Physical attractiveness: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Physical attractiveness

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adonis restored and completed by François Duquesnoy, formerly in the collection of Cardinal Mazarin (Louvre Museum).
Venus de Milo on display at the Louvre

Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as aesthetically pleasing or beautiful, and can include various implications such as sexual attractiveness and physique. What is considered physically attractive is dependent on three factors: universal perceptions common to all human cultures, cultural and social aspects and individual subjective preferences. Despite universally held perceptions of beauty in both sexes, males tend to place significantly higher value on physical appearance in a partner than women do.[1][2] This can be explained by evolutionary psychology as a consequence of ancestral humans who selected partners based on secondary sexual characteristics, as well as general indicators of fitness (for example, symmetrical features) enjoying greater reproductive success as a result of higher fertility in those partners, although a male's ability to provide resources for offspring was likely signalled less by physical features.[1] This is because the most prominent indicator of fertility in women is youth, while the traits in a man that enhance reproductive success are proxies for his ability to accrue resources and protect.[3] There appear to be universal standards regarding attractiveness both within and across cultures and ethnic groups.[4]

Physical attractiveness can have a significant effect on how people are judged. In terms of employment or social opportunities, friendship, sexual behavior, and marriage.[5] In many cases, humans attribute positive characteristics, such as intelligence and honesty, to attractive people without consciously realizing it.[6] In certain instances, physical attractiveness is distinct from sexual attraction; humans may regard the young as attractive for various reasons, for example, but without sexual attraction.

Contents

Determinants of male physical attractiveness

Physical Style

Studies have shown that ovulating heterosexual women and gay men prefer faces with masculine traits associated with increased testosterone, such as heavy brows, wide jaws, and broad cheekbones. Women who are in the late luteal or early follicular phases of the menstrual cycle (or those taking hormonal contraception) do not prefer masculine male faces.[7][8][9] These are suggested to be a reliable indication of good health, or, alternatively, that dominant- and masculine-looking males are more likely to achieve high status.[10] However, the correlation between attractive facial features and health has been questioned.[11] Also, females tend to prefer different facial traits in short-term and long-term partners, and sociocultural factors, such as self-perceived attractiveness, status in a relationship and degree of gender-conformity, have been reported to play a role in female preferences for male faces.[12]

Symmetry

Symmetrical faces and bodies may be signs of good inheritance to women of child-bearing age seeking to create healthy offspring. Some studies suggested that women at peak fertility were more likely to fantasize about men with greater symmetry.[13] Studies suggest women are more attracted to men with symmetrical features, and noticed correlations between symmetry and other variables typically associated with masculinity, such as greater height, broader shoulders, and smaller hip-to-waist ratios.[14] Facial and body symmetry may indicate good health, which is a desirable feature.[14] The symmetrical nature of a male partner may be a variable influencing whether a woman, during sexual intercourse, is able to achieve an orgasm; one study suggested that orgasmic frequency increases from 30% to 75% when their male partners were described as more symmetrical.[15]

V-shaped torso and muscularity

The mesomorphic physique of a slim waist, broad shoulders and muscular chest are often found to be attractive.[16] A near-universal sexually attractive feature of a man is a v-shaped torso: a relatively narrow waist offset with broad shoulders. While some cultures prefer their males huskier and others leaner, the rule of a v-shaped torso generally holds true. Consistently, men with a waist-to-shoulder ratio of 0.75 or lower are viewed as considerably more attractive than men with more even waists and shoulders.[17] A degree of hirsuteness and a waist-to-shoulder ratio of 0.6 is often preferred, when combined with a mesomorphic physique.[18]


A normal level of the hormone testosterone is a possible indicator of good sexual health. In the absence of normal testosterone levels, a man may have reduced height and muscularity.

Height and erect posture

Females' sexual attraction towards males is sometimes partly determined by the height of the man.[19] Height in men is associated with status in many cultures, which is beneficial to women romantically involved with them. This preference may have been passed on genetically.[20] As a corollary, shorter men may be viewed as less attractive, all other things being equal, for casual and intended long-term relationships. One study conducted of women's personal ads support the existence of this preference; the study found that in ads requesting height in a mate, 80 percent requested a height of 6 feet or taller.[20] However, this percentage was only of ads specifying height, and therefore possibly self-selected and/or biased by a third factor such as female height.

Additionally, women seem more receptive to an erect posture than men, though both prefer it as an element of beauty; this fact appears correlated to the preference for males who demonstrate confidence, physical strength, and a powerful bearing.[20]

Cosmopolitan Magazine published an article suggesting that women are most attracted to men who are 1.1 times their own height. The article also argued, on the basis of a survey of their readers, that women are statistically more likely to be attracted to men of average height when looking for long-term commitment, while the opposite is true when a short-term relationship is intended. In addition, the article claimed that women may have these different preferences for height depending on the phase of their menstrual cycle at the time.[21] While women usually desire men to be at least the same height as themselves or taller, several other factors also determine male attractiveness, and the male-taller norm is not universal.[22]

Hairiness

Studies based in California, New Zealand, and China have shown that women rate men with no body hair as most attractive, and that attractiveness ratings decline as hirsutism increases.[23][24] Another study found a moderate amount of trunk hair was most attractive, to the sample of British and Sri Lankan women. [18]

