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Physical education equipment storage in Calhan, Colorado.

Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. or P.E.) or gymnastics (gym or gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting. The term physical education is commonly used to denote they have participated in the subject area rather than studied it."[1]

The primary aims of physical education have varied, based on the needs of the time and place. Most modern schools' goal is to provide students with knowledge, skills, capacities, values, and the enthusiasm to maintain a healthy lifestyle into adulthood. Activities included in the program are designed to promote physical fitness, to develop motor skills, to instill knowledge and understanding of rules, concepts, and strategies. Students learn to either work as part of a team, or as individuals, in a wide variety of competitive activities. In all states in the United States, physical education is offered to students from grades K through 12. Most states do require physical education from 6th through 9th grades and offer "elective" physical education classes from 10th through 12th grades.[citation needed]

Physical Education trends have developed recently to incorporate more activities into P.E. Introducing students to lifetime activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing. Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while teaching a unit about Lacrosse (in say Arizona), students can also learn a little bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada, where Lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above), which is required of every P.E. teacher these days.

There are also many different models that have been created as of late that change the face of P.E. One example of this is the Health Club Model. Teaching with this model is very different from the "Organized Recess" of 20 or 30 years ago. Spun off the boom in the health club industry, a P.E. class provides many of the same "classes" that are found at a health club. Monday a student could be doing kickboxing, the next day is yoga, Wednesday the student is doing Spinning. This type of program provides a great variety of activity for students, a lot a high intensity exercise, and helps introduce these activities for use later in life. The Sports Education model is another example of a new model were the class is run like a sports league, with students taking the role of coaches, scorers, referees, and reporters as well as players. Using this model, students practice management skills, mathematic skills, and writing skill all while learning sports skills and being active.

Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. [2] While teaching students sports and movement skills, P.E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum. This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class.

International P.E.

In the United States, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully reviewed drills and exercises, including exposure to the education with the use of pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors, as well as state-of-the-art exercise machines in the upper grades. Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources.

In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders.[3] Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodgeball, flag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these games have on young children. It is, however, important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut - leaving educators and students to address these needs in other ways.

In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every school week, except during examination seasons. Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, 'captain's ball' and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as tchoukball, fencing and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/ Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1.2 km for secondary/2.4 km for junior colleges run). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze and fail. NAPFA for Year 2 males in junior colleges serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail.

In Scotland, pupils are expected to do two periods of PE in first year, one in second year and two in third and fourth year. In fifth and sixth year, PE is voluntary.

Some countries include Martial Arts training in school as part of Physical Education class. Here, these children are doing karate.

In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their Physical Education curriculum.[4][5][6][7][8]

In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11.

In Wales, pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight.

In Nepal, physical education is poor and poorly organized because the educational system has only been recently established and is still adjusting to recent changes and updates. Nepal has not gone very far in the sector of education because the educational history of Nepal is very short. Before 1951, Nepal was under a monarchy. The monarchy did not wish to provide education to the citizens as it did not want them to be educated and therefore politically aware. Institution of democracy did not result in a modern educational system; what education there was little better. After 10 years of democracy the country again plunged into an autocratic monarchy. In 1990 democracy was restored and the education sector started to flourish. Since then, Physical Education became part of the school curriculum. At the primary level (1-5), some minor and local games are now taught, like hide and seek and some athletic based local events. In lower secondary level (6-8), the students are taught general concepts on major games like football, volleyball, basket ball, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi. They also learn some athletics like 100m race 100*4m relay race and some other minor and lead up games. In class Nine and ten it is an optional subject where they specialize in some games like volleyball, basketball, handball, cricket, Kho Kho Kabaddi, Badminton, table tennis and some athletics are also taught. In college it is taught in the education stream. Even though it is included in school curriculum, Nepal is not able to produce any worthwhile products of games and sports for reasons ranging from poverty to decentralized government.

Adapted Physical Education

Adapted Physical Education or APE, is a sub-discipline of physical education, focusing on inclusion and students with special needs.

References

  1. ^ Anderson, D. (1989). The Discipline and the Profession. Foundations of Canadian Physical Education, Recreation, and Sports Studies. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
  2. ^ Pangrazi, Robert (2007) "Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children" 15th ed.
  3. ^ Vanderbilt Television News Archive http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/program.pl?ID=483834
  4. ^ Jack & Jill School rules Nopsscea karatedo events
  5. ^ Is Arnis De Mano dead in the Philippines?
  6. ^ Regional Commissions and Chapters International Modern Arnis Federation Philippines Mindanao Commission
  7. ^ Mindanao Times News 2007 - Davao City 8000, Philippines: We learn from our children
  8. ^ Sunday Inquirer Magazine: Life Lessons from Karate"







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