there is seldom the need for it and at the same time I can re-catalog them into my system with the Metadata.

Photographic objectives may be classed as follows: I. Single achromatic combinations.
2. Unsymmetrical doublets.
3. Symmetrical doublets.
4. Triple combinations.
5. Anastigmatic combinations - symmetrical and unsymmetrical.
6. Telephotographic objectives.
7. Anachromatic combinations.
.They are also sometimes classified according to their rapidity, as expressed by their effective apertures, into " extra rapid," with apertures larger than f/6; " rapid," with apertures from f/6 to f/8; " slow," with apertures less than f/I t.^ The images came from my slide collection, scanned and imported into Aperture 2 , some of them had to be restored since they had deteriorated some what.

Another classification is according to the angle of view, " narrow angle " up to 35°; " medium angle " up to 60°; " wide angle " up to 90°, too°, or more. Many lenses are made in series, differing in rapidity and angle of view as well as in length of focus.
t. Single Achromatic Combination or Landscape Lens. - This is the earliest form of photographic objective, evolved from W. H. Wollaston's improved single periscopic meniscus camera obscura lens (1812). It was made achromatic by Ch. Chevalier, and so used by L. J. M. Daguerre, though it required correction for chemical focus, as did the object glasses of telescopes or opera glasses first used for photography. The single landscape lens usually consists of an achromatic compound meniscus, formed of a biconvex positive crown cemented to a biconcave negative flint to secure achromatism and partially correct the spherical aberration, and may be taken as the type of the " old photographic achromat " (fig. 14). .1 It is used with its concave side towards the object and a diaphragm in front, thus producing inward or barrel-shaped distortion, inherent in this type of objective, and rendering it unsuitable for copying or architecture, though not very noticeable in landscape work.^ Anyway as you know very well it is very easy to copy a pictures using tools like "Grab" for the Mac, even if still in low resolution.

The full aperture has to be largely reduced by a diaphragm to improve definition; so it is slow, though many improved forms have been brought out. It has always been popular for pure landscape work on account of the equality of illumination over the plate, depth of focus, and the softness and brilliancy of the image owing to its thinness and freedom from reflecting surfaces. .In some of its improved and " long focus " forms it is preferred by portraitists for large heads, on account of the general softness it gives when used with large apertures.^ But that’s not all I use iPhoto for some of my email, websites and Blogs very handy indeed and keeping Aperture 2 for my pro workload, a nice tidy setup.

^ It was also the first time that he really got into Aperture 2 using my MacBook Pro for some pre editing and by the time we got back home a lot of our work had been done.

^ I am back for a month now and catch up with some long overdue blogs and more on Aperture 2 or should I say Aperture 2.1 .

The following are some of the best-known improved objectives of this type: T. Grubb's "Aplanatic " (1857), f/15 to f/30: FIG. 15. - Grubb's FIG. 16. - Rapid Landscape Lens.
" Aplanatic " Lens. Long Focus.
(fig. 15); J. H. Dallmeyer's " Wide Angle Landscape Lens " (1865), f/15, angle 75°. In it distortion was reduced and marginal definition improved. The " Rapid (long focus) Landscape Lens " (1884), f/12, angle 40° (fig. 16), was a modification of it, and at f/8 is useful for heads in portraiture. W. Wray's " Landscape Lens " (1886), f/II, is also useful for portraiture in the larger sizes at f/8. Fr. Voigtlnder's " WideAngle Landscape Lens " (1888) In the diagrams of lenses which follow, a uniform system of indicating the nature of the glass employed by means of the shading has been adopted.
.Flint glass is indicated thus Crown glass of low refractive power thus: - Crown glass of high refractive power thus: (These two are used indiscriminately in lenses made before the introduction of the new Jena glass.^ By the way this was long before my Nikon days using the X700 Minolta bodies and lenses.

^ Aperture 2 is a powerful and easy-to-use digital image management system that can track thousands of digital images and provides the advanced photographer with high-quality image management and adjustment tools.

^ A personal view on all these NEW PLUG-INS for APERTURE 2.1...do we really need them all & how useful are they...plus a little workflow.

) Extra light flint glass thus In most cases the front of the lens is on the right.
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Old types. New types.
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FIG. 14.-Single Landscape Lens.
FIG.
17. - Rectilinear Lens.
Landscape
???
[APPARATUS
f/15, angle 90°, with great covering power and depth of focus. T. R. Dallmeyer's " Rectilinear Landscape Lens " (1888), f/14, angle 60° (fig. 17), was of novel construction, free from distortion, brilliant in working and useful for copying. Messrs Ross's " WideAngle Landscape Lens " (1890), f/16, angle 70°, triple cemented and made of Jena glass. Many other excellent objectives of this type have been made by British and foreign makers and are still used, though somewhat superseded by the fully corrected anastigmats specally made to work singly, or as single elements of anastigmatic doublets, as noticed in § 5.
2. Unsymmetrical Doublets: Old Types. - This class includes objectives with comparatively large apertures formed of two dissimilar combinations, in most cases correcting each other, with a diaphragm between them. In some the single elements may be used independently. All the older " portrait " lenses, some of the aplanatic doublets and Fr. von Voigtlander's " Orthoscopic " Lens (1857), now disused, are of this type. .Even with the present improved conditions, the portraitist working in a studio requires a quick-acting objective of large effective aperture and comparatively short focus, giving a brilliant well-defined image of near objects in different planes over a restricted field of view.^ If you like to go crazy then go for it… YOUR Choice , it is after all a very creative field with many different interpretations on any given image.