Variability in preferences

It has been shown that women prefer more masculine men during the fertile period of the menstrual cycle and more feminine men during other parts of the cycle.[25] This distinction supports the sexy son hypothesis, which posits that it is evolutionarily advantageous for women to select potential fathers who are traditionally masculine rather than the best caregivers.[26] Masculine facial features are characterized by a prominent chin, strong brow, a strong nose, pronounced mouth and lips, a high forehead[citation needed] and a prominent lower jaw whereas feminine features are less pronounced. According to one study, men with facial scars are more attractive to Western women seeking short-term relationships; this may be due to the perception that facial scars are a symbol of high testosterone and masculinity.[27]

Long legs

One study suggested women prefer men with longer legs. Research compared the attractiveness of men of similar height but with different lengths of their legs and concluded that women found longer legs to be more attractive. Researchers hypothesized that longer legs were not only an aesthetic feature but indicated good health.[28]

Determinants of female physical attractiveness

Features such as a symmetrical face, large breasts, and low waist-hip ratio are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. The determinants of female physical attractiveness include those aspects that display health and fitness for reproduction and sustenance. These include correlates of fertility such as youth,[29] waist-hip ratio,[30] breast size,[31] breast symmetry,[32] body mass proportion[33] and facial symmetry.[34][35] Though it has been said that facial attractiveness and symmetry signal good health, it has been questioned and said not to be highly related to good health.[36]

Facial alignment

In a study by University of Louisville psychologist Michael Cunningham, dimensions and proportions of what was regarded as attractive emerged with remarkable consistency. The ideal attractive female face featured "eye width that is three-tenths the width of the face at the eyes' level; chin length, one-fifth the height of the face; distance from the center of the eye to the bottom of the eyebrow, one-tenth the height of the face; the height of the visible eyeball, one-fourteenth the height of the face; the width of the pupil, one-fourteenth the distance between the cheekbones; and the total area for the nose, less than 5 percent of the area of the face."[37] Very small differences mattered; for example, "the ideal mouth was half or 50 percent the width of the face at mouth level; if that percentage varied "by as little at 10 points," the face was rated as less attractive.[37] The study found the "beauty of the female face ... is mathematically quantifiable."[37]

Desired traits were large female eyes, small chin and nose, and these "infantlike features draw out in them the same caretaking response a baby would–they make a woman seem cute and adorable."[37] Further, high wide cheekbones and narrow cheeks are "signs that a woman has reached puberty" and "high eyebrows, dilated pupils and wide smile" signal excitement and sociability.[37] One psychologist speculated there were two opposing principles of female beauty: prettiness and rarity. So average, symmetrical features is one ideal, while unusual, stand-out features is another.[38] A study performed by the University of Toronto found that the most attractive facial dimensions were those found in the average female face. However, the study looked only at white women.[39]

Signals of youth

Because female fecundity typically declines after the late twenties, youth is an important aspect of physical attractiveness.[40] One study across 37 cultures showed men desire, on average, a woman 2.5 years younger than themselves for a wife, with men in Nigeria and Zambia at the far extreme, desiring their wives to be 6.5 to 7.5 years younger. As men age, they also desire a larger age gap from their mates.[29] The reasons for this preference are currently debated.

This preference for youth has also led to a preference of neotenic and youthful-appearing features. High, firm breasts,[41][42] fair or long and lustrous hair (or a combination of the three),[29][41][43][44][45] full red lips,[46][47][48] clear smooth skin, and clear eyes, are viewed as attractive in women.[29]

Breast size

Full breasts may be attractive to men in Western societies because women with higher breast to under-breast ratios typically have higher levels of the sex hormone, estradiol, which promotes fertility.[49] Larger breasts also display the aging process more noticeably, hence they are a relatively reliable indicator of long-term fertility.[50]

Proportion of body mass to body structure

Social ideals of body proportions can change. This 1895 advertisement promotes a weight gain product.

The Body Mass Index (BMI) is another important universal determinant to the perception of beauty.[33] The BMI refers to the proportion of the body mass to the body structure. However, the optimal body proportion is interpreted differently in various cultures. The Western ideal considers a slim and slender body mass as optimal while many historic cultures consider an embonpoint or plump body-mass as appealing.[51][52] Men do not appear to have evolved to hold a particular build as more attractive, but rather to be drawn to whichever build associates with social status.[52]

In the United States, women overestimate men's preferences for thinness in a mate. In one study, American women were asked to choose what their ideal build was and what they thought the build most attractive to men was. Women chose slimmer than average figures for both choices, though when American men were independently asked to choose the female build most attractive to them, they (the men) chose figures of average build, indicating that women may be misled as to how thin men prefer women to be.[52] Some speculate that thinness as a beauty standard is one way in which women judge each other.[38] A reporter asked: "Why do women suffer to look like skeletons even when men don’t want them to?" and wondered whether "women's aesthetic judgments are so influenced by other women."[38] The reporter surmised that thinness is prized among women as a "sign of independence, strength and achievement."[38] Some blame the fashion industry from pushing an "unnatural thinness" with "waiflike models who paraded down the catwalk" and that these unattainable and dangerous examples of slimness could be harmful to young, impressionable women.[53] There is speculation that some beauty standards for thinness are harmful to women since they encourage extreme dieting; in one instance, a Ralph Lauren advertisement of a model was digitally altered to make her hips appear thinner than her head, and the distorted image caused controversy about whether the thin-beauty standard was false and harmful.[54]

