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Physiology is the science of the functioning of living systems. It is a subcategory of biology. .In physiology, the scientific method is applied to determine how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical function that they have in a living system.^ The interest of the industry on nutrition physiology developed a great know how in the sector of laboratory analysing methods, in processing technologies, in packaging material and in storage.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Determination of the stage at which an adolescent is functioning must be determined by observation and evaluation of the reasoning applied by the child to the dilemmas he/she faces.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are carried out on cattle to facilitate management.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The word physiology is from Greek φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "study of".

Contents

History

Human physiology dates back to at least 420 B.C. and the time of Hippocrates,[1] the father of medicine. .The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece, while Claudius Galenus (c.^ The relation between latissimus dorsi skeletal muscle structure and contractile function after cardiomyoplasty.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.126-199 A.D.), known as Galen, was the first to use experiments to probe the function of the body.^ The sympathetic nervous system, used to regulate functions of the body, independent of concious thoughts, communicates with the adipose cells to initiate, continue or stop the fat burning.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

Galen was the founder of experimental physiology.[2] .The ancient Indian books of Ayurveda, the Sushruta Samhita and Charaka Samhita, also had descriptions on human anatomy and physiology.^ Comparisons and similarities between swine and human anatomy and physiology are also reviewed.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Their gastrointestinal anatomy has some significant differences from that of humans, however, the physiology of their digestive processes has made them a valuable model for digestive diseases.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The medical world moved on from Galvanism only with the appearance of Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey.[3]
.During the Middle Ages, the ancient Greek and Indian medical traditions were further developed by Muslism physicians, most notably Avicenna (980-1037), who introduced experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology in The Canon of Medicine.^ Experimental study of neorectal physiology after formation of a transverse coloplasty pouch.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ During early adolescence (ages 11-13), development usually centers around developing a new self-image due to their physiological changes.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the European EUREYE study age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the single most common cause of adult blind registration in many developed countries, including Europe.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many of the ancient physiological doctrines were eventually discredited by Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), who was the first physician to correctly describe the anatomy of the heart, the coronary circulation, the structure of the lungs, and the pulmonary circulation, for which he is considered the father of circulatory physiology.^ The beneficial health effects of these two n-3 fatty acids were first described in the Greenland Eskimos, who consumed a high-seafood diet and had low rates of coronary heart disease, asthma, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and multiple sclerosis.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The anatomy and physiology of organs such as the liver, pancreas, kidney and heart have also made this species the primary species of interest as organ donors for xenografic procedures.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .He was also the first to describe the relationship between the lungs and the aeration of the blood, the cause of pulsation,[5] and an early concept of capillary circulation.^ No statistically significant relationships between different types of supplements and lung cancer were found in this study.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That study, and others, encouraged researchers to look more deeply into the relationship between supplements and lung cancer, Dr. Slatore said.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A prospective, in vivo study of the relationship between blood flow hemodynamics and atherosclerosis in a hyperlipidemic swine model.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.Following from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance brought an increase of physiological research in the Western world that triggered the modern study of anatomy and physiology.^ This manuscript reviews the anatomy and physiology of swine as it relates to biomedical research.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the Honolulu Asia Aging Study reported an increased risk for loss of memory and dementia with high tofu intake.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cardiovascular anatomy, physiology and response to atherogenic diets have made them a universally standard model for the study of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and general cardiovascular studies.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Andreas Vesalius was an author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica.^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[7] Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.[8] .Anatomist William Harvey described the circulatory system in the 17th century,[9] demonstrating the fruitful combination of close observations and careful experiments to learn about the functions of the body, which was fundamental to the development of experimental physiology.^ The authors concluded that the reduction of dietary energy density, combining increased fruit and vegetable intakes with decreased fat intake, is an effective strategy for managing body weight.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The sympathetic nervous system, used to regulate functions of the body, independent of concious thoughts, communicates with the adipose cells to initiate, continue or stop the fat burning.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Has two functions: to allow urine to leave the body and to allow semen to be ejaculated; closed to urine during ejaculation.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as a father of physiology due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook Institutiones medicae (1708).[citation needed]
In the 18th century, important works in this field were by Pierre Cabanis, a french doctor and physiologist.[citation needed]
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, most notably in 1838 with the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, which radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter Cannon (1871–1945).
.In the 20th century, biologists also became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.^ The metabolic effects of Atkins diet were comparable or more favourable than those found in the other diets.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As each level and its respective stages are discussed below, it is important to remember that adolescents will function at a level or stage more so than others.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the courses in the specialization areas are offered by departments other than integrative physiology.

[10] .Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew.^ A student interested in pursuing an advanced degree in any of these programs must meet the general requirements as outlined as well as any additional requirements specified by the major field of study.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline[11].

Schools

.There are an abundance of universities that allow students to major in physiology.^ Students must complete the following course work before they may be admitted to the major in integrative physiology.

^ Admission to the major in integrative physiology is selective; students must apply and be admitted to the major.

^ Note: Students must be admitted to the integrative physiology or athletic training majors on schedule in order to complete a four-year graduation plan.

It is considered one of the fastest growing majors for undergraduate students.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Physiology - History of physiology, Branches of physiology
  2. ^ Thoracic Surgery Clinics: Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy, Stanley C. Fell and F. Griffith Pearson
  3. ^ Galen
  4. ^ Chairman's Reflections (2004), "Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting", Heart Views 5 (2), p. 74-85 [80].
  5. ^ Nahyan A. G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (died 1288)", pp. 224-229, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame.[1]
  6. ^ Paul Ghalioungui, Ibn an-Nafis, Cairo, 1966, pp. 109-129, and "The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation" for the Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait, 1982.
  7. ^ Page through a virtual copy of Vesalius's De Humanis Corporis Fabrica
  8. ^ Andreas Vesalius (1514-1567)
  9. ^ Zimmer, Carl. 2004. Soul Made Flesh: The Discovery of the Brain - and How It Changed the World. New York: Free Press.
  10. ^ Feder, M. E., A. F. Bennett, W. W. Burggren, and R. B. Huey, eds. 1987. New directions in ecological physiology. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  11. ^ http://www.biology.ucr.edu/people/faculty/Garland/GarlCa94.pdf Garland, T., Jr., and P. A. Carter. 1994. Evolutionary physiology. Annual Review of Physiology 56:579-621.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PHYSIOLOGY (from Gr. ckuts, nature, and .Xhyos, discourse), the science or theory of the properties, processes and functions of living organisms.^ All the functions of a living organism or any of its parts.
  • Physiology Definition | Definition of Physiology at Dictionary.com 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While other basic and clinical sciences analyze the molecular and cellular structure of systems and the effects of biological processes, physiology encompasses all of these, integrating myriad facets and layers of scientific scrutiny in the complex function of living organisms.
  • Research by Department - New York Medical College 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nymc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Functionalism: Natural selection and Evolution Functionalism - assumes characteristics of living organisms perform useful functions.
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Physiology is distinguished from anatomy as dealing specifically with the functions of an organism, rather than its structure.^ Physiology is a branch of science that deals with the functioning of living organisms.
  • Topic:Physiology - Wikiversity 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relationships between structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) are stressed.
  • PsTL 1135 Home Page - Murray Jensen 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC msjensen.cehd.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Anatomy/Physiology Department provides courses for the understanding of the structure and function of the human body.
  • Anatomy-Physiology Home 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.mpc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The two main branches of the science are animal and plant (vegetable) physiology, and in animal physiology that of man stands out as primarily associated with the word.^ Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied.
  • Physiology - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out of physiology research include biochemistry , biophysics , biomechanics , and pharmacology .
  • Physiology - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are primarily research degree programs designed for individuals to increase their training in physiology in preparation for a research career in animal physiology.
  • PGP - Introduction 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.cals.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Ever since men began to take a scientific interest in the problems of life two distinct rival explanatory principles of vital phenomena have claimed attention: a natural and History of a mystical principle.^ Unsolved problems include the unravelling of the ultimate bases of the phenomena of life.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risc was strongest in men with a family history of the disease, or amongst men taking additional micronutrient supplements, including beta-carotin, selenium, or zinc.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first outcome of the Theory. scientific attempt to explain vital phenomena after the natural method and by a unitary principle was the doctrine of the Pneuma, held by the followers of Hippocrates, which found its clearest expression in Galen's system.^ Scientists attempt to explain natural phenomena by means of generalization and reduction.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The cornerstone of this theory is the principle of natural selection .
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern physiology first appeared in the seventeenth century when scientific methods of observation and experimentation were used to study the movement of blood in the body.
  • Physiology - humans, body, used, Earth, life, plants, chemical, methods, animals, system, cells, parts, primary, basic, change, principle, History of physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Academic]

.According to this doctrine, the origin of all vital phenomena was a very fine substance, the Pneuma, which was supposed to exist in atmospheric air, to be inhaled into the lungs of man, and thus through the blood to reach all the parts of the body, where it produced vital phenomena.^ Muscle Anatomy & Structure Take any skeletal muscle in the body, break it down into it's smallest parts and what do you get?

^ This course covers basic body systems, including the function of each system as well as its anatomy and physiology.  Also included is a summary of common anatomy and physiology word parts for each system, and cancer terminology for all body systems.

^ This section of my page will follow cannabis through the body from its initial entry into the lungs , to the effects on the lungs themselves, then to the effects on the heart and finally the diverse effects on the brain .
  • Physiological Effects of Cannabis Consumption 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.whitman.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This doctrine - an attempt to explain the phenomena of life which was not altogether natural, but even materialistic - was accepted by the middle ages together with Galen's system.^ Scientists attempt to explain natural phenomena by means of generalization and reduction.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Physiologists also observe and analyze how certain body systems, like the circulatory, respiratory, and nervous systems, work independently and together to maintain life.
  • Physiology - humans, body, used, Earth, life, plants, chemical, methods, animals, system, cells, parts, primary, basic, change, principle, History of physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Catholic Church during the middle ages, proposed view of natural & animal spirits.
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

With its translation into the Latin spiritus, however, the conception of the Pneuma lost its original force. .The spiritus animates of the middle ages developed ere long into mystical powers, the result being the explanation of vital phenomena by a supernatural theory.^ Indeed, as Ernst Mayr, a primary developer of the modern theory of evolution, points out, all biological phenomena must be considered from two levels of explanation: 1.