^ Since Cambodia he has done real well, more than 30 images from Cambodia and the Philippines are on display, very impressive work I might add and I am very proud of him.

^ I may add that these images where a real mix bag, from scanned slides to digital plus from very different sources, even my assistant Hermes contributed some nice images, a lot of images with a lot of information but with Aperture it was a breeze.

.The early single lenses were found to be too slow for portraiture by the daguerreotype and talbotype processes, and the efforts of opticians were directed to the problem of obtaining the maximum amount of light, together with good definition and flatness of field, and about 1840 compound lenses were brought out by Andrew Ross and C. Chevalier, consisting of two achromatic compounds, one at each end of a tube.^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

^ Well, that is true but one hard drive is not enough, say you use a 500 Gig Hard drive to store your images, great but what about your back up, so you end up buying two.

Ross's lens, made for H. Collen, is interesting as the first lens corrected photographically, so that the visual and chemical foci were coincident (fig. 18). Ch. Chevalier also combined lenses of different foci, as is now done for " convertible " objectives, used singly or combined. He also fitted them with iris diaphragms. These forms were soon superseded by the compound portrait lens, calculated by J. Petzval and brought out by FIG. 18. - First English Portrait Lens. FIG. 19. - Portrait Lens.
Fr. von Voigtlander in 1841. It consists of two dissimilar achromatic combinations widely separated. .At first the diaphragms were in front, but now they are central.^ I understand the Aboriginals a lot better now, the Dream TIme and myth, I can imagine when they saw this orange colored Grasshopper for the first time, how Alien this must have been.

The front element is a plano-convex composed of a biconvex crown cemented to a planoconcave flint, while the back element is a double convex, composed of a biconvex crown separated by an air-space from a concavoconvex flint (fig. 19). .This form of objective quickly supplanted all other for portraitures, and is still largely used, though it has defects which prevent its use for general purposes and is being superseded for portraiture by some of the rapid anastigmats.^ Watch the high resolution Keynote presentation & all the other things you can do on a Mac using your images from Aperture 2.

^ Animation, some basic drawing and other educational software had been installed on all the iMacs with the guidance from the PMC staff.

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

In his " Quicl. Acting Portrait Lens " (1860), f/4, angle 45, °, J. H. Dallmeyer improved the correction for spherical aberration, and in his " Extra Quick Acting Portrait Lens " (1860), f/2.2, used for cinematograph work, attained greater rapidity. In the " Patent Portrait Lens " (1866), f/3, f/4 and f/6, angles 50 0 to 55° (fig. 20), he made great changes in the form and relative positions of the back elements, giving a flatter field and freedom from flare spot. By separating the two components of the back element more or less spherical aberration could be introduced to give softer definition 20. - Dallmeyer's Patent and greater depth of focus. In Portrait Lens. 1875 Dr. A. Steinheil made an unsymmetrical aplanatic por trait combination of peculiar construction, working at f/3.2. It was an improvement on his similar symmetrical " Portrait-Aplanat," FIG. 21. - Portrait Antiplanet. FIG. 22. - Group Antiplanet. Form I. of 1874, but was superseded in 1881 by the " Portrait Antiplanet," f/4 and free from astigmatism over an angle of 14°.
It had six reflecting surfaces and nearly approached a triplet (fig. 21). Steinheil's " Group Aplanats " (1879), f/6.4, angle 70°, were an improvement on the ordinary " Aplanats," but were superseded in 1881 by the " Group Antiplanets," f/5, angle 70°, lenses of a distinct type (fig. 22). They were a further advance on the " Aplanats," working at larger apertures and giving better definition. This lens is interesting as the first in which astigmatism was eliminated by combining a " crown-shaped " lens of high refractivity, with a " flint-shaped " of lower refractivity,. though made of the old glasses. In his " Rapid Antiplanet " (1893), f/6.5, angle 30°, Dr R. Steinheil improved the " Group .Antiplanet " as regards astigmatism and covering power by replacing the thick back combination by a triple longfocus negative element consisting of a crown between two flints, with a heavy barium crown in the front element instead of a flint (fig. 23). .Voigtlander, who originally constructed the Petzval portrait lens, improved it in 1878 and 1885, and now makes two lenses on the same principle, series I. f/3.2, angle 28°, for ordinary portraiture and projection, and series Ia., f/2.3, angle 22° (190o) for astrophotography, cinematography, &c., when intense illumination is required over a small field.^ Mac and made the switch...we are talking about Executives who have been using PC’s all their lives and now making the switch.