The attraction for a proportionate body also influences an appeal for erect posture.[55]

Waist-hip ratio

Notwithstanding wide cultural differences in preferences for female build, scientists have discovered that the waist-hip ratio (WHR) of any build is very strongly correlated to attractiveness across cultures.[52] Women with a 0.7 WHR (waist circumference that is 70% of the hip circumference) are usually rated as more attractive by men from European cultures. Such diverse beauty icons as Jessica Alba,[56][57] Marilyn Monroe, Salma Hayek, Sophia Loren, and the Venus de Milo all have ratios around 0.7.[58] In other cultures, preferences vary,[59] ranging from 0.6 in China,[60] to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts of South America and Africa,[61][62][63] and divergent preferences based on ethnicity, rather than nationality, have also been noted.[64][65] The hourglass shape characterized by a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.7 has been described as attractive.[66]

BWH

BWH is an abbreviation of "bust, waist, and hip measurement," and, like waist-hip ratio, it is referred to in popular culture as an indicator of (female) attractiveness. A commonly referred-to "ideal" set of BWH measurements is 36-24-36 (i.e. an hourglass shape.) One issue with the BWH measurement as an absolute indicator is that breast cup size significantly impacts the perceived appearance of woman with similar measurements.

Height

Most men exhibit a preference for females of shorter physical stature than themselves.[67][68] Women .7 to 1.7 standard deviations below the mean in height have been reported to be the most reproductively successful. One explanation for this observation is that since most men demonstrate a preference for women shorter than themselves, being shorter allows a woman access to a larger potential dating pool.[67] However, in some non-Western cultures, height is irrelevant in choosing a mate; this indicates that the Western tendency for men to prefer women shorter than themselves is sociocultural in nature.[22]

Prototypicality as beauty

Besides biology and culture, there are other factors determining physical attractiveness. The more common features a face bears, the more highly it is usually judged to be attractive. This may be a result of the familiarity of common facial features, an example of the mere exposure effect. When many faces are combined into a composite image (through computer morphing), people usually view the resulting image as more familiar, attractive, and beautiful than the faces that were combined to make the composite.[69]

One interpretation is that this shows an inherent human preference for prototypicality. That is, the resultant face emerges with the salient features shared by most faces, and hence becomes the prototype. The prototypical face and features is therefore perceived as symmetrical and familiar. This may reveal an "underlying preference for the familiar and safe over the unfamiliar and potentially dangerous."[34] However, critics of this interpretation point out that compositing computer images also has the effect of removing skin blemishes such as scars, and generally softens sharp facial features.

Classical conceptions of beauty are essentially a celebration of this "prototypicality." This may show the importance of prototypicality in the judgment of beauty, and also explain the emergence of similarity of the perception of attractiveness within a community or society, which shares a gene pool.

Skin tone

In his foreword to Peter Frost's 2005 Fair Women, Dark Men, University of Washington sociologist Pierre L. van den Berghe writes: "Although virtually all cultures express a marked preference for fair female skin, even those with little or no exposure to European imperialism, and even those whose members are heavily pigmented, many are indifferent to male pigmentation or even prefer men to be darker."[70] A consequence of this is that, since higher-ranking men get to marry the more attractive women, the upper classes of a society generally tend to develop a lighter complexion than the lower classes by sexual selection (see also Fisherian runaway).[71]

In eastern parts of Asia, including Southeast Asia, a preference for lighter skin remains prevalent.[citation needed] In East Asia in particular, fair skin is associated with beauty and youth, since skin darkens with exposure to the sun and aging. This conflation of youth and beauty is not exclusive to East Asia, and can be linked to the phenomenon of neoteny. Thus, skin whitening cosmetic products are popular in East Asia. A preference for fair skin however is not a recent development, and in China, for example, can be traced back to ancient drawings depicting women and goddesses with fair skin tones. While in Malaysia, up to 48% of Malaysian women use skin whitening products[citation needed]. Some Asian women, trying to conform to a Western beauty standard, have plastic surgery known as blepharoplasty to alter their eyelids to make their eyes "appear fuller, less slanted, more Western."[72] A reporter found plastic surgery was booming in South Korea as a result and wrote "Korea’s standard for beauty is this: the more Western you look, the better."[72]

The perception of beauty can be influenced by racial stereotypes about skin color; the African American journalist Jill Nelson wrote that "to be both prettiest and black was impossible"[73] and elaborated:

"As a girl and young woman, hair, body, and color were society's trinity in determining female beauty and identity, the cultural and value-laden gang of three that formed the boundaries and determined the extent of women's visibility, influence, and importance. For the most part, they still are. We learn as girls that in ways both subtle and obvious, personal and political, our value as females is largely determined by how we look. As we enter womanhood, the pervasive power of this trinity is demonstrated again and again in how we are treated by the men we meet, the men we work for, the men who wield power, how we treat each other and, most of all, ourselves. For black women, the domination of physical aspects of beauty in women's definition and value render us invisible, partially erased, or obsessed, sometimes for a lifetime, since most of us lack the major talismans of Western beauty. Black women find themselves involved in a lifelong effort to self-define in a culture that provides them no positive reflection."[73]