^ Lawrence KohIberg’s theory on moral development provides valuable insight into the evolution of moral reasoning within human beings.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were also significant positive changes in life values and purposes, important insights into the meaning of life and an increase in the level of spiritual development ( ref.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

.Not until the scientific renaissance of the 16th and 17th centuries did views again undergo a change.^ This view, modified in one form or other, persisted in clinical ophthalmology, though not without challenge, till the beginning of the 17th century.
  • Physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.mrcophth.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the establishment of a scientific method in physiology by William Harvey, and the development of Descartes' mechanical system of regarding living bodies, the natural explanation of vital phenomena once more universally found favour.^ The intellectual development and practical expertise learned will prepare the students to meet the challenges on the path establishing independent scientific careers.
  • Physiology & Pharmacology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC idp.med.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Each aspect has its own distinct technique, founded upon a body of practical racing results and scientific research as to the most efficient methods to move through and over water.
  • Swimming - World of Sports Science 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They attempt to understand the physiology of behavior: the role of the nervous system, interacting with the rest of the body (especially the endocrine system, which secretes hormones), in controlling behavior.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

Two schools arose, which endeavoured by dissimilar methods to find a mechanical explanation of vital phenomena: the iatrophysical, originating with the gifted and versatile Borelli, and the iatrochemical, founded by the Dutchman, F. de la Bo gy (Sylvius). .But when both chemical and physical methods of explanation failed at such problems as, for instance, irritability and evolution, another change in opinion took place.^ Addresses questions preteens have about puberty in such areas as body changes, changes in feelings, hygiene, health problems, and talking to doctors and parents.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physiology as a distinct discipline utilizing chemical, physical, and anatomical methods began to develop in the 19th century.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because physiological psychologists use the methods of psychology and physiology, they employ both types of explanations.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.By degrees there emerged once more the tendency to explain vital phenomena by mystical means, finding expression in the Animism of Stahl, to quote an example; and in the second half of the 18th century Vitalism, originating in France, began its victorious march throughout the whole scientific world.^ Scientists attempt to explain natural phenomena by means of generalization and reduction.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ THIS MEANS THAT THERE ARE MORE POSITIVE CHARGES ON THE OUTSIDE THAN ON THE INSIDE. In other words, there is an unequal distribution of ions or a resting membrane potential.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Again the opinion came to be entertained that the cause of vital phenomena was a mystical power (force hypermecanique) - that " vital force " which, neither physical nor chemical in its nature, was held to be active in living organisms only.^ Functionalism: Natural selection and Evolution Functionalism - assumes characteristics of living organisms perform useful functions.
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
  • Physiology - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vitalism continued to be the ruling idea in physiology until about the middle of the r9th century, and its supremacy was only gradually overthrown by the great discoveries in natural science of that century.^ NOTE: These contacts are for detailed information about the Physiology and Pharmacology Advanced Concentration only.
  • Physiology & Pharmacology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC idp.med.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the discovery of the cell structure of tissues, the science of physiology has undergone rapid development.
  • physiology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During his medical studies at the University of Marburg in Germany, Ludwig applied new ideas and methods of the physical sciences to physiology.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.The chemical discoveries resulting from Wohler's synthesis of urea first showed that typical products of the animal body, the production of which had hitherto been supposed to be solely the result of the operation of vital force, could be obtained artificially by purely chemical methods.^ It was decided to continue this method of securing teaching assistances until a full-time instructor could be obtained.
  • The University of Iowa Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.physiology.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, the body can make small amounts of water from various metabolic prcesses that result in molecules of water as a by-product.
  • Nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Bibliography 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Product Number: SB23390M Price: $83.75 Medical photography shows the results of smoking in a unique and graphic way.
  • Physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.enasco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then above all came the discovery of the law of the Conservation of Energy by Robert Mayer (1814-1878) and Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), and its application to the living organism by Mayer, Helmholtz, Pierre Louis Dulong (1785-1838), Edward Frankland, Max Rubner and others, to prove that the manifestations of energy by the organism are simply the result of the quantity of potential energy received into the body by means of food.^ Hermann von Helmholtz devised a mathematical formulation of the law of conservation of energy, invented the ophthalmoscope (used to examine the retina of the eye), devised an important and influential theory of color vision and color blindness, and studied audition, music, and many physiological processes.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If you're going to spend time and energy getting your body into great shape (either for a sport or self-esteem) you deserve to get the very best results for your efforts...

^ Physiology is the branch of biology that focuses on the functions and activities, including all physical and chemical processes, of living organisms and their parts .
  • Physiology - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC memory-alpha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, the stupendous results arrived at by Darwin and the establishment of the fundamental law of " biogenesis " by Ernst Haeckel, prepared the way for a natural explanation of the enigma of evolution and structure of organisms.^ Functionalism: Natural selection and Evolution Functionalism - assumes characteristics of living organisms perform useful functions.
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Darwin’s theory emphasized that all of an organism’s characteristics – its structure, its coloration, its behavior – have functional significance.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Darwin’s theory of evolution, with its emphasis on function, helps physiological psychologists discover the relations between brain mechanisms, behaviors, and an organism’s adaptation to its environment.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thus by the second half of the 19th century the doctrine of vital force was definitely and finally overthrown to make way for the triumph of the natural method of explaining vital phenomena, which down to the present time has continued to spread and flourish with an unparalleled fertility.^ Scientists attempt to explain natural phenomena by means of generalization and reduction.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was decided to continue this method of securing teaching assistances until a full-time instructor could be obtained.
  • The University of Iowa Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.physiology.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The research we do here is very mechanistic in nature, and down the road our aim is to take our findings and make recommendations for diseased and aging populations," Copp said.
  • Antioxidants can also harm 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It would, it is true, appear as if in our day, after the lapse of half a century, mystical tendencies were again disposed to crop up in the investigation of life.^ To repeat a commonly quoted (and true) sentiment, if our brains were simple enough for us to easily understand, we would be so simple that we couldn't understand them.
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Here and there is heard once more the watchword of Vitalism. But all the so-called neo-vitalistic efforts - such as those of Alexander von Bunge (1803-1890), Georg Evon Rindfleisch (b. 1835), Johannes Reinke (b. 1849) and others - have nothing to do with the old vitalism. .They originate solely in a widespread confusion with regard to the boundaries of natural science, their principal tendency being to amalgamate psychological and speculative questions with problems of purely natural science.^ They are being explored as models in many other systems because of the widespread availability of both domestic and miniature breeds.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If metals are naturally occurring, why are they an environmental pollution problem?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the face of all these efforts, which by their unfortunate designations of Vitalism and Neo-vitalism give rise to entirely false conceptions, and which by their intermingling of psychological questions and questions of natural science have led to mere confusion in research, it is essential that natural philosophy should be called upon to realize its own limits, and above all clearly to understand that the sole concern of physical science is the investigation of the phenomena of the material world.^ The Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are primarily research degree programs designed for individuals to increase their training in physiology in preparation for a research career in animal physiology.
  • PGP - Introduction 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.cals.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to completing the core science courses, you will be encouraged and challenged to question critically, think logically, and communicate clearly.
  • Human Physiology | Office of Admissions 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC admissions.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Each aspect has its own distinct technique, founded upon a body of practical racing results and scientific research as to the most efficient methods to move through and over water.
  • Swimming - World of Sports Science 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Physiology, as the doctrine of life, must therefore confine itself to the material vital phenomena of organisms.^ But must a manuscript explicitly address questions at a higher level of integration than physiology to be acceptable material for publication in ESA journals?

^ Human Physiology Science Medical / Nursing Science/Mathematics MEDICAL / Pathophysiology Medical / Physiology Pathophysiology Physiology Test Preparation & Review Life Sciences - Human Anatomy & Physiology Life Sciences: General i.e., each book must be in subject 1 AND subject 2 AND ...
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780815109525): Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton, Robert M. Berne: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.It is self-evident, however, that only such laws as govern the material world will be found governing material vital phenomena - the laws, that is, which have hitherto been brought to their most exact and most logical development by physics and chemistry, or, more generally speaking, by mechanics.^ Applicants must possess a baccalaureate degree in biological or physical sciences, with at least two laboratory courses in microbiology, one year of general physics, one year of general chemistry, and one year of organic chemistry.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most serious consequences follow aspiration of acidic materials containing particulate matter as may follow swallowing certain antacids such as magnesium trisilicate.
  • Physiological Changes Associated with Pregnancy (page 2) 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.nda.ox.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Where these mechanical stresses are applied, most it has been shown that more mineral salts are deposited and more collagenous fibres are produced.
  • Physiology - Skeletal System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.brianmac.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The explanatory principles of vital phenomena must therefore be identical with those of inorganic nature - that is, with the principles of mechanics.^ Human Physiology therefore must be defined as study of the dynamic interactions amongst everything in the Nature with a respect to The Blossoming of Human Life.
  • WikiAnswers - What is physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We must therefore understand something about the natural history of the species being studied so that, the behaviors can be seen in context.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The investigation of vital phenomena in this sense requires, in the first place, an exact knowledge of the substratum in which these phenomena are manifested, just as in chemistry ultimate and physics a thorough knowledge of the composition Elements of of the material world is a necessary premise to the Life. investigation of the phenomena of inorganic nature.^ Emphasis is placed on inflammation and healing of connective tissue injury as well as therapeutic strategies and rationale Training in Health and Performance investigates how regular exercise influences quality of life, longevity, and ability to perform physical activity.
  • Human Physiology | Office of Admissions 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC admissions.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Their study is the first attempt to their knowledge to look at the exact risk and frequency of stroke after herpes zoster attacks.