^ Its 13.5 effective megapixels, the use of Nikon’s exclusive image-processing system EXPEED (originally designed for its professional D-SLRs) and a wide-angle 4x Zoom-NIKKOR lens with two ED glass elements (28-112 mm) leave nothing to be desired.

Both are quite free from coma.
FIG. 23. - R. Steinheil's ImFIG. 24. - Ordinary Angle proved Group Antiplanet. Actinic Doublet.
Most of the above are portrait objectives of large aperture, but unsymmetrical doublets have also been made for landscape work. .J. T. Goddard's " Combination Landscape Lens " (1859) was one of the first, and was free from distortion, gave a flat field, and could be used as a convertible lens.^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

In 1864 T. Ross issued his " Actinic Doublets," modified from the Collen lens, in three series - " small angle," f/8, angle 40° to 50°; " ordinary angle," f/14, angle 60° to 75° (fig. 24); " large angle," f/16, angle 80° to 95°. These lenses were similar to the " Globe," but unsymmetrical and more rapid. The separate elements could be used alone_ Some of them were fitted with a shutter near the diaphragm. They were superseded by the " Symmetrical " lenses.
3. Symmetrical Doublets. - This class includes objectives formed of two similar combinations of lenses, usually of the convergent meniscus form, with their concave surfaces inwards and a diaphragm between them; consequently they are rectilinear and practically free from marginal distortion. .Until the introduction of anastigmatic doublets they were in general use for all purposes under the names " Aplanat," " Rectilinear," " Symmetrical," " Euryscope," &c.^ A personal view on all these NEW PLUG-INS for APERTURE 2.1...do we really need them all & how useful are they...plus a little workflow.

.They are still largely used and have been improved by the use of Jena glasses in their construction.^ That is, unless they are still using Photoshop as their main image management tool.

 ?
i?
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The first recorded lens of this type was Dr J. W. Draper's combination used in 1839 for daguerreotype portraits, consisting of t vo double-convex lenses 4 in. diameter, with a united focus of 8 in., mounted in a tube with a diaphragm 32 in. in front. In 1841 T. Davidson made a combination of two single landscape lenses very similar to the later rectilinear doublets. Being slower than the Petzval portrait lens its value as a non-distorting lens for general purposes was not recognized. G. S. Cundell (1844) combined two uncorrected meniscus lenses with a diaphragm between them. In 1860 T. Sutton brought out his " Panoramic Lens," which worked on curved plates covering about loo°. It was followed FIG. 25. - C. A. Steinheil's Periskop." FIG. 26. - A. Steinheil's "Aplanat." by C. C. Harrison's " Globe Lens " (1862), angle 75°, composed of a symmetrical pair of deep compound menisci, the exterior surfaces forming part of a sphere. Though defective and slow it was popular for a time. C. A. Steinheil's " Periskop " (1865, f/13.5, angle 90° was a symmetrical doublet formed of two plain crown menisci with central diaphragm (fig. 25). It gave a larger field than the " Globe," the lenses being closer together. Being nonachromatic it had to be adjusted for chemical focus. It was quite free from distortion, with a very flat field, and both nodal points together. .It is considered the best possible combination of two plain lenses, and is still used in some of the cheaper hand cameras with fixed focus, the difference of the chemical and visual foci being allowed for in the camera or by adjustable lens mounts.^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

^ Learn how to use your Camera, believe me if I get my old Minolta X700 out I still produce some nice images tomorrow.

^ Another fun Day minus the rain today, being with a cool group of Students, Teachers and Faculty members using only simple Cameras but creating some nice images.

G. Rodenstock's " Bistigmats " are of this class. J. Zentmayer made a similar unsymmetrical lens. In A. Steinheil's " Aplanat " (1866) the same principle was carried out with achromatized lenses, and a great FIG.
improvement was effected in the construction of non-distorting objectives of fairly large aperture. It consisted of two positive cemented flint menisci, each composed of a dense flint with negative focus outside and a light flint with positive focus inside, its concave surfaces facing the centre (fig. 26). This use of flint glasses alone was peculiar, former achromatic lenses having been made of flint and crown. These lenses were made in three rapidities: " Ordinary," f/6 or f/7, angle 60°; " Landscape," f/12 to f/15, angle 90°, also used in convertible sets; " Wide Angle Landscape," f/20 to f/25, angle 104°; " Wide Angle Reproduction," similar to the last, but with sharper definition. The "Aplanat " had many advantages over previous doublets and the triplet, being more rapid, perfectly symmetrical, so that there was no necessity for turning them when enlarging, and free from distortion or flare. There was no chemical focus. Each component could be used alone for landscape work with double focus, subject to the ordinary defects of single lenses. By the use of Jena glasses in the " Universal Aplanat " (1886) the components of this lens were brought closer together, its intensity increased, and it was made more portable. .J. H. Dallmeyer had been working in the same direction simultaneously with Steinheil, and in 1866 brought out his " Wide Angle Rectilinear," f/15, angle 100°, made of flint and crown, the front element being larger than the back (fig.^ Aperture 2 supports the RAW formats from more than 100 digital cameras and camera backs.