Social effects of attractiveness

When a person is seen as attractive or unattractive, assumptions are brought into play. Across cultures, what is beautiful is assumed to be good. Attractive people are assumed to be more extroverted, popular, and happy. This could lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy; from a young age, attractive people receive more attention that helps them develop these characteristics.[74][75] But attractiveness varies by society; in ancient China, a "set of withered or amputated toes at the end of crippled feet, which were jammed into the smallest possible slipper," was attractive, so foot binding was practiced by confining young girls' feet in tightly bound shoes to prevent the feet from growing to normal size.[76]

Physical attractiveness can have various effects. A survey conducted by London Guildhall University of 11,000 people showed that those who subjectively describe themselves as physically attractive earn more income than others who would describe themselves as less attractive.[77] People who described themselves as less attractive earned, on average, 13% less than those who described themselves as more attractive, while the penalty for being overweight was around 5%. It is important to note that other factors such as self-confidence may explain or influence these findings as they are based on self-reported attractiveness as opposed to any sort of objective criteria; however, as one's self-confidence and self-esteem are largely learned from how one is regarded by his/her peers while maturing, even these considerations would suggest a significant role for physical appearance. One writer speculated that "the distress created in women by the spread of unattainable ideals of female beauty" might possibly be linked to increasing incidents of depression.[78]

One writer wondered whether free-market capitalist systems encourage female beauty, based on the writer's speculation that in the days of the Soviet Union, there had been no "market for female beauty" with fashion magazines and TV series which "depended upon beautiful women for high ratings" and few "men rich enough to seek out beautiful women and marry them."[79] So Russian women began seeming to be more attractive after the end of communism and the switch to free markets with fancy clothes, cosmetics, and fashion magazines, according to this writer.[79] Beauty advertising in capitalist countries is big business and tends to use one of two approaches: "show the customer the bombshell they could be with the help of a certain makeup or diet", or "show the fearful consequences of declining: the horrible frizzy hair or monstrous pimples that will develop if you dare pass up a certain shampoo or face wash."[80]

Many have asserted that certain advantages tend to come to those who are perceived as being more attractive, including the ability to get better jobs and promotions; receiving better treatment from authorities and the legal system; having more choices in romantic partners and, therefore, more power in relationships; and marrying into families with more money.[74][75][81]

Both men and women use physical attractiveness as a measure of how 'good' another person is.[82] Some have proposed that discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance should be referred to as Lookism.[citation needed]

Some researchers conclude that little difference exists between men and women in terms of sexual behavior.[83][84] Symmetrical men and women have a tendency to begin to have sexual intercourse at an earlier age, to have more sexual partners, to engage in a wider variety of sexual activities, and to have more one-night stands. They are also prone to infidelity and are more likely to have open relationships.[85] Additionally, they have the most reproductive success. Therefore, their physical characteristics are most likely to be inherited by future generations.[86][87][88][89]

In the novel Skin Deep by Diana Wagman, a former topless waitress answers a classified ad seeking from a man wanting to learn about beauty; he asks her to wear a shapeless navy blue costume to hide her attractiveness during these discussions.[90] And the waitress discovers that it's difficult to separate her identity as a person from her physical appearance.[90] Columnist Maureen Dowd thought that the feminist movement would have changed the rules regarding beauty, but concluded after forty years that "the ideal of feminine beauty is more rigid and unnatural than ever" and she still felt imprisoned by the "tyranny of the girdled, primped ideal of the 50's."[91] She wrote:

What I don't like now is that the young women rejecting the feminist movement are dressing alike, looking alike and thinking alike. The plumage is more colorful, the shapes are more curvy, the look is more plastic, the message is diametrically opposite - before it was don't be a sex object; now it's be a sex object - but the conformity is just as stifling.[91]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Buss, David (2003) [1994] (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 57, 58, 60–63. 
  2. ^ Stephen J. Dubner (July 9, 2007). The New York Times. http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/07/09/the-science-of-large-breasts-and-other-evolutionary-verities/?apage=3. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  3. ^ Abigail Trafford, Andrew Cherlin (Mar. 6, 2001). "Second Opinion: Men's Health & Marriage". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/liveonline/01/health/health0306.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "The major reason for the imbalance between men and women in the later decades of life is because men tend to marry younger women as they get older." 
  4. ^ Maxims or Myths of Beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review," J.H. Langlois, L. Kalakanis, A.J. Rubenstein, A. Larson, M. Hallam, & M. Smoot, Psychological Bulletin, 2000, 126, 390-423.
  5. ^ Lorenz, Kate. (2005). "Do Pretty People Earn More?" www.CNN.com.
  6. ^ Dion, K., Berscheid, E., Walster, E. (1972). "What is beautiful is good." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24(3), 285-290.
  7. ^ The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Rhodes G. Annu Rev Psychol. 2006;57:199-226.
  8. ^ Glassenberg, AN, Feinberg, DF, Jones, BC, Little, AC, Debruine, LM.(2009) Sex-Dimorphic Face Shape Preference in Heterosexual and Homosexual Men and Women. Arch Sex Behavior. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19830539)
  9. ^ Perrett, D. I., Lee, K. J., Penton-Voak, I. S., Rowland, D. R., Yoshikawa, S., Burt, D. M., Henzi, S. P., Castles, D. L. & Akamatsu, S. (1998). Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness. Nature, 394, 884-887. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v394/n6696/full/394884a0.html
  10. ^ Male facial appearance signals physical strength to women. Fink B, Neave N, Seydel H. Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Jan-Feb;19(1):82-7.
  11. ^ Does sexual dimorphism in human faces signal health? Rhodes G, Chan J, Zebrowitz LA, Simmons LW. Proc Biol Sci. 2003 Aug 7;270 Suppl 1:S93-5.
  12. ^ Psychobiology of facial attractiveness. Cellerino A. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003;26(3 Suppl):45-8.
  13. ^ Tim Radford (17 August 2005). "How women dream of symmetrical men". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2005/aug/17/genderissues.research. Retrieved 2010-01-19. "The research once again confirms a hypothesis that beauty is not merely in the eye of the beholder: it is an indicator of genetic fitness. From a choice of computer-generated faces, volunteers routinely choose the most symmetrical as the most attractive. Physical symmetry is interpreted as a sign of good inheritance. And therefore, the theory goes, women in a position to conceive would be more attracted to someone more likely to engender the healthiest offspring." 
  14. ^ a b Stephen Khan and Roger Dobson (2 October 2005). "A symmetrical face isn't just prettier - it's healthier too". The Independent: Science. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/a-symmetrical-face-isnt-just-prettier--its-healthier-too-509285.html. Retrieved 2010-01-19. "For the perfectly proportioned face is also an indication that the body it sits atop is well prepared to fight off infection. The common cold, asthma and flu are all more likely to be combated efficiently by those whose left side matches their right." 
  15. ^ Patricia Palermo (2008-01-03). "Symmetry? Could This be the Answer to the Age Old Question; "What is Beauty?"". serendip. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1670. Retrieved 2010-01-19. "It is understandable that physical symmetry is subconsciously, as well as consciously, perceived as a sign of better health and even better strength and fertility. From a Darwinian approach, one must consider that a woman may be in search of a protector and one with great health to support the survival of her offspring, while a man may be in search of the healthiest women to carry and support his offspring." 
  16. ^ Physical attractiveness: The influence of selected torso parameters" in Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 10, No 1 1981.
  17. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article855409.ece Women seduced by ‘V man’ with a matted chest from www.timesonline.com.
  18. ^ a b Dixson, A. F. Halliwell, G. East, R. Wignarajah, P. Anderson, M. J. Archives of Sexual Behavior February 2003 Volume 32 Number 1 pp.29-39.
  19. ^ Pierce C. A. 1996; Cunningham, M.R. 1990; Pawlowski B, Dunbar RI, Lipowicz A 2000.
  20. ^ a b c Buss, David (2003) [1994] (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 38–40. 
  21. ^ Sohn, E. Health, Nov2005, Vol. 19 Issue 9.
  22. ^ a b Biol Lett. 2009 Oct 23;5(5):606-9. How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate. Sear R, Marlowe FW.
  23. ^ http://www.springerlink.com/content/y520080w61511h1m/ Human Physique and Sexual Attractiveness in Men and Women: A New Zealand-U.S. Comparative Study. Dixson BJ, Dixson AF, Bishop PJ, Parish A. Arch Sex Behav. 2009
  24. ^ Studies of human physique and sexual attractiveness: sexual preferences of men and women in China. Dixson BJ, Dixson AF, Li B, Anderson MJ. Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Jan-Feb;19(1):88-95.
  25. ^ "Women's choice of men goes in cycles". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/376321.stm. Retrieved 30 November 2006. 
  26. ^ University of Michigan.
  27. ^ Men with facial scars more attractive to women