^ Unsolved problems include the unravelling of the ultimate bases of the phenomena of life.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.The knowledge of the composition and structure of organisms has in the course of the scientific development of anatomy attained to an ever-increasing minuteness of detail, without having as yet reached a definite limit.^ The recent development of a vitamin A related agent, Retin-A, applied to the skin over the course of months, increases the blood supply, results in a flush and thickens the aging skin.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physiology was usually considered separately from anatomy until the development of high-powered microscopes made it clear that structure and function were inseparable at the cellular and molecular level.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sharp definition of the borders of any scientific discipline in its incipient stages of development can also stifle the interchange of ideas that fuels progress in science.

.The last important step in this direction was the discovery by Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1804-1881) and Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) that all organisms are built up of elementary living structural components, namely of cells '(see' Cytology).^ Darwin’s theory emphasized that all of an organism’s characteristics – its structure, its coloration, its behavior – have functional significance.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sian Yik Lim "med maniac" (Japan) - See all my reviews (REAL NAME) .
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780323022255): Robert M. Berne, Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780815109525): Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton, Robert M. Berne: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Basic research on the means by which nerve cells communicate with each other has led to important discoveries about the causes of the death of brain cells.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The details of the anatomical construction of organisms are described under various appropriate headings, and a general guide to these will be found under Anatomy and Zoology.^ The characteristics that have led to the use of swine over other species for these models are related to the anatomic and physiologic characteristics described above.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They found that the extract as well as vitamin E counteract the overproduction of free radicals under these conditions.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of the work can be described under the heading of "Physiological Basis and Consequences of Respiratory Disease" as interpreted in the widest sense.
  • UCSD Division of Physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC physiology.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.We would here merely point out that a cell is the simplest particle of living substance which appears to be permanently capable of life.^ However, there were fewer potentially life-threatening adverse events with anastrozole; in particular, there were fewer cases of uterine polyps and thromboembolic events, Dr. Gnant pointed out.

^ He recognized cells as functional units of life and developed the concept of blood and body fluids as the internal environment ( milieu intérieur ) in which cells carry out their activities.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.Different elements are essential, however, to the existence of the cell - two, at least, so far as has hitherto been discovered - the protoplasm and the nucleus.^ Egg and sperm cell formed single cell during fertilization divided by mitosis to form two cell then become four cell and so forth which differentiate, give rise to different cell.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Bernd Heinrich Department of Zoology University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05405 USA An organism must respond to at least two different components of its environment.

^ It is possible for elements to exist in multiple forms, called isotopes ; the only difference is the number of neutrons in the nucleus, while protons and electrons always stay the same as the original element.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.It must at present be regarded as at least very doubtful whether the centrosome, which in recent times it has been possible to demonstrate as existing in very many cells, and which appears sometimes in the protoplasm, sometimes in the nucleus, is a general and third independent cell-constituent.^ Applicants must possess a baccalaureate degree in biological or physical sciences, with at least two laboratory courses in microbiology, one year of general physics, one year of general chemistry, and one year of organic chemistry.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How do time scales of K change and T D determine whether a population will be under density independant or density dependant control?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is possible for elements to exist in multiple forms, called isotopes ; the only difference is the number of neutrons in the nucleus, while protons and electrons always stay the same as the original element.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.On the other hand, the number of special constituent parts which appear in various cell-forms is very large.^ These cells produce large membranous extensions that ensheath the axons in successive layers that are then compacted by exclusion of cytoplasm (black) to form the myelin sheath.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The mesenteric vessels form a vascular arcade in the subserosa rather than in the mesentery as in other species.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Other large muscles account for a very strong tail, and rear legs.
  • Dragon Physiology - Here Be Dragons! Draconian.com 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.draconian.com [Source type: Original source]

.A question which has long been discussed, and which has received special and animated attention, is that with regard to the finer structure of the cells - with regard, that is, to the protoplasm and the nucleus lying in it.^ This drawing shows the major components of a typical neuron, including the cell body with the nucleus; the dendrites that receive signals from other neurons; and the axon that relays nerve signals to other neurons at a specialized structure called a synapse.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Long chain omega 3 fatty acids are structural components of neuronal and other cell membranes, and they modulate the production of eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is an overview of the structure and function of mammalian cells including topics in membrane physiology and transport, cell signaling, compartmentalization and certain specialized cells (e.g.
  • The Department of Medical Pharmacology & Physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC mpp.missouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Views on this subject have diverged very widely, and several totally diverse theories have been opposed to one another.^ As enough NMDA receptors are blocked, one neuron may lose enough input from another that the connection is effectively severed.
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One very interesting focus of another study on KPT in alcoholism was the interactions of ketamine and nimodipine ( ref 37 ).
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

One theory maintains that the living cellsubstance has a reticular structure; another, that it is fibrillous. .According to a third theory, the essence of the construction of the cell-substance lies in the granules which it contains; and according to a fourth, it lies in the ground-substance in which these granules are embedded.^ In essence, the chromosomes contain the blueprints for the construction (that is, the embryological development) of a particular member of a particular species.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These substances interrupt the radical chain reaction in lipids of the cell membrane avoiding the formation of oxidized LDL which starts ateriosclerotic diseases.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cytoplasm contains many lysosomal granules (vesicles containing stored lysosomal enzymes) whose specific staining properties give these cells their name.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One view holds this ground substance to be homogeneous, another regards it as possessing a fine foam-structure. .It may at present be regarded as incontrovertible that living substance is more or less fluid, and that there does not exist any general structure for all cell-forms.^ Then the fluids and cells form a new structure called the corpus luteum.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the skin ages, the various layers tend to lose their ability to retain fluids, and there may also be a loss of some of the fatty deposits under the skin.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eating less may help you live longer .

.But in some special cases all the theories which have been quoted are to a certain extent correct.^ Putting this all together into some sort of cohesive theory may be too soon but I'm going to do it anyway.
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In different cells there are reticular, fibrillous and granular differentiations respectively, and differentiations in foam-structure; in many cells, however, the protoplasm appears to be beyond doubt homogeneous and without a distinct structure, and only under certain conditions to assume changing structures.^ Yes, but only under certain conditions.
  • Scuba Diver Info - Diving physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scubadiverinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LactiGuard includes carefully selected lactic acid bacteria isolates that inhibit pathogen growth under refrigerated conditions without growing themselves.
  • Sylvia Wulf to Lead Food Safety Business at Nutrition Physiology Company 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.earthtimes.org [Source type: News]

^ If the Hardy Weinburg law assumes random processes in the transfer of genes from one generation to the next, of what use is it to studying evolution, where there is directional change in gene frequencies?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.But the fact which is of most importance for the right understanding of vital phenomena is that the cell-substance is always more or less fluid, for only in a fluid substratum can such intense chemical processes be enacted as are to be found in every living cell.^ People have been attempting to understand this phenomenon for thousands of years, and will most likely debate for a thousand more.
  • Emotion in Psychology 101 at AllPsych Online 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC allpsych.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the end bulb are found lots of synaptic vesicles (which contain neurotransmitter chemicals ) and mitochondria (which provide ATP to make more neurotransmitter).
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Briefly, here is how the process works: Every sexually reproducing multicellular organism consists of a large number of cells, each of which contains chromosomes.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Where the analytical powers of the microscope in anatomy can go no farther, chemical analysis of the composition of the cell steps in.^ Physiology was usually considered separately from anatomy until the development of high-powered microscopes made it clear that structure and function were inseparable at the cellular and molecular level.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.By its means the discovery is made that there is no elementary difference between organic and inorganic nature, for only such chemical elements as are known to exist in the inorganic world are found in the organic.^ There were no differences between the groups on any of the secondary outcome measures.

^ No difference in the acute effects on vascular reactivity between conventional fast-food and "healthy fast-food" .
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A claim that a food is low in sodium/salt, and any claim likely to have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made where the product contains no more than 0,12 g of sodium, or the equivalent value for salt, per 100 g or per 100 ml.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, however, the living cell-substance possesses chemical compounds which find analogues nowhere in inorganic nature.^ Serotonin is a neurotransmitter which together with more than 100 other substances are active in the brain where nerve cells (neurons) link.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a compound found in blackberry and other food products, was shown to possess chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity in the present study.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The characteristic organic substances which are present in every cell are proteids and proteid-compounds. .Besides these there occur, widely disseminated, carbohydrates, fats and other organic substances, which partly originate in the decomposition of proteids and their compounds, and are partly used for their construction.^ Many of these changes are involuntary and occur very gradually while others occur over a short period.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extreme nutritional deficiency of these fats results in a neuropathy that can be reversed with rapeseed oil or other vegetable oils containing alfa-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3).
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are six major classes of nutrients found in food: carbohydrates , proteins , lipids (fats and oils), vitamins (both fat-soluble and water-soluble ), minerals , and water.
  • Nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Bibliography 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