27). It was slow for ordinary purposes and was succeeded in 1867 by the well-known " Rapid Rectilinear," f/8, on the same FIG. 27. - Wide-Angle Rectilinear Lens.
principle as Steinheil's " Aplanat, but made of flint and crown (fig. 28). Ross's " Rapid " and " Portable Symmetrical " lenses, Voigtlander's " Euryscopes," and other similar lenses of British and foreign manufacture are of the same type, and still in use. .They are excellent for general purposes and copying, but astigmatism is always present, and although they can be used with larger apertures than the triplets they displaced, they require stopping down to secure good marginal definition over the size of plate they are said to cover.^ I am still using Photoshop CS2, more than enough for my requirements.

^ You still have the thumbnails and previews in your Aperture 2 Library in jpg at a resolution you have decided on, I use a resolution of 1024 for my Previews in Aperture 2 , good enough for my Keynote presentations and the .Mac Web Galleries.

^ Watch the high resolution Keynote presentation & all the other things you can do on a Mac using your images from Aperture 2.

.By the use of Jena glasses they have been improved to work at larger apertures, and some are made with triple cemented elements.^ However some of the adjustment tools in Aperture 2.1 cant be used since they have been designed to work only with the RAW image format , but this has not stopped me for doing most of my restorations in Aperture 2 now, archiving and bringing them back to life again.

^ But that’s not all I use iPhoto for some of my email, websites and Blogs very handy indeed and keeping Aperture 2 for my pro workload, a nice tidy setup.

^ PHOTOGRAPHY & APERTURE 2 using the Sharpening tools, plus a cool TIP for your iPhone “TRIPLE T” continues… .

4. Triple Combinations: Old Types

This class comprises objectives composed of three separate combinations of glasses widely separated from each other. .An early form of this type was made by Andrew Ross (1841) for W. H. Fox Talbot, others by F. S. Archer, J. T. Goddard (1859), T. Sutton (1860), but they never came into general use.^ The images came from my slide collection, scanned and imported into Aperture 2 , some of them had to be restored since they had deteriorated some what.

.J. H. Dallmeyer's " Triple Achromatic Lens " (1861), f/Io, angle 60°, now out of date, was an excellent non-distorting lens, very useful for general work and copying (fig.^ I mean very fast, my previous Blog from today and now PhotoShelter has just released this very cool Widget, check it out below.

^ This is very useful if you have excisting images on differnt hard drives and now make the change to Aperture.

^ Anyway as you know very well it is very easy to copy a pictures using tools like "Grab" for the Mac, even if still in low resolution.

29). As made by Dallmeyer, the inner surfaces of the front and back components were slightly concave, but in T. Ross's " Actinic Triplets " (1861), f/16, they were flat. The centre lens was an achromatic negative serving to flatten the field.

5. Anastigmatic Combinations, Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical

As already stated, it was found practically impossible to obtain flatness of field, together with freedontfrom astigmatism, in objectives constructed with the old optical glasses. A. Steinheil attempted it in the " Antiplanets," but with only partial success. The Abbe and Schott Jena glasses, issued in 1886, put a new power into the hands of opticians by largely increasing their choice of glasses with different refractive and dispersive powers. Whereas the old glasses had high refractivity with higher dispersion, in the new ones high refractivity with lower dispersion could be set against lower refractivity with higher dispersion.
Between 1887 and 1889 the first attempts to make anastigmatic objectives with the new glasses were made by M. Mittenzwei of Zwickau, R. D. Gray of New Jersey, E. Hartnach and A. Miethe of Berlin (" Pantoscope "), K. Fritsch of Vienna (" Apochromat ") and Fr. von .Voigtlander of Brunswick, with more or less success, but progress was hindered by the instability of some of the early glasses, which was afterwards overcome by sandwiching the soft glasses between two hard ones.^ But now I like to share with you two more interesting Photographs that I took one evening a few days ago…to and from a meeting.

In 1888 Dr H. L. H. Schroeder worked out for Messrs Ross the " Concentric Lens " (fig. 30) issued in 1892 (Ph. Jour., 16, p. 276). It was a symmetrical doublet of novel construction, each element consisting of a plano-convex crown of high refractivity cemented to a piano-concave flint of lower refractivity, but about equal or higher dispersion. Both the uncemented surfaces were spherical and concentric. At f/16 it gave sharp definition and flatness of field with freedom from astigmatism, distortion or flare over an angle of 75°. It was an excellent lens, though slow, and has been superseded by the " Homocentric " and other more rapid anastigmats. .Dr Paul Rudolph, of Messrs Carl Zeiss & Co., Jena, worked out in 1889 a new and successful method of constructing a photographic objective by which astigmatism of the oblique rays and the want of marginal definition due to it could be FIG.'31. - Anastigmat.^ Check out Caboose, designed for those who want a similar look to their DRR pages, and the brand-new Induro.