  28. ^ ABC staff writer (Jan. 17, 2008). "Study: Men, Women Love Longer Legs". Good Morning America. http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/story?id=4147924. Retrieved 2010-01-19. "Researchers asked more than 200 male and female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of seven male and female images. All the people in the images were same the height, but each had different leg lengths, which varied 5, 10 and 15 percent longer than the social norm. The majority preferred legs 5 percent longer than average, followed by those that were 10 percent longer." 
  29. ^ a b c d Buss, David (2003) [1994] (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 51–54. 
  30. ^ Singh, D 1993
  31. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3682657.stm Hourglass figure fertility link - BBC News
  32. ^ Ellison, Joann Rodgers. Sex: A Natural History, Macmillan, 2003, pg. 102 ISBN 0805072810, 9780805072815
  33. ^ a b Tovee MJ, Reinhardt S, Emery JL, Cornelissen PL. 1998
  34. ^ a b Berscheid and Reis, 1998
  35. ^ Fink, B. & Penton-Voak, I.S. (2002)
  36. ^ Kalick, S. Michael; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Langlois, Judith H.; Johnson, Robert M. (January 1998). "Does Human Facial Attractiveness Honestly Advertise Health". Psychological Science 9 (1): 8–13. JSTOR 40063239. 
  37. ^ a b c d e DANIEL GOLEMAN (August 5, 1986). "EQUATION FOR BEAUTY EMERGES IN STUDIESEQUATION FOR BEAUTY EMERGES IN STUDIES". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/08/05/science/equation-for-beauty-emerges-in-studies.html?&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "Dimensions and proportions of what was regarded as attractive emerged with remarkable consistency and precision from Dr. Cunningham's research." 
  38. ^ a b c d John Tierney (January 18, 2007). "The Waif From Ipanema". New York Times. http://tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/01/18/the-waif-from-ipanema/. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "women’s aesthetic judgments are so influenced by other women. Men prefer the wider hips, and most likely could care less about high heels and handbags. Yet for many women all these things are essential to marking their beauty status with other women" 
  39. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8421076.stm
  40. ^ Sex Differences: Developmental and Evolutionary Strategies by Linda Mealey and Mother Nature by Sarah Hrdy.
  41. ^ a b Las Vegas Weekly - What's that in your genes?
  42. ^ Buss, David M. The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology,John Wiley and Sons, 2005, pg. 325 ISBN 0471264032, 9780471264033
  43. ^ "Recession Chic: why blondes are having more fun" By Carolyn Asome - The Times
  44. ^ Sherrow, Victoria. Encyclopedia of hair: a cultural history Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, pg. 149 ISBN 0313331456, 9780313331459
  45. ^ Buss, David M. The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology,John Wiley and Sons, 2005, pg. 309 ISBN 0471264032, 9780471264033
  46. ^ Brizendine, Louann The Female Brain Random House, Inc., 2006, pg. 63 ISBN 0767920104, 9780767920100
  47. ^ http://newhumanist.org.uk/2051 Red Alert - New Humanist
  48. ^ Liebmann-Smith, Joan /Egan, Jacqueline Nardi.Body Signs: How to Be Your Own Diagnostic Detective,Random House, Inc., 2007, pg. 102 ISBN 055380507X, 9780553805079
  49. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3682657.stm Hourglass figure fertility link - BBC News
  50. ^ "Physical Attractiveness in Adaptationist Perspective" in Evolutionary Psychology Handbook, Lawrence S. Sugiyama (2005).
  51. ^ Cunningham, M.R., Roberts, A.R., Barbee, A.P., Druen, P.B., & Wu, C.H. 1995
  52. ^ a b c d Buss, David (2003) [1994] (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 55,56. 
  53. ^ Nanci Hellmich (2006-09-26). "Do thin models warp girls' body image?". USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "The widespread concern that model thinness has progressed from willowy to wasted has reached a threshold as evidenced by the recent actions of fashion show organizers." 
  54. ^ Randy Cohen (October 20, 2009). "Should Photos Come With Warning Labels?". New York Times. http://ethicist.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/20/should-photos-come-with-warning-labels/?apage=10. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "A Ralph Lauren ad, featuring a model with hips narrower than her head — so cartoonish, so grotesque, so right for Halloween — has become the latest focus of the already ongoing criticism of digitally altered fashion spreads, even though it ran only in Japan" 
  55. ^ Furnham, Adrian, Gianna Caroline Fischer, Lauren Tanner, Melanie Dias, and Alastair McClelland 1998.
  56. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1561306/Jessica-Alba-has-the-perfect-wiggle-study-says.html
  57. ^ http://gizmodo.com/293838/mathemeticians-figure-out-what-makes-women-beautiful
  58. ^ BMI and Waist-hip Ratio: The Magic Number for Health and Beauty
  59. ^ Fisher, M.L.; Voracek M. (June 2006). "The shape of beauty: determinants of female physical attractiveness". J Cosmet Dermatol 5 (2): 190–4. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2006.00249.x. PMID 17173598. 
  60. ^ Dixson, B.J.; Dixson A.F., Li B., Anderson M.J. (January 2007). "Studies of human physique and sexual attractiveness: sexual preferences of men and women in China". Am J Hum Biol 19 (1): 88–95. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20584. PMID 17160976. 
  61. ^ Marlowe, F.; Wetsman, A. (2001). "Preferred waist-to-hip ratio and ecology" (PDF). Personality and Individual Differences 30 (3): 481–489. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00039-8. http://www.fas.harvard.edu/%7Ehbe-lab/acrobatfiles/preferred%20waist.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  62. ^ Marlowe, F.W.; Apicella, C.L. and Reed, D. (2005). "Men’s Preferences for Women’s Profile Waist-Hip-Ratio in Two Societies" (PDF). Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 458–468. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2005.07.005. http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hbe-lab/acrobatfiles/profilewhr.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  63. ^ Dixson, B.J.; Dixson A.F., Morgan B., Anderson M.J. (June 2007). "Human physique and sexual attractiveness: sexual preferences of men and women in Bakossiland, Cameroon". Arch Sex Behav 36 (3): 369–75. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9093-8. PMID 17136587. 