Lastly, there are in addition great quantities of water and some inorganic salts.
.Such are the structure and composition of the substratum in which vital phenomena play their part.^ But they do play vital roles in several physiological functions, including critical involvement in nervous system functioning, in cellular reactions, in water balance in the body, and in structural systems, such as the skeletal system.
  • Nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Bibliography 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.When we consider vital phenomena themselves in the various living organisms - in protista, plants, animals, man - there of Life. appears an incalculable diversity of phenomena.^ That means that the various gas laws come into play, and those laws can impact the "function of living organisms and their parts," i.e.
  • Scuba Diver Info - Diving physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scubadiverinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The branch of biology concerned with the vital functions of plants and animals, such as nutrition, respiration, reproduction, and excretion.
  • physiology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Here, however, as in the case of the structure of organisms, we have to analyse and to penetrate ever farther and deeper till we reach the fundamental phenomena. .We then find that the great variety of vital manifestations may be traced back to a few fundamental general groups, which are precisely the same groups of phenomena as those to be observed in inorganic nature.^ During this period of time the child has a great deal of concern over his/her body image and any discrepancies in the child’s eye such as obesity, early or late maturation, etc., may be manifested through a variety of disorders.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may have a few polar hydroxyl groups attached to the rings.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a particular organ is manifesting symptoms, such as asthma for example, PRM provides natural homeopathic formulations to bring that organ’s functions back into balance.
  • Physiological Regulating Medicine, American Medical Aesthetics 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.amacorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the processes that take place in the organic world may be regarded from the three different standpoints of their changes in substance, in energy and in form; for substance, energy and form are all necessary to our conception of matter.^ These changes take place in the lungs .
  • Physiology Ppt Presentation 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changing between different products of the same category with meat and vegetarian products on a same line is cost intensive with regard to loss of product and off-production time cleaning and disinfection.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such predictions rarely take the form of absolute statements, and are more likely to be expressed as numbers that correspond to the odds of a particular event or behaviour taking place in the future.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Accordingly, the general elementary vital phenomena likewise fall into three groups - metabolism, the mechanism of energy, and the assumption of form.^ This organic acid also plays a role in oxidation of fatty acids, generation of energy through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, C4 photosynthesis, crassulacean acid metabolism, and nitrogen fixation.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Attempts to consolidate all teaching into three principal courses were made: Elementary, Intermediate and Advance, to avoid fragmentation.
  • The University of Iowa Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.physiology.uiowa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They are formed by linking each of the 3 hydroxyl groups of glycerol with the carboxyl groups of three fatty acids, hence the “tri” in the name.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.Every cell, so long as it is living, takes in certain substances from its environment, submits them to chemical transformation in its interior, and gives out other substances.^ There are numerous chemical and physical processes occurring at the microscopic cellular level, which complement each other and produce the cumulative effect of giving the human body the ability to live and perform activity.

^ The Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) gives the advice not to exceed daily 10 mg.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long chain omega 3 fatty acids are structural components of neuronal and other cell membranes, and they modulate the production of eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.This metabolism is manifested in several special functions - in nutrition and digestion, respiration and circulation, secretion and excretion.^ It includes the study of vital activities in cells, tissues, and organs—of processes such as contractility of muscle tissue, coordination through the nervous system, feeding, digestion, excretion, respiration, circulation, reproduction, and secretion.
  • physiology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chief interests: exercise physiology, skeletal muscle metabolism, O 2 dependence of skeletal muscle function, control of mitochondrial respiration.
  • UCSD Division of Physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC physiology.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The branch of biology concerned with the vital functions of plants and animals, such as nutrition, respiration, reproduction, and excretion.
  • physiology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The essence of the whole process is the fact that while out of these ingested stuffs living substance is always again being formed by the living substance which already exists, it is itself continually undergoing decomposition, and the products of this decomposition are what the cell gives off again to the outside.^ These processes vary in number & relative length but always serve to conduct impulses (with dendrites conducting impulses toward the cell body and axons conducting impulses away from the cell body).
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, they can leak out of the food substance that contains them and seep into the water or liquid the food is being cooked in.
  • Nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Bibliography 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They will readily ingest such test substances as alcohol in its various forms.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.With metabolism, however, there is inseparably associated a transformation of energy. These substances taken in by the cell contain a large quantity of potential energy, which is transformed into kinetic energy.^ However, they can leak out of the food substance that contains them and seep into the water or liquid the food is being cooked in.
  • Nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Bibliography 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells produce large membranous extensions that ensheath the axons in successive layers that are then compacted by exclusion of cytoplasm (black) to form the myelin sheath.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells differentiate into mature adipocytes and increase fat mass, causing obesity.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.This has for its result the manifold activities of the organism, more especially motion, heat, electricity and light.^ Science: National Science Education Standards As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of Motions and forces.
  • Unforgivable Blackness . For Teachers . Physiological Effects of Boxing | PBS 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Academic]

Finally, the chemical transformations in living substance may also manifest themselves outwardly in changes of form, as is the case generally in the matter of growth, reproduction and development. .The three general elementary groups of vital phenomena are therefore in reality merely the expression of the various aspects of one and the same process - of the actual vital process itself.^ Psychoneural Identity Hypothesis - mental and brain processes are one and the same (without brain there can be no mind).
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost everyone has grey hair by the age of forty, although, as with every other aspect of aging, there are distinct variations within the family and ethnic groups.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Hardy Weinburg law assumes random processes in the transfer of genes from one generation to the next, of what use is it to studying evolution, where there is directional change in gene frequencies?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The ultimate object of all physiology is to discover what this vital process is - that is to say, what is the exact cause of these manifold vital phenomena - a goal from which it is at the present day still very remote.^ We still know very little about the physiology of consciousness, but studies of people with brain damage are Physiological Psychology .
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of all scientists is to explain the phenomena they study.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ H is a very important concept in biological systems, and certainly holds great weight in the processes of human physiology.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.As every physical and chemical phenomenon of inorganic nature occurs only under distinct conditions, so vital phenomena are also dependent upon certain conditions of life.^ Yes, but only under certain conditions.
  • Scuba Diver Info - Diving physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scubadiverinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Green tea extract may extend shelf life of mutton under Indian climatic conditions .
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Strategies should include the determinants that affect food choice, factors that lead to insufficient physical activity in every-day life, and not just food products themselves.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Every living every living cell, requires food, Y g y?^ At every second of every minute of our lives, each and every cell is waiting for instructions of what physiological functions to turn on or off.
  • Physiological Regulating Medicine, American Medical Aesthetics 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.amacorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

y g ? q ? .of Lifendi. water, oxygen, and, further, a certain temperature and a certain pressure in its environment.^ When diving, the rising water pressure increases, according to Dalton's Law, the partial pressure of oxygen.
  • Scuba Diver Info - Diving physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scubadiverinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

These are the general conditions of life. .But the special conditions on which depends the continued existence of the individual forms of organism are as numerous as the forms of organisms themselves.^ In comparative physiology or environmental physiology, the dependent variable or the focus of interest is on the internal and morphological adjustments of an organism or species to its habitat.

.Now, just as the physicist or chemist varies those conditions under which a phenomenon occurs in order to get at its causes, so does the physiologist try to experiment with vital phenomena, altering the vital conditions: and testing the changes which are thereby produced.^ What causes this change in potential to occur?
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Once they reach the testes in the male and the ovaries in the female, a number of changes will occur.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The digestive tract is a very resilient system, but there are some changes that occur which may cause you some distress.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great importance of this method consists in the power it gives the experimenter of analysing vital phenomena systematically from definite points of view.^ The interest of the industry on nutrition physiology developed a great know how in the sector of laboratory analysing methods, in processing technologies, in packaging material and in storage.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Every change in its normal vital conditions which produces any effect whatsoever upon an organism is termed a stimulus. This is the only general definition we have for a conception which is of such vast importance to physiology.^ Although physiological psychology is the original name for this field, several other terms are now in general use, such as biological psychology, biopsychology, psychobiology, and behavioral neuroscience.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If these changes produce favorable effects that permit the individual to reproduce more successfully, some of the individual’s offspring will inherit the favorable characteristics and will themselves produce more offspring.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To understand physiology per se is not the goal, but only a means to an end, the end being the ecology of the organism.

According to it, experimental physiology is entirely a physiology of stimuli. .It further follows from this conception of stimulation that there must be an enormous multiplicity of stimuli, since each particular vital condition may be subjected to some change capable of acting upon it as a stimulus.^ Following are the descriptions of some of the physiological changes that normally occur.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LSD's effects are almost certainly more complex than this, but there may be some truth to the "control knob" idea of the biogenic amine systems.
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For intravascular healing, investigators may be required to use multiple models since no single species is exactly analogous to humans.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.But, besides this, other factors may be brought to bear upon organisms which have absolutely no place among their vital conditions: for instance, many chemical reagents and electric currents.^ In many instances, the solution is of practical value in medicine or helps to improve the understanding of both human beings and other animals.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers stress that no single dietary factor explains the effect, and components found together in vegetables may have a synergistic effect on breast cancer risk.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.These influences come under the general definition of stimulus, because they likewise imply a change in the conditions under which the organism lives.^ For example, they may explain the movement of a muscle in terms of the changes in the membranes of muscle cells, the entry of particular chemicals, and the interactions among protein molecules within these cells.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These changes cause unrest and confusion in the adolescents’ inner selves and in the way they perceive the world.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, they are made of an even number of carbon atoms because they are synthesized by linking together fragments composed of two carbon atoms.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

From their qualitative nature stimuli are distinguished as chemical, thermal, photic, mechanical and electrical. .Each of these several varieties may, however, be applied quantitatively in various degrees of intensity, and may in consequence produce quite different results.^ Menella concludes that the more varied the mother's diet is during pregnancy and lactation, the more likely it is that the infant will accept new flavours, and that these very early flavour experiences may provide the foundation for cultural and ethnic differences in cuisine.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Concord grapes may have many health benefits such as reducing hypertension and the negative effects of second-hand smoking, but these results are tentative.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, BMI may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different populations due, in part, to differences in body proportions.The interpretation of BMI gradings in relation to risk may differ for different populations.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.This opens up to experimental physiology a vast field of research.^ The field's most complete, up-to-date , and engagingly-written text on medical physiology - now in full-color .
  • eBooks.com - Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology eBook 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ebooks.com [Source type: General]

.But the physiology of stimulation is not only of the greatest value as a means of research: its importance is much increased by the fact that in nature itself stimuli are everywhere and constantly acting upon the organism and its parts.^ There were also significant positive changes in life values and purposes, important insights into the meaning of life and an increase in the level of spiritual development ( ref.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To understand physiology per se is not the goal, but only a means to an end, the end being the ecology of the organism.