^ This year again in November I like to announce due to frequently requests our new commercial photography website, representing some of my commercial work over the past few years.

FIG. 32. - Anastigmat.
Series II. f/6.3. Series IIIa. f/9.
eliminated without loss of rapidity, so that a comparatively extended field could be covered with a large aperture. .This he did on the principle of the opposite or opposed gradation of the refractive indices in the front and back lenses, by a combination of two dissimilar systems of single lenses cemented together, the positive element of each having in one case a higher and in the other a lower refractive index than that of the negative element with which it was associated.^ Registering every one and every image is given you the perfect protection in the US but what about all the other countries Jason did not mention anything about those.

^ The two shots below have been taken from a commercial Jetliner, I guess at about 30000 feet, one near the Russian/Polish border (I did ask the stewardess where we where at that time) and the other one on my way to Lhasa from Chengdu in China.

The front system, relied upon for the correction of spherical aberration, was made of the old glasses, a crown positive of low and a flint negative of high refractivity, whilst the back system, relied upon for the anastigmatic flattening of the field, was made of the new glasses, a crown positive of high and a flint negative of low refractivity. .Both systems being spherically and chromatically corrected for a large aperture, the field was flattened, the astigmatism of the one being corrected by the opposite astigmatism of the other, without destroying the flatness of the field over a large angle (see E. Tb., 1891 and 1893; M. von Rohr's Geschichte, and O. Lummer, Photographic Optics, for further details).^ Aperture 2 the perfect companion in the field and at home, introduction and solution for todays DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHER above and below the waves.

^ Before: The old and very rough scan from way back After: Corrected in Aperture 2.01 March 2008, see the details above .

^ And yes, I am persuaded to download the Aperture now, the one you gave me, after reading so much of your blog and being encouraged by how good it is.

They were issued by Messrs Zeiss and their licencees (in England, Messrs Ross), in 1890, in two different types. The more rapid had five lenses (fig. 31), two of ordinary glasses in the front normal achromat, and three in the back abnormal achromat, two crowns of very high refractive power, with a negative flint of very low refractive power between them.
FIG. 33. - Anastigmat. FIG. 34. - Satz Anastigmat.
Series VI. Series VIa.
The fifth lens assisted in removing spherical aberrations of higher orders with large apertures. The second type, series IIIa., f/9, 18 99 (fig. 32), had only two lenses, the functions of which were as above. These combinations could not be used separately as single lenses. .They are now issued as " Protars," series I Ia., f/8; I IIa., f/9; V., f/18. In 1891 Dr Rudolph devoted himself to perfecting the single landscape lens, and constructed on the same principle a single combination of three lenses, the central one having a refractive index between the indices of the two others, and one of its cemented surfaces diverging, while the other was converging.^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

^ Registering every one and every image is given you the perfect protection in the US but what about all the other countries Jason did not mention anything about those.

^ They have reached the western part of the Northern Territory, and without intervention, are expected to reach the east Kimberley region of Western Australia in one to three years time.

At f/14.5 this lens gave an anastigmatically flat image with freedom from spherical aberration on or off the axis. It was, however, not brought out till 1893, as a convertible lens or " Satz-Anastigmat," series VI., f/14.5, and VIa., f/7.7 (figs. 33 and 34). .In the meantime Dr E. von Hoegh (C. B. Goerz) and Dr A. Steinheil had also been working at the problem and had independently calculated lenses similar to Rudolph's, but, whereas he had devoted himself to perfecting the single lens, they sought more perfect correction by combining two single anastigmatic lenses.^ Talking about integration with iLife and iWork ’09 , it is almost “scary” how they worked all of this to perfection.

^ As the name suggests, iTalk and iTalk Sync work real well together, the perfect combination.

^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

to form a doublet. Dr Rudolph had had the same idea, but Messrs Goerz secured the priority of patent in 1892, and in 1893 brought out their " Double Anastigmat," now known as FIG. 35.
Ross-Goerz " Dagor." Series III. Ross-Goerz. Series IV.
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" Dagor." .It was the first symmetrical anastigmat which combined freedom from astigmatism with flatness of field and great covering power at the large aperture of f/7.7 (fig.^ O ur first two sessions at the Power Mac Center are done, great attendance, great participants and some cool images processed in Aperture 2 .

^ Now We Know...what is Aperture 2...the first day and 12 hours later, two sessions of Photography and Aperture 2 at the Power Mac Center in Makati, Manila .

35). Both these types of Zeiss's " Protars " and Goerz's " Dagor " anastigmats have since FIG. 28. - Rapid Rectilinear Lens.
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FIG. 29. - Triple Achromatic Lens.
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FIG. 30. - Concentric Lens.
been made by Messrs Ross in England. .Messrs Steinheil brought out their first " Orthostigmats " in 1893, but, owing to patent difficulties, were unable to manufacture them in Germany, and they were issued later in France and England.^ I am sure the Underwater Housing manufactures are very busy at work; they need to get the Housings ready for the all New Nikon D90 at the Photokina later this month.