  64. ^ Freedman, R.E.; Carter M.M., Sbrocco T., Gray JJ. (August 2007). "Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?". Eat Behav 8 (3): 319–33. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.11.008. PMID 17606230. 
  65. ^ Freedman, R.E.; Carter M.M., Sbrocco T., Gray J.J. (July 2004). "Ethnic differences in preferences for female weight and waist-to-hip ratio: a comparison of African-American and White American college and community samples". Eat Behav. 5 (3): 191–8. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2004.01.002. PMID 15135331. 
  66. ^ Sharon Begley (December 3, 2008). "Hourglass Figures: We Take It All Back". Newsweek. http://blog.newsweek.com/blogs/labnotes/archive/2008/12/03/hourglass-figures-we-take-it-all-back.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "specifically, that men prefer women with an hourglass shape because that is a sign of fertility" 
  67. ^ a b BBC News: “Tall men ‘top husband stakes’”
  68. ^ http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/daniel.nettle/procroysoc.pdf
  69. ^ Buss, David (2003) [1994] (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 54,55. 
  70. ^ see Steve Sailer, Blondes Have Deeper Roots (2005)
  71. ^ Peter Frost "Fair Women, Dark Men: The Forgotten Roots of Color Prejudice," (2005).
  72. ^ a b Laura Gannarelli (August 13, 2008). "Beauty through the eyes of an Asian adoptee". Chicago Tribune. http://newsblogs.chicagotribune.com/race/2008/08/beauty-through.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "Right now, one of the most popular plastic surgeries for Asian women (and men) is getting their eyes “done” to look more Western. For an Asian adoptee growing up in a predominately white environment that only makes it tougher to figure out one’s identity." 
  73. ^ a b Jill Nelson (1997). "Straight, No Chaser—How I Became a Grown-Up Black Woman— WHO'S THE FAIREST OF THEM ALL?". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/n/nelson-straight.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "As a girl and young woman, hair, body, and color were society's trinity in determining female beauty and identity... We learn as girls that in ways both subtle and obvious, personal and political, our value as females is largely determined by how we look." 
  74. ^ a b Cash, T.F; Gillen, B; & Burns, D.S; 1977
  75. ^ a b Clark, M.S; & Mills, J. (1979)
  76. ^ JONATHAN E. BERMAN (letter to the editor) (November 30, 1993). "Understand Female Genital Mutilation, Yes, but Don't Condone It". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/30/opinion/l-understand-female-genital-mutilation-yes-but-don-t-condone-it-015393.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "The desired mark of beauty, put in plain language, was a set of withered or amputated toes at the end of crippled feet, which were jammed into the smallest possible slipper." 
  77. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/Careers/07/08/looks/ Do Pretty People Earn More from cnn.com
  78. ^ DANIEL GOLEMAN (December 8, 1992). "A Rising Cost Of Modernity: Depression". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/08/science/a-rising-cost-of-modernity-depression.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "Competing explanations range from a loss of beliefs in God or an afterlife that can buffer people against life's setbacks, to the stresses of industrialization, to the distress created in women by the spread of unattainable ideals of female beauty, to exposure to toxic substances." 
  79. ^ a b Megan McArdle (2008-01-29). "Markets in everything". The Atlantic. http://meganmcardle.theatlantic.com/archives/2008/01/markets_in_everything_3.php. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "To put it bluntly, in the Soviet Union there was no market for female beauty. No fashion magazines featured beautiful women, since there weren't any fashion magazines." 
  80. ^ Sarah Kliff (Mar 24, 2008). "Reverse Marketology—Why health and beauty companies are telling us we'd be just fine without buying a thing". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/128822. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "Beauty and health advertising typically operates under two basic models: show the customer the bombshell they could be with the help of a certain makeup or diet, or show the fearful consequences of declining" 
  81. ^ De Santis, A; and Kayson, W. A; 1999
  82. ^ Science rewrites the rules of attraction
  83. ^ Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Biology of beauty". Newsweek. June 3, 1996
  84. ^ Sexual atrractiveness predicted by voice attractiveness
  85. ^ Etcoff pp.50-53,185-187
  86. ^ Rhodes, Gillian; Zebrowitz, Leslie, A. (2002). Facial Attractiveness - Evolutionary, Cognitive, and Social Perspectives. Ablex. ISBN 1567506364. 
  87. ^ Edler R. J. "Background Considerations to Facial Aesthetics", (British) Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 2001, pp. 159-168.
  88. ^ Zaidel D. W., Aarde S. M., and Baig, K. "Appearance of symmetry, beauty, and health in human faces", Brain and Cognition 57(3):(2005) pp. 261-263.
  89. ^ Evolution producing more 'beautiful' women
  90. ^ a b COURTNEY WEAVER (October 26, 1997). "Not Pretty Enough–In this novel, a former topless waitress and a mysterious stranger agree that the beautiful are unafraid.". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/10/26/reviews/971026.26weavert.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "Diana Wagman's Skin Deep – which, thankfully, is a highly intelligent debut that asks some very disturbing questions about the power of female beauty." 
  91. ^ a b MAUREEN DOWD (October 30, 2005). "What's a Modern Girl to Do?". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/30/magazine/30feminism.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2009-11-06. "Keep thinking of yourself as a soft, mysterious cat... Men are fascinated by bright, shiny objects, by lots of curls, lots of hair on the head ... by bows, ribbons, ruffles and bright colors... Sarcasm is dangerous. Avoid it altogether." 