^ Learning about the physiology of behavior involves much more that memorizing facts.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hence the investigation of their action comes to be not merely a means, but a direct end of research.^ Pain and/or itching ( dolor ) is caused by direct action on nerve endings of the chemical agents released during inflammation.
  • SIU SOM Histology INTRO 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.siumed.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This research was not directed toward a specific practical goal; the potential benefits actually came as a surprise to the investigators.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although it is not at present possible to define all the laws that govern stimulation, on the one hand because the number of stimulating effects known to us in the whole organic world is as yet too limited, and on the other because Actions of Stimuli. those already known have not yet been thoroughly analysed, yet it is within our power to classify stimulating effects according to their various characteristics, and to ascertain a few facts concerning their general and fundamental conformity to law.^ The last frontier in the world – and perhaps the greatest one – lies within us.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Preliminary conclusion from this study indicate: ( I ) Too many variables at one time conceal effects of individual production factors; (2) Advisors should spend more time addressing the whole of all production practices and the whole farm; and (3) Stressing single production factors interferes with good communications between alfalfa producers and advisors.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the Hardy Weinburg law assumes random processes in the transfer of genes from one generation to the next, of what use is it to studying evolution, where there is directional change in gene frequencies?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The first fact, apparent from a glance at a great many of the various forms of stimulation, is that all their effects are manifested in either a qu antitative or a qualitative alteration of the characteristic vital phenomena of each living object.^ An important reason is because they compare production in different fields or different years when many different variables change, hiding the main effects.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the first time researchers are beginning to understand exactly how various forms of exercise impact the heart.

^ Interestingly, the stimulant effect seems qualitatively different from amphetamines to most people (I have no comparison information on cocaine).
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The quantitative is the usual mode of action of stimuli. It is generally found that a stimulus either increases or diminishes the intensity of vital phenomena. In the first case the effect is one of excitation; in the second of depression. .It is the more important to bear in mind this twofold operation of stimuli, owing to the fact that in former times physiologists were very apt to conceive of excitation and stimulation as identical.^ Very clear and concise, with much more detail than most other basic physiology texts, which often gloss over important details.
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780323022255): Robert M. Berne, Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780815109525): Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton, Robert M. Berne: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ It combines with blood, hemoglobin really, much more easily than oxygen, some 200 times more readily in fact.
  • Scuba Diver Info - Diving physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.scubadiverinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is now, however, an undisputed fact that depression may also occur as a typical effect of stimulation.^ Interesting effects on spacial visualization may occur, particularly alterations of body image.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when protein intake is inadequate, but total caloric intake is sufficient, a condition known as kwashiorkor may occur.
  • Nutrients - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Bibliography 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, puberty refers to the physiological changes involved in the sexual maturation of a child, as well as other body changes that may occur during this period of time.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is most apparent in cases where the same stimulus that produces excitation may on being applied for a longer period and with greater intensity, produce depression. Thus narcotics (alcohol, ether, chloroform, morphia, &c.) on certain forms of living substance produce the phenomena of excitation when their action is weak, whereas when it is stronger they produce complete depression. .Thus, likewise, temperature stimuli act differently upon vital phenomena according to the degree of temperature: very low temperatures depressing medium temperatures exciting with increasing intensity, and higher temperatures from a certain height upwards again depressing.^ Intensity of the experience by oral administration can also be very inconsistent, making it difficult to gauge dosage and resulting in increased possibility of overdosage.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adipous tissue: The adipous tissue elaborates leptin , a compound which signalises the brain to increase the feeling of hunger, and the body temperature is slightly reduced, reducing thus the basal metabolism.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They conclude that very low plasma levels of alfa-carotene and beta -carotene are signs of a higher risk of gastric cancer.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The effects of stimulation are not, however, always manifested in merely quantitative changes of the normal vital phenomena. Sometimes, especially in the case of long uninterrupted and chronic stimuli, stimulation is found gradually to produce phenomena which are apparently quite foreign to the normal vital phenomena of the cell in question. .Such qualitative alterations of normal vital phenomena are perceptible chiefly in chronic maladies in the cells of different organs (the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, &c.^ It includes the study of vital activities in cells, tissues, and organs—of processes such as contractility of muscle tissue, coordination through the nervous system, feeding, digestion, excretion, respiration, circulation, reproduction, and secretion.
  • physiology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A. Early Developments Related to Physiological Psychology Early Egyptians Thought heart & liver were the vital organs; "not the brain" Alcmacon (5th Century): Thought brain was "seat of the soul" Plato 4th Century): Also thought brain was "seat of the soul" Hippocrates (400 BC): a.
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is known as a risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, certain cancers, and chronic kidney disease.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

), in which the vital conditions become gradually more and more modified by the cause of the malady. .To this category pertain all the so-called chronic processes of degeneration which in pathology are krrowa as fatty degeneration, mucous degeneration, amyloid degeneration, and so forth.^ If all the carbon atoms are linked by single covalent bonds the chain is called a saturated fatty acid.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.The characteristic element in all these processes is that the normal metabolism is diverted into a wrong channel by the altered vital conditions of the cells of the organ affected, so that substances are formed and accumulated in the cell which are entirely foreign to its normal life.^ In normal brains, brain cells process insulin, allowing memories to form.

^ It includes the study of vital activities in cells, tissues, and organs—of processes such as contractility of muscle tissue, coordination through the nervous system, feeding, digestion, excretion, respiration, circulation, reproduction, and secretion.
  • physiology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about physiology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These processes vary in number & relative length but always serve to conduct impulses (with dendrites conducting impulses toward the cell body and axons conducting impulses away from the cell body).
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.But this class of stimulation is still very obscure as regards causes and inner processes, and it is within the range of possibility that the ultimate cause of the qualitative changes in the normal metabolism is to be found simply in the processes of excitation and depression which chronic stimulation produces in separate parts of the metabolism.^ An action potential is a very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if separated from nerve, stimulation caused contraction.
  • Physiological Psychology, 3. History & Introduction 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC neuro.psyc.memphis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These changes cause unrest and confusion in the adolescents’ inner selves and in the way they perceive the world.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, at least with regard to fat-metamorphosis (fatty degeneration), it is highly probable that fat is deposited in the protoplasm simply because, owing to an inadequate supply of oxygen, it cannot, when it originates, be oxidized in the same proportion as it is formed, whereas in the normal cell all fat which originates in metabolism is consumed as soon as it is produced.^ These cells produce large membranous extensions that ensheath the axons in successive layers that are then compacted by exclusion of cytoplasm (black) to form the myelin sheath.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One cannot escape the following overweight equation : (Absorbed energy) - (Basal metabolism energy + physical activities energy) = Body fat: .
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All ingredients must be completely labelled on kosher food thus providing a complete information for sensitive people, whereas normal food regulation use class names and exceptions allowed to hide some of the ingredients.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.According to this conception, therefore, fatty degeneration is attributable primarily to a depression of the processes of oxidation in the cell.^ According to the forum there is a high prevalence of depression, including childhood depression and there is some evidence that omega-3 fatty acid supplements may be helpful in the treatment of depression.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.If we may accept this view as correct with regard to the other metamorphic processes also, the qualitative changes in vital phenomena under the influence of stimuli would after all depend simply upon the excitation or depression of the constituent parts of the vital process, and, according to such a view, all stimuli would act primarily only as exciting or as depressing agents upon the normal process of life.^ The disruption of sensory processing may be due in part to sigma activation (and partly due to NMDA blockade) ( 63-65 ).
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This effect is not necessarily a visual phenominon, as may be more common under the influence of LSD or psilocybin, but rather a feeling more closely related to propioception itself.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, according to the study authors, it is also possible that olfactory deficits in PD are not entirely linked to pathologic processes in the olfactory structures but may be linked to neurodegeneration in the amygdala.

.In accordance with the three groups into which general vital phenomena are divided, it follows as a matter of course that the excitation or depression produced by a stimulus can manifest itself in the cell's metabolism, assumption of form, and manifestation of energy.^ Egg and sperm cell formed single cell during fertilization divided by mitosis to form two cell then become four cell and so forth which differentiate, give rise to different cell.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These cells produce large membranous extensions that ensheath the axons in successive layers that are then compacted by exclusion of cytoplasm (black) to form the myelin sheath.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to examine whether depression was associated with lower levels of omega-3 FAs in serum phospholipids cancer patients were divided in three groups: major depression group a minor depression group and a nondepression group.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The effects of excitation upon the production of energy are the most striking, and were therefore in former times frequently thought to have a claim par excellence to rank as stimulating effects.^ Another effect can be the production of temporary anterograde amnesia, in which the interpretation of time flow becomes altered.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore an alternative to the reduction diets which can be followed only during short time ending in the jo-jo effect.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, the stimulant effect seems qualitatively different from amphetamines to most people (I have no comparison information on cocaine).
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These reactions attract most attention in cases where the production of energy is proportionately very great - as with muscle, for instance, which is made to twitch and perform work by a feeble stimulus.^ This affects energy production and physical performance.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All these products don't work or have serious side reactions.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Speed and power training: understanding your fast twitch muscles will boost performance .
  • physiology | sports performance 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.pponline.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Processes of discharge (AuslOsungsvorgange), however, lie at the bottom of cases like these.^ In these cases, it is likely that the drug unmasks a previously present but latent mental abnormality.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

.Potential chemical energy, which is stored up in a considerable quantity in living substance, is converted by the impulse of the stimulus into kinetic energy.^ As a result, there is a decrease in the body's ability to use fats and sugars and to convert them into energy.
  • Effects Of Aging On Your Body- My Senior Health Care 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.myseniorhealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How is loss of potential energy in living things measured?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is electric potential energy important to living things?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore the amount of the effect of stimulation - that is to say, the quantity of work performed - bears no proportion whatever to the amount of energy acting as a stimulus upon the muscle.^ Interestingly, the stimulant effect seems qualitatively different from amphetamines to most people (I have no comparison information on cocaine).
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ L.carnitin under these condition can act as a biocarrier in the energy system of the mitochondria of the muscle cells.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study LPS was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) which is detrimental effects to the host.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The amount of energy thus acting may be very small as contrasted with an enormous production of energy on the part of the living substance.^ CCK hormone is produced by the small intestine and acts as message substance telling the brain that there is enough food which has been taken in.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sigma activity may very well cause temporarily lowered effectiveness in some cholinergic receptors, thus distorting memory and thought processes.
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Females may also find small amounts of facial and chest hair.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will not do to make generalizations, however, with regard to this proportion, as was frequently done in former times.^ However, the brain development of swine a nd the similar topical, histologic and vascular anatomy make them useful as general mammalian models.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