^ They were first brought there in the mid-19th Century to help explorers traverse the desert.

They were followed by a second type, which has since been issued in several series by Messrs Steinheil and by Messrs Beck in England (fig. 36). According to Dr R. Steinheil (E. Jb., 1897, p. 172) this lens was an application of two principles recognized by Dr A. Steinheil as necessary for the spherical and anastigmatic correction of a lens. He attempted to carry them out in the " Antiplanet," but was prevented by the want of suitable glass. He found that for anastigmatic correction an objective should have the separating surface between two media concave towards the medium of higher refraction (new achromat), and for FIG. 36. - Steinheil's FIG. 37. - " Collinear." " Orthostigmat." Series II.
spherical correction the separating surface should be convex towards the higher refracting medium. .A fully corrected cemented lens cannot, therefore, be made with less than three glasses, but with uncemented lenses an air-space may form one of the media.^ You may want to convert your files; in general, AAC/MP3 files take up less storage room than AIFFs.

^ Numbers fluctuate so greatly that grasshoppers may only be around one year in three.

In 1895 Dr D. Kaempfer worked out the " Collinear " for Messrs Voigtlander, constructed on the same principles as the " Orthostigmat," type II., and similar to it (fig. 37). It is made in three series: II., f/5.4 and f/6.3; III., f/6.8 and f/77 (convertible); IV., f/12.5, and the apochromatic collinear f/8, calculated by Dr H. Harting for three-colour reproduction, &c. (Ph. .Jour., 1901, 25, P. 323.) In 1894 Dr Rudolph extended the application of his principle by combining the old achromat and the new achromat into a single quadruple cemented lens (fig.^ I am not going into all the details today, but have decided to give you my impression on the slick new slide show in combination with the Book option.

38), which, according to T. R. Dallmeyer, was the most perfectly corrected single lens that had been FIG. 38.
Series VII. f /12.5. Series VIIa. f/6.3. evolved up to 1900, Dr Rudolph having succeeded in obtaining freedom from spherical aberration and astigmatism, and also in eliminating coma (Ph. Jour. 1901, 25, p. 68). These lenses were issued in 1895 as series VII. singly and VIIa., in combinations now known as " Convertible Protars," and the earlier series VI. and VIa. were withdrawn. The single lenses of series VII., f/12.5, angle 85°, have great anastigmatic flatness of field and only very slight marginal distortion, a condition not realized before in a single lens. The relative rapidities of the double combinations of series VIIa. vary from f/6.3 to f/8, according to the lenses used. They are excellent lenses for all general purposes.
.In their " Convertible Protars," series IV. (1908), f/12.5, angle 60°, Messrs Zeiss have simplified and cheapened the construction of these lenses by the use of new Jena glasses, so that they consist of three instead of four lens elements cemented together, while possessing the same high efficiency as series VII. They are issued as " single " or " double " Protars, f/12.5 and f/6'3 or f17, also in sets of three or four objectives of different foci, which are combined to give pictures of different angles of view from the same standpoint.^ APERTURE 2...View from the Car Window...creating cool Black and White Images using the Monochrome Mixer and a little Animation...NEW IMAGES uploaded.

^ Its 13.5 effective megapixels, the use of Nikon’s exclusive image-processing system EXPEED (originally designed for its professional D-SLRs) and a wide-angle 4x Zoom-NIKKOR lens with two ED glass elements (28-112 mm) leave nothing to be desired.

^ A personal view on all these NEW PLUG-INS for APERTURE 2.1...do we really need them all & how useful are they...plus a little workflow.

.With both series when using the " Protar " lens singly, it should be screwed behind the iris diaphragm of the mount, to avoid curvature of the field, and when two such lenses are combined the one with the greater focal length should be placed in front.^ Using the Nikon D700 with a f/2.8 180 mm lens (one of my favorites and perfect for the D700) I set the ISO on 1600 and for some shots on 800 ISO. .

In 1895 Messrs Goerz patented a double anastigmat, f/5.6, with quintuple single lens components as a convertible lens, for which greater sharpness of definition and intensity, with perfect freedom from astigmatism and distortion in the single lens, were claimed. It was issued in 1898, but, like an earlier analogous quintuplet of Messrs Turner & Reich (1895), it has not come into use on account of the cost and difficulty of construction. The latter firm, however, brought out in 1906 a new symmetrical quintuplet at f/6'8.
A triple anastigmatic combination containing remarkable new features, constructed and patented by H. D. Taylor, was issued in 1895 by Messrs Taylor, Taylor & Hobson under the name of the " Cooke Lens," and later by Messrs Voigtlander as the " Triple Anastigmat." It consists of three single lenses, two of them positive crossed lenses of crown glass with high refraction and low dispersion, with their most convex sides outwards, and between them, in front of the diaphragm, a single biconcave of light flint (fig. 39). .All these lenses are designed to be free from diaphragm corrections, while the focal power of the negative lens is made as closely equal to the combined focal powers of the two positive lenses as may be FIG. 39. - " Cooke "Portrait Lens.^ Next week we show you some more images (including who took them) from these two days with Aperture 2 and Photography at the Power Mac Center.