References and bibliography

  • Barber, N. (1995). The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16, 395-424.
  • Buss, D. M. (1985). Human mate selection. American Scientist, 73, 47-51.
  • Buss, D. M. (1992). Do women have evolved preferences for men with resources? Ethology and Sociobiology, 12, 401-408.
  • Buss, David (2003) [1994] (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. 
  • Buss, D. M., & Barnes, M. (1986). Preferences in human mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 559-570.
  • Cash, T.F; Gillen, B; & Burns, D.S; (1977) "Sexism and 'beautyism' in personnel consultant decision making." Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 301-310.
  • Clark, M.S; & Mills, J. (1979) "Interpersonal attraction in exchange and communal relationships." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 12-24.
  • Cunningham, M.R. (1990) "What do women want." Journal of personality & social psychology, 59, 61-72.
  • Cunningham, M.R.; Roberts, A.R.; Barbee, A. P.; Duren P.B.; & Wu, C.H.; (1995) "Their ideas of beauty are, on the whole, the same as ours: Consistency and Variability in the cross cultural perception of female physical attractiveness". Journal of Personality & social psychology, 68, 261 - 279.
  • De Santis, A.; and Kayson, W. A.; (1999) "Defendants charactersitics of attractiveness, race, & sex and sentencing decisions." Psychological reports, 81. 679 - 683.
  • Ellen Berscheid and Harry T. Reis. "Attraction and Close Relationships". In Daniel T. Gilbert, Susan T. Fiske, and Gardner Lindzey, editors, Handbook of Social Psychology, pages 193-281. New York: McGrawHill, 1998.
  • Etcoff, Nancy (1996) Survival of the Prettiest:the science of beauty, New York, Anchor Books ISBN 0385-47942-5
  • Fanzio, S. L., & Herzog, M. E. (1987). Judging physical attractiveness: What body aspects do we use? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 19-33.
  • Feinberg DR, Jones BC, Law Smith MJ, Moore FR, DeBruine LM, Cornwell RE, Hillier SG, Perrett DI. Horm Behav. 2006 Feb;49(2):215-22. Epub August 1, 2005.
  • Fink, B. & Penton-Voak, I.S. (2002). Evolutionary Psychology of Facial Attractiveness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5). 154-158.
  • Fisher, Helen. (2004) Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love, Henry Holt and Co.,
  • Furnham, Adrian, Melanie Dias, and Alastair McClelland (1998) The role of body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and breast size in judgments of female attractiveness. Sex Roles 39:311-26.
  • Grammer, K., Fink, B., Møller, A.P. & Thornhill, R. (2003). Darwinian Aesthetics: Sexual Selection and the Biology of Beauty. Biological Reviews, 78(3), 385-407.
  • Harper, B. "Beauty, Statute and the Labour Market: A British Cohort Study", Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 62, December 2000, pp773–802. Press release and summary
  • Hughes, S.M., & Gallup, G.G. (2003). Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior. Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24(3), 173-178.
  • Kasser, T. and Sharma, Y. S. (1999). Reproductive freedom, educational equality, and females' preference for resource acquisition characteristics in mates. Psychological Science, 10: 374-377.
  • Katch, F. I. (1993). The body profile analysis system (BPAS) to estimate ideal body size and shape: Application to ballet dancers and gymnasts. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 71, 69-83.
  • Pawlowski B, Dunbar RI, Lipowicz A (2000) Evolutionary fitness: tall men have more reproductive success;Nature,13 January 2000, n. 403 (6766):156
  • Pierce C. A. (1996) Body Height and Romantic Attraction: A Meta-Analytic Test of the Male-Taller Norm, Social Behavior and Personality,24 (2), 143-150
  • Rikowski, A., & Grammer, K. (1999). Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness Proceedings. of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 869-874.
  • Singh, D. (1995). Female judgment of male attractiveness and desirability for relationships: Role of waist-to-hip ratio and financial status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6), 1089-1101.
  • Singh, D; (1993) "Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist - to - hip ratio". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 293 - 307
  • Tovee MJ, Reinhardt S, Emery JL, Cornelissen PL. (1998) Optimum body-mass index and maximum sexual attractiveness. Lancet; 352(9127):548
  • Waynforth, D. (2001) Mate Choice Trade-offs and Women's Preference for Physically Attractive Men. Human Nature 12:207-219.

External links


Simple English

Physical attractiveness means the different physical characteristics that different people consider to be beautiful in other humans. Physical attractiveness can also include sexual attractiveness, ideas about beauty, proportions, muscular development, and appearance.

Physical attractiveness means different things to different people and to different human cultures. There is no single definition of physical attractiveness.

In men, physical attractiveness may include slim waist[1] and height.[2] Female physical attractiveness might include youth,[3] waist-hip ratio,[4] mid upper arm circumference,[5] body mass proportion[6] and facial symmetry.[7][8]

References

  1. Physical attractiveness: The influence of selected torso parameters" in Archives of Sexual Behavior Volume 10, No 1 1981
  2. Pierce C. A. 1996; Cunningham, M.R. 1990; Pawlowski B, Dunbar RI, Lipowicz A 2000
  3. Buss, David (2003) [1994] (in English) (hardcover). The Evolution of Desire (second ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 51-54. 
  4. Singh, D 1993
  5. Girl power; Human evolution.(Mothers, malnutrition and daughters) Economist (US), The, May, 22, 2003
  6. Tovee MJ, Reinhardt S, Emery JL, Cornelissen PL. 1998
  7. Berscheid and Reis, 1998
  8. Fink, B. & Penton-Voak, I.S. (2002)







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message