All processes of stimulation are not processes of discharge. .The influence of many stimuli, as has been observed, consists far more in depression than in excitation, so that in certain circumstances a stimulus actually diminishes the normal liberation of energy.^ The tissues of feedlot-raised cattle have far more saturated fat than that of grass-fed cattle, some sources say up to 500 percent more.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ True or False (and Why): Plant crops always yield more food energy than is put into them by man.
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Importance has the nutrition in Asia which has 50 times in normal nutrition and 400 times more genistein in baby food with soy bean diet than European baby food and normal nutrition respectively.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is therefore no general law as to the proportion which the amount of energy acting as a stimulus upon living substance bears to the amount of energy liberated.^ If the Hardy Weinburg law assumes random processes in the transfer of genes from one generation to the next, of what use is it to studying evolution, where there is directional change in gene frequencies?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no contract being made and the company can therefore change its produce after the rabbi has gone.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintainers had a lower energy density dietary pattern (1.58 vs. There was no significant difference in physical activity min/d reported by maintainers and gainers.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Among special varieties of stimulation there is one class of stimuli which has attracted particular attention - namely, those which act unilaterally upon free-moving organisms.^ It acted mainly on the central nervous system, producing a variety of effects that differed depending on the species and dosage.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The FDA supports statements that it is safe to eat fish and shellfish twice a week and that one should always eat a variety of species.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many species of Western dragon, and this is only one example showing the different bones of the skeletal system.
  • Dragon Physiology - Here Be Dragons! Draconian.com 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.draconian.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is principally with the lowest forms of life that we have here to do - unicellular protista and free-living cells in the bodies of higher organisms (sperm-cells, leucocytes, &c.^ Egg and sperm cell formed single cell during fertilization divided by mitosis to form two cell then become four cell and so forth which differentiate, give rise to different cell.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ He recognized cells as functional units of life and developed the concept of blood and body fluids as the internal environment ( milieu intérieur ) in which cells carry out their activities.
  • physiology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Environmental physiology typically focuses on physiological responses to abiotic factors, most commonly in the laboratory, without reference to natural environments or the life-styles of free-living organisms.

). .When from Directive one direction a stimulus - be it chemical, thermal, photic, electrical, or of any other kind - acts upon tion. these organisms in their medium, they are impelled to move in a course bearing a definite relation to the source of the stimulus - either directly towards that source or directly away from it, more rarely in a course transverse to it.^ Given a physiological explanation, sharpened by biophysical insights, for observed phenomena, one can then either examine potential responses that could act to circumvent an organism's physiological limits so as to broaden its niche, or the other type of environmental factors, such as low energy supplies and competitors, that might contract it.

^ For example, they may explain the movement of a muscle in terms of the changes in the membranes of muscle cells, the entry of particular chemicals, and the interactions among protein molecules within these cells.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Oils and fats have high nutritional value as they are rich in energy and act as transport medium of liposoluble vitamins.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

This directive action of stimulation is under such a fixed conformity to law, that it vividly recalls such purely physical processes as, for instance, the attraction and repulsion of iron particles by the poles of a magnet. .For example, if light falls from one side upon a vessel full of water containing unicellular green algae, according to the intensity of the light these organisms swim either towards the illuminated side, where they form a compact mass on the edge of the vessel, or away from it, to cluster on the opposite edge.^ They also control movements of the opposite sides.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors stress that if they were to have any action upon the body at all, the same could be achieved by drinking plenty of water, having a healthy balanced diet and plenty of sleep.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ionic forms of elements are important to the body, as they are able to conduct electricity when dissolved in water.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the same way infusoria in water are observed to hasten towards or to flee from certain chemical substances, and leucocytes in our bodies act in the same manner towards the metabolic products of pusforming bacteria which have penetrated into an open wound.^ The authors stress that if they were to have any action upon the body at all, the same could be achieved by drinking plenty of water, having a healthy balanced diet and plenty of sleep.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors also write that the body does not perceive calories in sweetened beverages in the same way as it does with other foods and do not produce satiety as other solid foods do, leading to an increased intake of calories.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The suppuration of wounds is always accompanied by an amazing conglomeration of leucocytes at the seat of the lesion. .Perhaps the most striking effects are those of the constant electric current upon unicellular organisms, since in this case the motion follows the cause with absolutely automatic regularity, certainty and rapidity.^ Most terrestrial organisms live in fluctuating environments that can have complex and often unpredictable effects on physiology.

^ One evolutionary or organismal biology course 1 from the following (substitutions allowed upon signed adviser consent): .
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The lack of unanimity among the essays is perhaps the most striking result of this "experiment" with opinion.

.Thus, for example, after the establishment of the current many Infusoria (Paramaecium) accumulate at the negative pole with great celerity and without deviation, and turn round again with equal celerity as soon as the direction of the current is altered.^ Currently, many producers plant up to 15 kg ha-1 in "clear" seedings to optimize establishment and first-year hay production.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

.As such cases of directive stimulation may occur among all varieties of stimuli whenever stimuli act unilaterally, they have been designated, according to the direction in which they occur in relation to the source of the stimulus, as positive or negative chemotaxis, phototaxis, thermotaxis, galvanotaxis, and so forth.^ Adding traces of such extracts to all kind of foods, drinks and confectioneries will decisively improve the performance of the product on market but its health benefits may be challenged.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The trans fatty acids represents therefore a great menace to health because they act as saturated fatty acids and may cause arteriosclerosis.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If vital signs are stable and the primary symptom is confusion or agitation, it is best to reduce all sensory stimulation (such as touching and sound) as such stimulation may lead to an increase in disorientation.
  • Effects of PCP 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.erowid.org [Source type: Academic]

.The strange and perplexing element in these phenomena becomes clear to us as soon as we know the characteristic method of locomotion for each form of organism, and whether the stimulus in question in the given intensity exercises an effect of excitation or of depression upon the special form.^ If needed, use the feedback form to let us know more details.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ It is not clear whether these import levels will continue or drop to lower levels in 1996.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the massive nature of the musculoskeletal system and the quadriped locomotion characteristics, swine have rarely been used in studies of these systems.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The direction of motion is the essential mechanical result of unilateral stimulation of the organs of locomotion. .Seeing that these reactions are exceedingly widely distributed throughout the whole organic world, and possess a deep biological significance for the existence and continuance of life, the interest they have awakened is thoroughly justified.^ These important carbon-based molecules are vital to life in that they provide cells with energy.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They note that the olfactory bulb consists of 1 of 2 regions in the brain that receive new neurons throughout life.

^ At this stage in life they should feel psychologically integrated and should have a fairly consistent view of the outside world.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the most important physiological discoveries of the 10th century was that of the " Specific Energy of Sense-substances."^ In his doctrine of specific nerve energies , Muller observed that although all nerves carry the same basic message – an Physiological Psychology .
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Johannes Muller was the first to establish S pecific the fact that very different varieties of stimuli applied Ener g y. " to one and the same organ of sense always produce one and the same variety of sensation, and that, conversely, the same stimulus applied to the different organs of sense produces a different sensation in each organ - the one, in fact, which is its specific attribute.^ It is possible for elements to exist in multiple forms, called isotopes ; the only difference is the number of neutrons in the nucleus, while protons and electrons always stay the same as the original element.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This differs from comparative physiology in which the focus of questions is a specific organismal and sub-organismal process and a variety of organism "tools" are used to study the process.

^ The FDA supports statements that it is safe to eat fish and shellfish twice a week and that one should always eat a variety of species.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, for example, mechanical, electrical and photic stimuli applied to the optic nerve produce no other sensation than that of light; and, conversely, any one variety of stimulus - take the electrical; for example - produces sensations of light, hearing, taste or smell, according as it affects the optic, auditory, gustatory or olfactory nerves.^ According to the group the repeated exposure to flavourings may negatively affect consumers reaction to the taste of fresh, unprocessed foods.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, in our example, the increased stimulus will increase the rate of impulse conduction above 50 per second.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the example of the Asseteague-Chinoteague (barrier island) ponies, why was the prenancy rate on one island higher than the other?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This law of the " Specific Energy of Sense-substances," as Johannes Muller (1809-1875) called it, has come to have a highly important bearing upon scientific criticism, since it proves experimentally that the things of the outer world are in themselves in no way discernible by us, but that from one and the same outward object - the electric current, or a mechanical pressure, for instance - we receive altogether different sensations and form altogether different conceptions according to the sense-organ affected.^ The last frontier in the world – and perhaps the greatest one – lies within us.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the things this study is telling us is how fit someone is, which is a reflection of how much exercise they do, and we know exercise is good for us."

^ Why are theoretical models and concepts important to the scientific process, even though they may not exactly match reality?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.But this law does not possess significance for psychology alone; as regards physiology also it has a much more general and more comprehensive force than Muller ever anticipated.^ It probably does more harm than good to distinguish between environmental physiology, ecological physiology, and physiological ecology.