FIG. 40. - " Cooke " Lens.
Aperture f/4.5. Series III.
necessary for the flattening of the field and correcting marginal astigmatism. They are not convertible, but arrangements are made for replacing the back lens by a low-power extension lens (Ph. Jour. 18 95, 1 9, p. 64). Series III., f/6.5 (fig. 40), and series IV., f/5.6, are portrait lenses. In the larger objectives of series II. the back lenses are adjustable for uniform sharp definition or a soft diffusion of focus. .In a later series VI. (1907), f/5'6, this adjustment for diffusion is given to the front lens and is so arranged for portraiture that the diffusing adjustment and iris diaphragm can be operated from the back of the camera while viewing the focusing screen.^ The transparent human lens, like the lens of a camera, focuses light rays onto the retina (camera “film").

A special fully corrected " Process " lens on the same general principle has recently been brought out for three-colour work and fine-line reproduction. Another distinctly new type of anastigmatic objective involving several new principles of construction was patented by H. L. Aldis in 1895, and brought out by Messrs Dallmeyer in three series, under the name of " Stigmatic " (Ph. Jour., 1896, 20, p. 117). It also approaches the triplet construction and depends on the introduction of air-spaces between the component lenses. According to Aldis, three conditions must be observed to obtain a flat field free from marginal astigmatism: (1) The converging lenses must be of high, the diverging of low, refractive index; (2) the converging and diverging components must be separated by a considerable interval; (3) thick meniscus glasses should be used. The first " Stigmatic " was a portrait lens, series I., 1896, f14. It has been made in two forms, first with a triple front lens, and a back negative system formed of a single thick crown lens of high refractivity with a negative ce mented meniscus. In the second form (fig. 41) the front component consists of a cemented positive and negative, and both parts of the back component are cemented lenses. All the converging lenses are of dense baryta crown, while both the diverging lenses in the back component are a light silicate crown. It is fully corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration, free from distortion and nearly so for astigmatism, giving equal illumination over a flat field of 60°. Diffusion of focus is obtained by unscrewing the back cell. Series II. (1897) is on the same principle but differs in construction, working at f/6 over an angle of 85° as a universal and convertible lens (fig. 42). The front or back component can be used alone, giving the choice of two focal lengths, 13 and twice the focal length of the complete lens. The principles of its construction were described by T. R. Dallmeyer in Ph. Jour. 1897, 21, p. 167. Series III., f17.5, will at f/16 give sharp definition over a plate two sizes larger. The single components are not convertible.
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In 1897 Messrs Zeiss issued the " Planar," an objective of large aperture based on the principle of the Gauss telescope objective. .It is a symmetrical doublet, each element consisting of three lenses, the two inner ones being a double convex and a double concave, of equal refractive but different dispersive power, cemented together and separated by an air-space from the outer convex meniscus (fig.^ I believe the most common problem lies when you work with two or three different software’s instead getting used to one, learning and understanding it properly.

43). Its special points are its good colour correction, large relative aperture and intensity, varying from f/3.6 to f/6, with perfectly sharp definition and anastigmatic flatness of field over an angle of view from 62° to 72°. .It is a very rapid wide-angle lens useful for instantaneous work with the cinematograph and hand cameras, also for portraits and groups, photo-micrography and enlargements or reductions (see E. Jb., 1898, p.^ I used a Canon 1DMarkIII camera + 28-300L lens.

^ Aperture 2 also lets you work with most DNG files.1 Shoot JPEG? Using Aperture, you can import JPEG images from virtually all digital cameras.

^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

79, Von Rohr, p. 390, and Lummer, p. 81). .Apochromatic planars with reduced secondary spectrum were brought out in 1903 for three-colour photography, and are also useful for astrophotography, the circle of diffusion being very small.^ For someone who’s just starting in Photography using iPhoto or Aperture 2 maybe this is a very good choice.

^ Below are some very common terms used through out Aperture and in Digital Photography today.

^ There are some great photographers out there who use neither Nikon or Canon, the problem in today’s Photography is very simple…we go and look at the web, checking reports etc.

The " Unar " (1900), f/4.5 in the smaller and f/6.5 in the larger sizes, angle 65° and 68°, was a further improvement by Dr Rudolph. It FIG. 41. - Stigmatic Portrait Lens. Series I.
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?I. c? FIG. 42. - Stigmatic Lens. Series II.
consists of two unsymmetrical combinations, each formed of two single lenses of very transparent glass, dense baryta crown and light flint, separated by positive and negative air-spaces (fig. 44). The separate halves cannot be used as single lenses, neither being fully corrected for colour. .It is well adapted for portraiture, groups or landscapes, especially for rapid hand camera work, on account of its covering power, with freedom from astigmatism and sharp definition with large relative aperture.^ Aperture works with RAW images through every step of the digital workflow and supports the RAW formats from all leading digital camera manufacturers.