^ Nestlé already earns more from halal products than it does from organic food.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning about the physiology of behavior involves much more that memorizing facts.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

It holds good, as demonstrated by Ewald Hering (b. 1834) and others.
not of sense-substances only, but of living substance generally, .Each cell has its specific energy in Johannes ller's sense, and in its extended form there is no more general law for all the operations of stimuli than this law of specific energy.^ If the Hardy Weinburg law assumes random processes in the transfer of genes from one generation to the next, of what use is it to studying evolution, where there is directional change in gene frequencies?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ EPA has recommended that a person ingest no more than 30 micrograms of mercury per day.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, if only one double bond is present in the chain, then it is a monounsaturated fatty acid, while if there is more than one double bond present it is called a polyunsaturated fatty acid.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.To take examples, whether a muscle be stimulated by a chemical, mechanical, thermal or electrical stimulus the result is in each case the same - namely, a twitching of the muscle.^ For example, they may explain the movement of a muscle in terms of the changes in the membranes of muscle cells, the entry of particular chemicals, and the interactions among protein molecules within these cells.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Galvin found that electrical stimulation of a frog’s nerve caused contraction of the muscle to which it was attached.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Let a salivary gland be stimulated chemically, mechanically, electrically or in any other way, there always follows the same specific action - a secretion of saliva; no matter what be the kind of stimulus acting upon it, the liver-cell always reacts by producing bile, and so on.^ Frequently producers give the impression of disregarding specific recommendations because of their diverse activities, and advisors question why certain recommended practices were not followed.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The pituitary gland cyclically secretes two hormones which directly stimulate the ovary these hormones are follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, there's no such thing as a partial or weak action potential.
  • Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, one and the same stimulus - the electric current, for example - gives in each form of living substance a specific result: twitching in the muscle, secretion of saliva in the salivary gland, production of bile in the liver-cell, &c.^ Egg and sperm cell formed single cell during fertilization divided by mitosis to form two cell then become four cell and so forth which differentiate, give rise to different cell.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In the example of the Asseteague-Chinoteague (barrier island) ponies, why was the prenancy rate on one island higher than the other?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Long chain omega 3 fatty acids are structural components of neuronal and other cell membranes, and they modulate the production of eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

That is, of course, with the proviso that the effect of the stimulus be exciting and not depressing. .The following general formulation, however, of the law of specific energy brings the depressing stimuli also within its scope: " Different stimuli produce in each form of living substance an increase or a diminution of its specific activity."^ Frequently producers give the impression of disregarding specific recommendations because of their diverse activities, and advisors question why certain recommended practices were not followed.
  • PHYSIOLOGY 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.naaic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, lowering sodium intake increases sympathetic nerve activity, reduces insulin sensitivity, increases the activity of the renin-angiotensin system, and increases aldosterone secretion.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the low energy density group reported consuming the largest increase in the weight of food consumed as well as increased intakes of fruit, vegetables, fibre, vitamins and minerals.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.As already observed, it will probably be found that those weak chronic forms of stimulation which produce qualitative changes may also be comprised under this general law.^ If the Hardy Weinburg law assumes random processes in the transfer of genes from one generation to the next, of what use is it to studying evolution, where there is directional change in gene frequencies?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, changes in waist circumference reflect changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other forms of chronic diseases, even though the risks seem to vary in different populations.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The unique combination of phytochemicals found in cranberry fruit may produce synergistic health benefits.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The knowledge thus far acquired from analysis of vital phenomena and their changes under the influence of stimuli affords but a very indefinite temporary basis for Mechanism th e theory of the actual vital process itself, of of Life. y P ?
which vital phenomena are the outward manifestation. .The conceptions to which physiological research has hitherto attained in this matter are of a more or less doubtful nature.^ The authors call for more research on this matter.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An understanding of the principle of natural selection plays some role in the thinking of every person who undertakes research in physiological psychology.
  • ORIGINS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The data of the study performed by the researchers confirm the belief that fructose raises blood pressure by increasing uric acid levels, but more studies on this matter are necessary.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The facts contained in them still require to be linked together by hypotheses if we are to obtain even a vague outline of what lies hidden behind the great riddle of life.^ Generally, they are made of an even number of carbon atoms because they are synthesized by linking together fragments composed of two carbon atoms.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

.Such hypotheses, serving as they do to link facts consistently together, are absolutely essential, however, to the further progress of research, and without their aid any systematic investigation would be impracticable.^ They can discuss abstract terms such as freedom or liberty without difficulty.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As amino acids are joined together with peptide bonds they are forming a polypeptide, or a sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
  • Chemical composition of the body - Biology Online 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Advertising Standards Authority said it would investigate such claims on a case-by-case basis if a complaint was made.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.But at the same time it must never be forgotten that these hypotheses are merely provisional, and that whenever they are found to be no longer in harmony with the widening range of new experiences and ideas they must either be proved to be facts or be subjected to modification.^ They found mercury levels ranging from 2.0 to 89.5 g/L for the 89 subjects.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They found that normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet with no significant effects on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They found that these mice developed preference for a sugar solution based only on the caloric content and dopamin was secreted, but not when clear water was ingested.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

This is the point of view from which we must deal with modern ideas concerning the nature of the actual vital process - the mechanism of life.
.The fundamental fact of life is the metabolism of living substance which is continually and spontaneously undergoing etabolism. decomposition, and building itself up anew with iif the help of the food-substances it takes in.^ The organism protects itself from free radicals with the building of an own free radical defence system helped by external antioxidant vitamins.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.These processes of decomposition and of reconstruction may be briefly designated as dissimilation (catabolism) and assimilation (anabolism) respectively.^ These mechanism frequently include physiological processes, but may also involve anatomy, morphology, and behavior.

Now the question arises: How are we to understand this process of dissimilation and assimilation from a mechanical standpoint? It is quite evident that we have to do with some chemical occurrence; but how are the chemical transformations brought about? There are obviously two possibilities. .It is conceivable that the decomposition of food-stuffs and the formation of excretion-products in the cellbody are caused by the repeated casual encounter of a great series of chemical combinations and by their repeatedly reacting upon one another in the same manner, bringing about transformations and forming waste products which are excreted, while at the same time certain chemical affinities are always taking in from without new chemical combinations (food-stuffs) and uniting them.^ Eat always at the same time.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Changing between different products of the same category with meat and vegetarian products on a same line is cost intensive with regard to loss of product and off-production time cleaning and disinfection.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) gives the advice not to exceed daily 10 mg.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.This theory was in fact occasionally advanced in former times, particularly in its chemical aspect, and the belief was especially entertained that the enzymes in living substance might play an important part in these transformations.^ According to Park EGCG probably prevents the expression of a certain enzyme called caspase 3, which plays a important role in programmed cell death.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is widespread belief that nutrition and diet may have a part to play in this process; however, there is a degree of uncertainty as to what interventions or supplements work.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.This assumption, however, leads to no clear and lucid image of what takes place, and, moreover, draws too largely upon auxiliary hypotheses.^ However, in this study, the authors found no clear evidence of micronutrient dilution such as vitamins or minerals, or a threshold for a quantitative amount of added sugar intake.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Increasing the intake over this value no further activity on the fat burning machine is takes place.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

It has therefore met with but little acceptance. The other possible explanation of metabolism is that its whole process is confined to one single class of chemical combinations whose tendency it is to be constantly undergoing spontaneous decomposition and regeneration. This latter theory was founded by Ludimar Hermann (b. 1838), Eduard Friedrich Pfliiger (b. 1829) and others, and has met with universal recognition because of its naturalness, simplicity and clearness.
Starting with this hypothesis, the path of further research lies clear and well defined before us. In the first place, we are obviously met by the question: What conception are we to form of these combinations on which hinges the whole vital process? Among the organic matters which compose living substance, proteids perform the most important part. Proteids and proteid-compounds form the only organic matter which is never absent from any cell. .They form also the greater part of all the organic compounds of the cell, unless reserve-stuffs are accumulated to a considerable extent, and they are by far the most complicated of the compounds of living substance.^ Fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid are part of the phospholipids that form the protecting membranous barrier from the nerve cells.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They will readily ingest such test substances as alcohol in its various forms.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They suggest also to evaluate the extent to which green tea extract can prevent the transition toward more debilitating forms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.While animal life is impossible without proteid food, there are, on the other hand, animals which can continue to subsist on proteid alone.^ The current German animal welfare law, had allowed male piglets be surgical castrated without anaesthesia up to four weeks of life.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many other foods which are suitable for diabetics but which are not labelled as such.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular there is a need for randomised controlled trials on wholegrain foods and diets other than oats.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.This series of facts proves very conclusively that proteids and their compounds play by far the most important part of all organic matter in the processes of life.^ The rules for Halaal are very similar to those of kosher foods The most important rules for Halaal are: 1.- Meat must be slaughtered in a particular way.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Very clear and concise, with much more detail than most other basic physiology texts, which often gloss over important details.
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780815109525): Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton, Robert M. Berne: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The stability of colloidal liquid aphrons plays an important role in this process.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The idea thus naturally presents itself that the required hypothetical compound forming the central point of metabolism will be found to bear a very close relation to proteids.^ This may of course be complete bunk, and it may be that the increasingly "abstract" thoughts are just increasingly loony (and thus difficult to relate to concrete ideas).
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But another point must be here considered. The proteids and their compounds known to us are, comparatively speaking, stable compounds, which never undergo spontaneous decomposition so long as they are protected from outward injury, whereas the hypothetical combination which lies at the centre of organic metabolism is extraordinarily liable and continually undergoing spontaneous decomposition. Therefore we have to think not of ordinary proteids in this case, but of still more complicated combinations, the atoms in the molecule of which have a strong tendency to group themselves in new arrangements. Owing to their fundamental importance, these combinations have been termed " biogens." .When we come to inquire how such labile biogen molecules are built up out of the proteids of food, we find our knowledge very much restricted.^ If children have too much salt, this could affect their health and give them a taste for salty food, being more likely to continue eating too much salt when they grow up.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The FDA finds itself amidst the interests of the industry and does weaken in relation to safety, such as the approval of GRAS. The Contergan story and food safety .
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How accurate are our assumptions about our students' background knowledge?