^ Aperture 2 also lets you work with most DNG files.1 Shoot JPEG? Using Aperture, you can import JPEG images from virtually all digital cameras.

FIG. 43. - Planar. Series Ia. f/4. FIG. 44. - Zeiss's " Unar." In 1898 Messrs Goerz patented their " Double Anastigmat Celor," series Ib., f/4.5 to f/5.5. It is a symmetrical doublet, each element consisting of two thin single lenses: a positive of high and a negative of low refractive index, separated by an air-space (fig. 45). It is derived from the triple anastigmats by decreasing the refractive power of the central convex meniscus to the refractive power of air, so that it becomes a convex air-space between a double convex and a double concave lens. Less deeply curved surfaces can be given to the lenses, and the doublet gives anastigmatic flatness of field over an angle of 62° to 66°, equal to the best anastigmats with a still larger aperture. Series Ic., f/6.3, is similar and recommended for hand cameras, the aperture being smaller. Goerz's " Hypergon," (1900) 1/22, angle 135°, is a FIG. 45. - Goerz's " Celor." FIG. 46. - Goerz's " Alethar." symmetrical doublet of remarkable construction, consisting of only two single semi-globular, very thin lenses, with diaphragm at the centre of curvature between them. Astigmatism and curvature have been eliminated, and definition is good over the above wide angle with no distortion. Chromatic aberration is uncorrected, but compensated for by using a small stop. A star mask is fitted in front of the lens to allow for falling off of illumination towards the margin (E. Jb., 1901, p. 103). .The " Syntor " (1903), Series Id., f/6.8, angle 64° to 70°, is on the same principle as the " Celor," but cheaper, for use in hand cameras or telephoto combinations.^ In other words Vision first, then the capture of the image via any media using a camera or through the hand of a painter.

The " Alethar," series V. (1903), fir', is a lens with diminished secondary spectrum, for three-colour reproductions, half-tone process work, and general purposes. It is a symmetrical doublet, each element consisting of a negative and positive separated by an air-space (fig. 46). The negative is composed of three cemented lenses, which correct the spherical and chromatic aberrations more fully than hitherto possible, so that all the colours of the spectrum are focused in the same invariable plane. It gives great crispness of definition at full aperture (W. Zschokke, E. Jb., 1904, p. 165). .Goerz's " Pannar," f/6.3 (1904), is a convertible 4-lens anastigmat, and an improvement on the " Dagor," in that the single elements are completely corrected for coma, and thus form efficient long-focus lenses for landscape, &c., at an aperture of f/12.5, while the doublets formed by various combinations of the single elements are universal objectives working from f/6.3 to f17.7. The single elements are similar to those of the " Dagor," but have an additional negative lens at the back, so that the outer two of the three cemented surfaces have a collective and the inner one a dispersive action, by which coma is eliminated (E. Jb., 1905, p.^ That is roughly one camel for every 20 people, and the population is set to double over the next decade unless some form of action is taken.

^ Now We Know...what is Aperture 2...the first day and 12 hours later, two sessions of Photography and Aperture 2 at the Power Mac Center in Makati, Manila .

^ For myself this is certainly one of the best new addition in Aperture 2 not to mention all these other cool things I have reported earlier in my Blogs…and of course the new speed…all for a fantastic price… two votes today for Aperture 2 and to those guys and girls who where part in developing/creating Aperture...

55).
In 1902 H. L. Aldis issued the " Aldis Lens," f/6, a doublet composed of a cemented meniscus in front and a single double convex back lens. It is a long-focus objective with short back focus, and is made in two forms, series II., f/6 (fig. 47), and series III. (1903), f/7.7 (fig. 48). In the latter the back element is very thin, and the front combination of infinite focal length. By discarding the symmetrical form simplicity is secured, while open or reflecting surfaces are avoided. Special attention has been paid to perfect correction of spherical aberration in the centre of the field. It is lighter, smaller and cheaper than series II. The " Duo " lens of the same maker (1907) is intended to replace the front lens and double the focus, but with less rapidity and without any loss of quality. .The " Trio " (1908) is similar, but only increases the focus one and a half times and is thus more suitable for cameras of short extension.^ I use Photoshop to make the image, but because it is made from only one negative/raw file it requires a particular approach to using the camera to get a file that can accept the manipulation.

^ I ask him to run up the stairs just one more time so I can capture this magic moment.

The Aldis " Oxys " anastigmat, Series II. (1908), f/5.65, angle 85°, is an improved form. .Being an unsymmetrical cemented doublet it is free from the defects incidental to air-spaces and is constructed to give more perfect correction for flatness of field with large aperture and wide angle.^ Aperture 2 the perfect companion in the field and at home, introduction and solution for todays DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHER above and below the waves.

^ Not only that, Aperture is the perfect companion in the field providing you with all the editing tools you need and by the time you get back home from a trip your work is almost done.

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.It is generally stated that it is impossible to make a spherically, chromatically and anastigmatically corrected photographic objective with the old optical glasses.^ I can make some correction just like before, the good old fashion w