Doubtless the intramolecular addition of inspired oxygen has much to do with it; for living substance when deprived of oxygen loses its irritability - that is to say, its tendency to decomposition. The fact that the decomposition of living substance is always associated with the formation of carbonic acid - a circumstance obviously necessitating the aid of oxygen - also points to the absolute indispensableness of oxygen in the matter. Pfliiger has further suggested that the molecule of living substance owes its lability and its tendency to form carbonic acid when joined by oxygen atoms principally to cyanogen groups which are contained in it. .According to this view, the following is supposed to be the process of the formation of biogen molecules: It is assumed that the biogen molecules already present in living substance take out of the proteids of food certain groups of atoms, and dispose them so as to produce cyanogen-like compounds.^ To confirm the diagnosis in patients who improve while avoiding certain foods, the elimination diet is usually followed by food challenge.

^ Only certain animal products are allowed 3.- Technological processing , like Processing aids, cleaning materials and equipment used in production must be free from prohibited food traces.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the group the repeated exposure to flavourings may negatively affect consumers reaction to the taste of fresh, unprocessed foods.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The addition of oxygen atoms then brings the biogen molecule to the maximum of its power of decomposition, so that - partly spontaneously, but more especially when impelled by a stimulus - it breaks down somewhat explosively, causing the formation of carbonic acid.^ Orlistat works by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglyzerides in the intestine into absorbable free fatty acids.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

In this proceeding, according to the hypothesis which is the most widely accepted and the most fruitful in results, would lie the very germ of the vital process.
.If we accept these views as far as their general principle is concerned, assimilation is the re-formation of biogen molecules by those already existing, aided by food-stuffs; dissimilation, the decomposition of biogen molecules.^ Consumption of phytosterols could therefore add to oxyphytosterols from foods or biologic formation from phytosterols, presenting a concern in terms of food quality and health, similar to oxycholesterol.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

Mecba ifs.
 ? P g of Cel!-life. .To this primary process, however, is attached a whole series of secondary chemical processes, which serve partly to work upon the food so as to fit it for the building up of biogen molecules, and partly to form out of the direct decomposition-products of the biogen molecules the characteristic secretion-products of living substance (excretions and secretions).^ Any product or by-product (including any product used temporarily as a substitute) which contains any one or more of haram products in however minute quantity, whether as an ingredient or sub-ingredient or as a processing aid or as a releasing agent or as a glazing agent or as an additive or as a colour or in any other form, is haram.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is widespread belief that nutrition and diet may have a part to play in this process; however, there is a degree of uncertainty as to what interventions or supplements work.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sustain has carried out work specifically on the issue of food and mental health for over three years through its Food and Mental Health Project.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

.The various workings of matter in the cell are rendered very much more complex by the circumstance that the living cell exhibits various morphological differentiations - above all, the differentiation in protoplasm and nucleus.^ Very clear and concise, with much more detail than most other basic physiology texts, which often gloss over important details.
  • Amazon.com: Physiology (9780815109525): Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton, Robert M. Berne: Books 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Again, a transformation of energy is inseparably connected with metabolism. .Along with food and oxygen potential chemical energy is continually being introduced into the cell, to be accumulated in the biogen molecules, and at their decomposition transformed into kinetic energy, which finds an outlet in the various manifestations of energy in the cell - motion, heat, and so forth.^ True or False (and Why): Plant crops always yield more food energy than is put into them by man.
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How does kinetic energy affect the rate of chemical reactions?
  • 1. Define and describe the difference between neutral, quasi neutral and lethal mutations 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Academic]

In the light of this hypothesis the operations of stimuli also become comprehensible. Seeing that there is an initial tendency to the occurrence of certain definite chemical processes, which are associated with the reconstruction and decomposition of biogen molecules, various stimuli will either further or hinder the course of this metabolic series. A cell which is exposed to no outward disturbance, and which continues always in the unvarying medium provided by an exact sufficiency of food, will be in " metabolic equilibrium " - that is to say, its assimilation and its dissimilation will be equal (A = D). .When, however, the influence of external stimuli is brought to bear upon them - that is to say, any change in their environing vital conditions - A and D will either be altered in similar proportion, or their mutual equilibrium will be disturbed.^ Future investigations,however, are needed to explain how vinegar alters postprandial glycemia and to determine whether regular vinegar ingestion favourably influences glycemic control.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

In the former case the vital processes will merely be intensified in their course; in the latter and usual case the result will be determined according to the part of metabolism excited or depressed. When the effect of a stimulus is to excite D continuously in a high degree without correspondingly increasing A, the result is a dying off - an atrophy. .In the contrary case, when A remains continuously greater than D, the result is growth, increase and reproduction of the cell.^ Likewise, older p38 AF/+ mice showed significantly greater islet cell proliferation than their wild-type counterparts.

^ The growth and activity of the follicular cells result in the secretion of estrogen by the cells, and this hormone is found in the fluid of the follicle.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Experience proves, how
Equili- ever, that A and D stand in a certain relation of mutual dependence to each other, with the result that when D has been increased by a stimulus, for example, A correspondingly increases during the stimulation, and continues to do so after 'its cessation, till the loss in living substance produced by the stimulation of D is eventually made good, and metabolic equilibrium is restored.^ Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to aggregating platelets and related vasoactive substances in porcine coronary arteries in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: Elevated cotinine levels, even modest elevations, were associated with an increased risk for MS (all other categories versus lowest: OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.3–6.3).

^ Their results support other findings in human studies on the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on age-related macular degeneration.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The muscle may be taken as an example of this self-regulation of metabolism common to all living substance (Hering's
Selbststeuerung des Stofwechsels). When a muscle has been fatigued by some stimulation causing an enormous increase of D, there is a corresponding spontaneous increase in A. After some time the muscle is observed to have recovered. It has once more become capable of performing work; its metabolism is again in equilibrium.
.The vital phenomena of the cell may be derived mechanically from metabolism and the changes it undergoes under the influence of stimuli.^ It may be excreted directly by the kidneys, or it may undergo further metabolism.
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changes in arterial membrane lipid composition may precede growth factor influence in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Our ability to do this will increase more rapidly as we become better acquainted with the details of the metabolism of the cell itself.^ The authors call for more studies on increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages which come along with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The increase of triglycerides was more accentuated in persons with insulin resistance increasing therefore an adverse metabolic profile.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As the adolescent grows older, the pituitary releases increased amounts of gonadotropins, ovaries and the testes grow more rapidly, and produce larger amounts of estrogen and/or androgen.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The foregoing outline must be regarded, of course, as embodying only a fragmentary hypothesis, which can serve as a guide for further research only so long as it does not clash with facts, and which must be amplified, specialized and developed with the widening of specific knowledge regarding the cell's metabolism.^ He says discovering the mechanism of insulin resistance in rat brain cells does not refute previous research on the plaques and tangles found in Alzheimer's patient's brains.

^ Differentiation – process by which cell develop with specialized function.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Research and intensive supervision of food has widened the knowledge about the physiology of nutrition.
  • Physiology, diets and healthy nutrition 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.ourfood.com [Source type: Academic]

The relations already known are so exceedingly complex that only by slow degrees can we pursue the investigation of separate fragments of the entire metabolic series. .The differentiation of nucleus and protoplasm in the living substance of the cell alone gives rise to an extraordinary complication in the metabolic process, for these two parts of the cell stand in the most complicated correlation with one another as well as with the environing medium - a Cell- fact of which the experiments made by vivisection the Secret in various free-living cell-forms have furnished of Life. abundant evidence.^ The pituitary gland cyclically secretes two hormones which directly stimulate the ovary these hormones are follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
  • 91.05.07: The Physiological and Psychological Development of the Adolescent 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DXM itself is a very complex drug; most drugs only bind to one or two receptors (or at least one class of receptors).
  • Physiological 17 September 2009 15:31 UTC dxm.darkridge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In normal brains, brain cells process insulin, allowing memories to form.

The farther such knowledge advances, the more rounded, clear and free from hypotheses will become our conception of the cell's metabolism. .But the cell is the elementary component part of all organisms, and from the life of individual cells is constructed the life of the separate tissues and various organs, and thus of the entire organism.^ Aging brings inevitable decline of function to tissues throughout the body with organs losing their capacity to repair damage and replace dead or dying cells.

.Hence the cell is the only vital element which the organism possesses, and therefore the investigation of the vital processes in its separate cells leads ultimately to a knowledge regarding the mechanism of life in the whole.^ Dysfunction and death of these cell populations lead to progressive muscle weakness, atrophy and, ultimately, paralysis and death usually within 3 to 5 years after disease onset.

.Vegetable physiology is dealt with in the article Plants: Physiology. For details of different parts of the animal body, see Animal, Heat; Respiratory System; Vascular System; Touch; Smell; Taste; Vision; Hearing; Voice; Muscle And Nerve; Sleep; Hypnotism; Brain; Spinal Cord; Sympathetic System; Blood; Lymph; Phagocytosis; Digestive Organs; Nutrition, &c.^ Allows spinal nerves to exit the spinal cord 4.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The anatomy of the blood supply to the brain and spinal cord is similar to humans.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Central Nervous System- the Brain and the spinal cord 2.
  • Anatomy & Physiology Slides 31 January 2010 13:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

The principal modern English textbooks of animal physiology are those of Sir Michael Foster (1885), A. E. Schafer (1898), Noel. Paton (1908), Halliburton (1909), and Starling (1909). See, how-. ever, the bibliographical notes to the separate articles. (M. V.)


Simple English

Physiology is the study of how living things work. Physiologists can study how parts or organs of an organism work with together to make things happen. In human beings, for example, the digestion of food hormones and other chemicals made by the stomach, liver, and pancreas. Muscle contraction happens because of chemical messages made by nerves of that muscle. By learning how the body functions normally, physiologists and physicians can better understand what happens when organs do not function normally. For example, an understanding of how the thyroid gland functions has helped in treating goitre. Studies of the circulatory system and the nervous system have helped physicians understand and treat such illnesses like heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.

Other websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Physiology, which are similar to those in the above article.








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